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The three next chapters are miscellaneous; on the Fortunes of Financiers ;' Reflections on the Solicitations of the Great, and the Neceffity of refifting them with Firmness;' and
on the Places which enoble the Poffeffers: the number of the last excites our author's attention; and he labours to fhew. that these kinds of rewards have been mifapplied, and are injurious to the kingdom.
Monf Necker then proceeds to work-houses, hofpitals, and prifons. All these were much improved during his fuperintendance; but he candidly allows, that farther improvements are ftill neceffary. There are, we find, above feven hundred public hofpitals, and about one hundred private smaller ones: the number accommodated are from one hundred to one hundred and ten thousand perfons: the incomes (of which nearly one-fourth belongs to the Hotel Dieu, and the great hospital in Paris), exceed eighteen millions of livres. For the army and navy, there are about feventy inftitutions of this kind; and the ufual number of fick is about fix thousand. After fome obfervations on the neceffary reformation, monf. Necker procured the establishment of one, under the fricteft regulations; and the weekly expence of each patient was, in 1779, equal to four fhillings and eleven pence sterling; but it gradually increafed; though in 1783, is was only five fhillings and three pence. We mention thefe facts, for the example of the different hofpitals in this kingdom. The very neceffary reforms in the Hotel-Dieu were made by monf. Necker; and the new regulations fuperintended by madame Necker, who was also very inftrumental in the improved management of the new institutions. Monf. Necker alfo reformed the prifons; and his regulations are very ufeful and humane: they may be attended to, and imitated with advantage; but is the Battile in its former ftate? it is not mentioned in this work, except to enumerate expences requifite to its fupport.
Some farther reflections on the Commerce of Corn;' inquiries on the clearing of Waste Lands,' then follow; but they prefent nothing of fufficient importance to induce us to enlarge. Reflections on the Intereft of Money, the Maintenance of Public Credit, and the Circulation of Specie, are of more importance; but our article is already extenfive. A great part of this chapter is employed in arguments to eftablish the credit of the French funds; but, though many of the circumstances fuppofed neceffary for this purpofe, concurred in 1782, the loan of that year was not filled. Monf. Necker fays, because one of the conditions was a reimbursement, which was diftrufted,a diftrust always fatal where, in the best fituation, the lender depends on the life of the mo. narch. Our author contrafts the facility with which the loans
were filled in England, and gives many good reafons for the different events, but the first and greatest is general public confidence, which occasions a struggle to be in the first lifts, because the fubfcriptions may be again immediately fold with advantage. The great number of fubfcribers is therefore a little fallacious.
We next receive an account of an inftitution established at Paris, instead of the pawn-brokers, called Mont de Piété ; and afterwards fome observations on, or rather a defence of, the mode of borrowing on life-annuities. The most useful method of receiving the affiftance which the liberality of patriotism may offer, is then explained, and the impolicy of the droits d'aubane clearly pointed out. The twenty-fixth chapter is on Banks, particularly the Bank of England, and its illegi timate child, the Caffe d'Efcompte, which is perhaps not fo hrmly re-established as monf. Necker fuppofes. This chapter, however, contains fome very valuable information. The reft of the work is fo mifcellaneous, that we must content ourselves with tranfcribing the titles, of the feveral chapters: Regularity in the Royal Exchequer; Ideas of the Establishment of a general Board, for Researches and Information; on the Economy of Time; the Spirit of Syftem; the Nomination to the Offices of Intendants of Provinces; the Change of Principles and Perfons in the Administration of the Finances; a concife Enumeration of the Sources of the Power of France; and a Declamation against War, with Arguments against it in a political View, and Answers to its Apologifts,' The volume concludes with the author's reafons for undertaking the work; and this part resembles too much the introduction.
We cannot conclude this article, without our commendations of the translator, who has executed this uncommonly difficult task with great clearness and precifion. Thofe will beft understand his merits who have looked into the ori ginal, which, to ordinary readers, is fcarcely intelligible, from the numerous terms feldom met with in the ufual publications.
The Structure and Phyfiology of Fishes explained, and compared with thofe of Man and other Animals. Illuftrated with Figures. By Alexander Monro, M. D. of Edinburgh. Large Folio. zl. 2s. in Boards. Robinson.
HIS is another attempt of the induftrious profeffor, (whose
our fifty-fixth volume), to illuftrate a fubject hitherto imperfectly undertoood. This work, however, may be confidered 1 4
as anatomical rather than phyfiological; for we have very little fatisfactory information relating to the different functions of thefe animals. The ftructure is illuftrated with plates; but, with a very few exceptions, they do not deferve a better character than those which deformed Dr. Monro's laft work. A few of thefe plates, engraved by J. Beugo, have a clearness. and brilliancy which are ftrongly contrafted by the black indifinct engravings of Mr. Donaldfon: yet a few of this laft gentleman's works feem to be rifing into a kind of relief: we hope they are the dawnings of improvement.
The anatomy of fishes was not wholly unknown. About the latter end of the laft century, Dr. Samuel Collins publifhed two volumes in folio, on the anatomy, phyfiology, and pathology, of the human body, illuftrated by that of different animals. Fishes contribute to the illuftration: many feem to have been diffected, and numerous reprefentations of their ftructure are fubjoined. The plates are engraved by Faithorne, a man of no mean abilities, and they are executed with great trength and clearness. The inaccuracies in the human anatomy have leffened the character of that work; and it is now in little credit, or almost unknown. Yet the ftructure of animals is delineated with tolerabie fidelity; and we muft confefs that we have been indebted to it for more clearly comprehending fome of Dr. Monro's defcriptions. The part of the work before us, which defcribes the lymphatics and lac teals of aquatic animals, is entirely new, and more certainly original.
Our author begins with defcribing the heart, veffels, and circulation of fishes. The diftribution of the blood in the gills, is aftonishingly extenfive, and every particle must be expofed to the water.
For in each fide of the body of a fkate there are four double gills, or gills with two fides each, and one fingle gill; or there are in all eighteen fides or furfaces on which the branchial artery is fpread out. On each of these fides there are about fifty divifions, or doublings of the membrane of the gills. Each divifion has on each fide of it one hundred and fixty fubdivifions, doublings, or folds of its membrane; the length of each of which, in a very large skate, is about one-eighth of an inch, and its breadth about one-fixteenth of an inch. So that in the whole gills there are one hundred and forty-four thoufand fubdivifions or folds, the two fides of each of which are equal to the fixty-fourth part of a fquare inch; or the furface of the whole gills in a large skate is equal to two thousand two hundred and fifty fquare inches, that is, to more than fifteen fquare feet, which have been fuppofed equal to the whole external surface of the human body. When, after a good injection
of the artery, a microfcope is applied, the whole extent of the membrane of the gills is feen covered with a beautiful net work of exceedingly minute veffels.'
In the obfervations on the circulation of the blood we find remarks both of a trifling and an important nature, Dr. Monro thinks, that the thick coats of the bronchial veins really poffefs a mufcular power; in proof of this opinion, he alleges, that in the mefenteric veins, and vena portarum of an ox, he can demonftrate a truly mufcular coat. Mr. Hunter, we are told, has been fuccefsfully employed in fome experiments, to afcertain the real mufcular power of the blood-veffels, independent of their elafticity; and we hope he will en able us to refume the fubject by their publication. Confiderable dilatations in the abdominal veins, are owing, in Dr. Monro's opinion, to the temporary retardation of the blood, by the fuperior weight of water; but, as they occur in the lymphatic fyftem alfo, it is probable that they accomplish fome other and more latent purpose.
'The last remark Ihall make is, That, the circulation of the blood being carried on in the cartilaginous fishes in the fame manner as in the offeous or pifces of Linnæus, and the whole mass of blood paffing through their gills, they must breathe regularly and uninterruptedly to furnish blood to the brain and other organs, or they cannot poffefs the pulmo arbitrarius as is fuppofed by Linnæus: fo that there appears no just reason for claffing them with the amphibia.
In the animals which are commonly reckoned amphibious, to wit, the tortoife, the frog, the lizard, and the ferpent, a part only of the mafs of blood paffes through the lungs. In the frog and common fmall lizard, branches are fent off from the aorta, which, if we may judge from their fize, convey about one-third part of the whole mafs. In the tortoife, the ferpent, and fuch of the lizard tribe as have two auricles and ventricles, a greater proportion paffes through the lungs. In the fea tortoile, the blood from the lungs paffes into the left auricle, and from it into the left ventricle. From the left ventricle it is tranfmitted, by tranfverfe canals or holes in the feptum between the ventricles, into the right ventricle, where it is mixed with the blood which is fent from the vena cavæ through the right auricle. All the arteries, therefore, take their rife from the right ventricle; and the pulmonary arteries are confiderably fmaller than those which fupply the place of
In all these animals, therefore, every part of the body may receive a confiderable portion of blood, although the refpiration and free paffage of the blood through their lungs be interrupted. Hence they are not under the fame neceffity with the mammalia birds, and fifhes, of breathing frequently, regularly, or alternately; or they enjoy the pulmo arbitrarius.'
Dr. Monro next defcribes the mucous ducts which are very beautiful they are attended by very numerous nerves; and, in one infance, the nerve becomes pellucid, fo that the author thinks its nature is alfo changed.
The watery liquors in the head, pericardium, and peritonæum of fishes, next claim his attention. They are falt, but contain only about half the quantity of falt ufually found in the fame bulk of fea-water in fome inftances, much lefs. There are paffages in fome fishes, from whence the water may pass out; but a valve feems to be interpofed to exclude the entrance of any. In the skate too, the pericardium opens into the abdomen; but, from the ftructure of the duct, nothing can pafs from thence into it. Dr. Monro thinks that fluids may pass the valve, and that thefe liquors are derived from the fea; but they are lefs falt than fea-water; and besides, in that way, they cannot get into the head or the pericardium. The reafon, which he appears to have overlooked, is probably the following; fifhes, though they live in falt water, have no falt in their compofition; and their abforbent veffels feem to feparate the pure water from the element in which they live; yet, in different circumftances, this operation is not fo perfectly performed as may be neceffary for the preservation of the animal; fo that another outlet is neceffary for the deleterious fubftance. It is, therefore, feparated by the veffels of the pericardium and abdomen, and from thence paffes out. That the liquor is recrementitious is evident from its being in some inftances connected with the urinary organs; and it is by no means certain, that it has not fome outlet from the head. In man we find there are fecretory organs, to throw out what may have been abforbed by the indifcriminate operation of other veffels; fo that our opinion is fupported by analogyThe other fecreted organs, and their liquors, afford nothing which deferves attention, or that we can abridge. a 20
The most curious organ of fishes is the fwimming bladder. Dr. Monro defcribes its various appearances, and the communications, in fome genera, between it and the stomach: he renders it probable, that the air either passes from the stomach, or is produced by fecretion. This fubject, however, is left in a very imperfect ftate: we shall supply the imperfection by a few facts, and fome conjectures. It is highly probable that, in fame inftances, this bag leffens the fpécific gravity of the fish, and contributes to raise it in the water; but this is not always the cafe, for the bag is very fmall, in proportion to the fize of the animal, and not capable of any very great enlargement. This effect is therefore a fecondary one, and does not merit much confideration. The primary one is probably