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Animadverfiones Philologica in nonnulla Corani Loca. Accedunt Illuftrationes in V. T. ex Arabismo, necnon Perfifmo depromptæ. Pro Specimine edidit R. Antonius Vievra, LL. B. ac L. L. Hifp. et Ital. P. Reg. in Col. S. S. et Ind. Trin. Dublin. 4to. 1. 15. in Boards. Robinson.

SINCE

Of thefe

INCE our more intimate connections with the Eaft commenced, the Oriental languages are no longer the ornament of the fcholar only, nor are they confined to the illustration of the facred writings they direct the politician, by explaining the languages of treaties; they open the treafures of eastern learning, and are effential even in the counting-houfe. languages, the Arabic is the principium & fons ;' and, of the Arabic, the Coran is the pureft and moft copious fource, The extent of territory occupied by the followers of Mohammed, the zeal of the Muffulmen, which leads them, on the most common occafions, to employ the phrases of their facred writings, and the real elegance of the work dictated, in a great degree, by their prophet, render it the most useful book for the direction of the learner's ftudies, and the fairest object for the criticisms of the commentator. Our author, who wishes to affift a measure in agitation in the university of Dublin, viz. the establishment of a profeflorship of Oriental languages, has published the Animadverfiones,' and fome Etymological Enquiries, as fpecimens of the great utility of the eaftern, particularly the Arabian and Perfian languages. This volume may be confidered, in its present state, as imperfect indeed it is announced only as a fpecimen; but it dif plays the acutenefs, the judgment, and the erudition of the author. The Oriental languages are now become a necessary part in a fyftem of education, and every inftitution should comprehend this branch of philology: M. Vieyra feems well qualified to affift fo beneficial a defign.

The remarks on the Coran are the firft in this work; and we fhall give fome fpecimens of our author's execution in this branch. We fhall felect thofe paffages which are more generally interefting, and more easily understood. As the Dedication and Preface belong rather to the etymological part of the work, we fhall give fome account of them, previous to our obfervations on it. All the Animadverfiones are indeed philological; and, in many refpects, etymological..

• Com. 58. Urbem. Ex voce hac Arab. quæ eft in textu, kariat fc. i. e. urbs, pagus, villa, derivantur voces quirites, i, e. cives, necnon quirinus, i. e. rex urbis ; quamvis utriufque vocis etymon Romanos fcriptores latuerit, ut ait cl. Gebelin. Hinc pariter dignofcitur prima pars Punicæ vocis, fc, Cartag urbem

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Carthaginenfem fignificantis. Verum non una eft opinio de altera voce ag fc. totam vocem Cartag cum priore kart conftituente. Antequam vero opinionem meam proferam fequentia libet in anteceffum afferre. In numis Carthaginenfibus videre eft equi caput generofæ indolis, egregie infculptum, et juxta Palma arbor eft, cum dactylis in ramis. Cæterum hoc equi caput in numis Carthaginenfibus infculptum videtur in memoriam illius, quod e terra eruerant, cum prima urbis fundamenta jacerent; idque poftea in omen verfum. Juftinus ex Trogo, 1. xviij. ait: Ibi quoque caput equi repertum, bellicofum fortemque populum fignificans, urbi aufpicatam fedem dedid. Hinc Virgil, 1 Æn.

"Locus in urbe fuit media, lætiffimus umbra,
Quo primum jactati undis, et turbine pæni
Effodere loco fignum, quod regia Juno
Monftrarat, caput acris equi."

Cum Virgilio concinit Sil. Ital. 1, 1,

"Oftentant caput effoffa tellure repertum

Bellatoris equi, atque omen clamore falutant."

1

Palma vero indicare videtur regionem, e qua profecti venerant, Phoeniciam nempe, palmis abundantem. Puto igitur vocem Cart-ag compofitam effe ex Ar. Kariat et ag, quarum prima fignificat urbem, fecunda vero equum. Igitur ex capite equi inventi in illo loco nomen defumfit urbs Carthaginenfis; quemadmodum ex aurifodinis nomen accepit Fessa, feu Fezza, quod nomen Arabice aurum fignificat. Notandum infuper primigeniam vim vocis ag quæ equum fignificat, fitam effe in magnitudine, Ex hac porro primitiva notione derivantur.

Lat. Equ-us, equ-es, equ-ifo, aga-fo, &c. &c.
Goth. Ak-ken, equus.

Hibern. Eac.' Vid, cl. Vallancey Gram, Hiber, p. 131.
Hifp. Hac-a Afturco. Puerilia funt quæ de origine hujus
Hifp. vocis affert Aldrete, p. 46.

Lufit. Fac-a. Idem ac Hifp. baca.

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Angl. Hac-ney Nag.

Ital. Haque-nea, five Chinea,

Gal. Haque-nee.

·

Denique ex primigenia notione magnitudinis, quæ inest primitivæ huic voci derivari exiftimo

Angl. Ox

Germ.

Och

Suev. Ok
Pannon. Okon

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Et, ni fallor, Angl. huge, ingens.'

Bos.

We fhall felect another paffage, on account of the remarkable affinity between the criticisms on the Coran and the New Teftament, in a very fimilar paffage,

Q 4

CAP.

'CAP. vii. Coм. 41. Camelus per foramen acus. Vertendum potius puto: rudens per foramen acus. Arab. vox, quam Marac. vertit, camelus, eft ambigua, poteftque camelum, aut rudentem fignificare, pro diverfitate vocalium. Nam cum prima phatata, ac fecunda giefmata, eft Camelus; fed cum prima dammata, ac fecunda phatata, eft rudens. Porro ex hac Arab, pofteriori voce oriuntur

Hifp. Gumena.

Ital.

Gomena.
Gall. Gomcine.

Rudens.

De Rudente porro hic agi, non vero de Camelo, fuadet
analogia major inter rudentem et filum, quod folet per
foramen acus induci. Unde eft, quod Alcamus explicat
hanc vocem hic per rudentem navis.

Furtum funt hæc verba, ait Maraccius, ex Matth, xix, Verum meminiffe oportebat vocem camilon in Evang. Matth. exponi per craffum rudentem, quo nautæ utuntur ad jaciendas anchoras, apud Theophylactum, Euthym. et Phavorin. Fruftra interim fufpicatur Drufus, eos non fcripfiffe Camilon, fed Cabilon, ut Græca vox conveniat cum Belgica Cabel. Nam opus non erat græcam vocem cudere, unde Belgica oriretur; cum Hebræi, Arabes, &c. funem nauticum chebel, vel chabal vocent, ex qua voce primitiva oriuntur

Belg. Cabel.
Ang. Cable.

Hifp. Cable.

Lufit. Calabre,

Rudens.'

·

Our learned readers know that the word xundos, in the twenty-fourth verfe of the nineteenth chapter of St. Mathew, has, by fome commentators, been read nauíños. Parfon Adams' remark is more generally known. "It is easier for a bell-rope," which for fome reasons, fays he, that I am unacquainted with, our tranflators have rendered " camel,” &c. Kauaos occurs in Aristophanes, and fome other authors, where it means a rope; but we know not that xaunλos has ever the fame fignification. The change is, however, very minute, though perhaps unneceffary. In the Arabic it requires the tranfpofition of one vowel, and the change of another.

In many respects, different parts of the Old Testament may, in our author's opinion, be corrected, from a knowledge of the Arabic and Perfian languages. Of this kind the following is a specimen, better adapted to illuftrate the connection than the remarks defignedly adduced for this purpose.

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Satanas. Ex Arab. voce quæ eft in textu derivatur Perficum vocabulum Shitan Diabolus, qui etiam alia voce Perfica, azmude, fc. indicatur, ex qua Auxit Latina Afmedaus, necnon Græca Afmodaios, quæ in verf. Job. iii. legitur. Porro de hujus nominis etymologia varia extant conjecturæ. Quod fi, vel

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primis labiis, Perfica rudimenta attigiffent viri cætera præclariffimi, quam facillime deprehendiffent vocem Azmudè nihil aliud effe, quam partic. paff. verbi azmuden, quod eft tentare, inftigare. Unde notio particip. præt. tentatu, inftigatus, nec non, pro Perficæ linguæ ingenio, tentans, inftigator, tentator. Quam appellationem apprime diabolo convenire, nemo eft qui non videat.'

There are many criticifms in this part of the work, which are highly curious, and others of a more trifling kind: we fhall only select the following note, which will contribute to explain the origin of a very prevalent custom among ancient nations.

Et cum puella fepulta viva interrogabitur. Zamach fharius ad hæc verba, immanem hunc prifcorum Arabum vitium defcribens, fic loquitur: fama tenet, moris fuiffe, ut cum partui vicina effet gravida, foffam effoderet, atque fupra eam fossam ITERETUR. Quod fi filiam ederet, in foffam projici, fin filium, tolli folitum fuiffe.

Porro promigenia notio Arabici verbi, quod hic redditur Latine per eniti, eft, utrem lactis agitare butyri cogendi ergo; atque hinc metaphorice ufurpatur de fœmina, quæ doloribus correpta et concufa, parturit. Ita docet Geuharius, additque verbum hocce ejufdem effe poteftatis atque indolis cum alio Arab, verbo zabada [literæ funt ze, be, dal] quod Hebræum quoque eft, et plane ejufdem fignificationis atque ufus, quodque legitur Gen. xxx. 20. neque ufquam alibi fefe offert. quinimo I. Chaldaica et Syriaca, tefte cl. Schult. ne minimum quidem verbi hujus veftigium reliquit. Qui Anglicam S. C. verfionem elaborarunt lxx fequuti funt, ac veluti fervum pecus, qua itur, non qua eundum erat, iverunt via. Verterunt igitur præfatum locum Gen. And Leah faid, God hath endued me with a good dowry. At veftram fidem interpretes ! exclamat cl. Schultens, cujus verfionem hic apponere libet: utrem mibi meum optima agitavit Deus agitatione: nunc utique confuefcet et habitabit mecum vir meus, quod jam fex ei partu edidi filios: et appellavit eum Zebulon. Dedita opera, utrem pofuit Schultens, cum uterum verecunde defignet. Corrigendus itaque cl. Caitellus, qui in errorem quoque ab interpretibus conjectus eft.'

Then follow the more particular illuftrations of the Old Teftament, from the Arabic and Perfian. These are, however, frequently of little importance; and, in fome inftances, our author feems to have looked too deep for a very obvious meaning. The teftimonies of the learned, in fupport of the utility of the Oriental languages, next follow.

Five fpecimens of etymologies are fubjoined, viz. those where the Arabic, &c. illuftrates Latin, English, Spanish and Portuguese, Italian and French. Etymology is a fafcinating fcience; for it engages the imagination, and then leads

the

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the reafon captive: the mind, in purfuit of analogies, either fancied or real, feldom ftops within its proper limits, but expatiates over every art and science till it finds, or creates, what it purfaed. That this cenfure is not too fevere, we feel from frequent experience; for those whom etymology first affifted as a fervant, it foon directs as a tyrant. This is the principal cause of its abufe; and it is fupported by the many languages derived from a few parent stocks. A late author fancied that he found the Greek language to have been the origin of many English words; others look up to the Saxon and the German, but forget that they are only the offspring, fometimes coeval, of the original northern language, probably the Celtic. Our author has this advantage, that, in his pursuit, he has advanced nearer to the source; for the Arabic and the Perfian are lefs diftant from the Celtic than the Greek or the German. He has purfued his enquiries with great diligence, and (fhall we fay too much?) minutenefs. In thefe fituations it is not easy to stop; and an author, fond of his fubject, is the laft to perceive that he has proceeded too far in the purfuit. But we promised to examine the arguments M. Vieyra has adduced in justification of his defign.

Our author firft alleges, and with great juftice, that, by comparing the elements of the eastern languages with those which we already know, and ascertaining the circumstances in which they agree, we fhall, with little labour, attain the knowledge of many words, confeffedly the moft difficult part of the talk. He might, with equal reafon, have added, that they will also be more indelibly fixed in our minds, than by the ufual tranfitory methods. But he feels, and acknowleges, the difficulty of the tafk; and modeftly owns, that he may have erred in some of his researches. In his next step, he feems rather to betray his own caufe: we require etymologies, he thinks, to detect a word, among the various founds it may acquire in circulation. We fear this has been a great fource of abuse; for the found often influences the orthography, and we are led by it to an erroneous etymology. The remarks on the influence of climate on the organs of speech, and, from thence, on the pronunciation, quoted from M. Court du Gebelin, are very acute and ingenious, but vifionary and erroneous. Milton told us that the cold, in these northern regions, prevented us from opening our mouths to pronounce the a, like the Italians; and it has been often repeated by thofe who never heard a Scotchman, the inhabitant of a climate equally cold, pronounce it. The most finelyfpun fyftems on this fubject are deftroyed with equal ease, M. Vieyra, however, foon efcapes from the conteft; and,

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