Introducing Biological Rhythms: A Primer on the Temporal Organization of Life, with Implications for Health, Society, Reproduction, and the Natural Environment

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 24, 2007 - Science - 656 pages

Introducing Biological Rhythms is a primer that serves to introduce individuals to the area of biological rhythms. It describes the major characteristics and discusses the implications and applications of these rhythms, while citing scientific results and references. Also, the primer includes essays that provide in-depth historic and other background information for those interested in more specific topics or concepts.

It covers a basic cross-section of the field of chronobiology clearly enough so that it can be understood by a novice, or an undergraduate student, but that it would also be sufficiently technical and detailed for the scientist.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
A Time for Everything
4
Three Rhythm Domains
6
Implications of Body Clocks
11
An Integrating Discipline
12
Chapters in This Book
14
TakeHome Message
15
Introduction
19
Plant Responses to Injury
307
Plant Diseases
308
Production of Produce
309
Fisheries and Aquaculture
310
Weather Patterns and Agriculture
313
Outdoor Hobbies
317
Fishing
318
Rural and Urban Development
322

Details of a Rhythm
20
Period and Frequency
21
Use of the term Circadian
23
Other Domains
25
Time on Earth as We Know It
26
Amplitude
29
Period
30
Primary Circadian Clocks
32
The Brain
33
SCN Identification
34
SCN as Synchronizer
36
Retinohypothalamic Tract
37
Characteristics of the Period
38
Frequency MultiplicationDemultiplication
39
Light Quality
40
Temperature
41
Chemicals
42
Damping
43
Characteristics of the Phase
44
Phase Shifts by Chemicals or Temperature
45
PhaseResponse Curve
46
Masking
47
Need for a Cyclic Environment
48
In Darwins Footsteps
49
An Ultradian Experiment Circumnutation
52
A Circadian Experiment Leaf Movements
54
Mechanisms
56
Introduction
66
Rotations and Revolutions of the Earth and Moon
67
The Day
68
The Year
69
The Month
71
Ancient Times
72
The Day
77
The Week
78
Middle Ages to Now
79
Longitude and Clocks
80
Springs to Atoms
82
Wristwatches
83
Time Zones
84
Daylight Saving Time
85
Recording Biological Time
86
The 24h Biological Clock Concept
87
Considerations
89
Endogenous vs Exogenous
90
Evolution of the Clock
92
Molecular Building Blocks
93
Geological History and Rhythmic Components
95
Adaptation to Avoid Harmful Light
99
Ancestral Traits and Convergent Evolution
101
TakeHome Message
102
Introduction
107
The Process
111
Response Types
113
Critical Daylength
114
Diversity of Responses
115
Early Studies
116
Light and Photoreceptive Regions
117
Extraretinal Photoreceptors
118
Pigments
119
Cryptochromes
121
Rhythmic Association
123
Bünnings Hypothesis
125
Circannual Cycles
126
Deer Antlers
128
Photoperiodism and Humans
129
Indoor vs Outdoor Light
130
TakeHome Message
132
Introduction
138
Approaches to Models and Mechanisms
139
Mechanical Models
141
Pendulum
142
External Coincidence
143
Hands of a Clock
144
Mathematical Models
145
Differential Equations
148
Limit Cycles and Topography
149
Chaos
153
Biochemical and Metabolic Models
155
Selected Biochemical Notes
156
Glycolytic Oscillations
157
Nucleotides and Enzymes
158
Membranes and the Phospholipid Bilayer
159
Lipids and Proteins
163
Transport and Feedback
165
Molecular Models
167
Genes and Nomenclature
171
Clock Mutations
173
TranscriptionTranslation Feedback Loops
174
Light
177
Temperature
178
Five Circadian Clocks
179
Genetic Highlights
181
Advantages
182
Overt Rhythms
183
Mammalian Circadian Clock
184
Feedback Loops and Components
186
Arabidopsis Circadian Clock
187
Cyanobacteria Circadian Clock
189
Advantages
190
Overt Rhythms
191
Models in Perspective
192
TakeHome Message
193
Introduction
207
Moon and Light
208
Moon and Tides
210
Spring and Neap Tides
214
Marine Organisms
216
Crab Activity
217
Circadian vs Circatidal
218
Other Organisms
219
Reproduction
220
Color Change
224
Terrestrial Organisms
226
The Menstrual Cycle
227
Insects
228
LunarTidal Clock Hypotheses
229
Interacting Oscillators?
230
TakeHome Message
231
Introduction
237
Parasexuality
238
Nuclear Division and Genetics
240
The Difference
250
Artificial Hybridization and How Sex Produces Both Lunch and an Embryo
251
Asexual Reproduction
255
An Abbreviated Life History of Neurospora crassa
256
Courtship and Mating
257
Photoperiodism and Sexuality
259
Flowers
260
Rhythmic Phases of Sexual Behavior in Humans
261
The Menstrual Cycle
262
Social Synchronization
268
Primary and Secondary SexRelated Rhythms in Men
272
Infradian Cycles
273
Body Weight
274
Cutaneous Pain
277
Emotions
278
Facial Sebum
279
Beard Growth and Body Hair
280
Sexual Activity
282
TakeHome Message
284
Introduction
293
Photoperiodism
294
Thermoperiodism and Temperature Cycles
297
Vernalization
298
Temperature Compensation
300
Birds
301
Butterflies
302
Pest Management and Agents of Stress
304
Pest Control
306
Muskrats
324
Ruffed Grouse
326
The Outdoor Laboratory
327
Light Pollution
328
Vertical Migration
329
Drift
330
Turtles
331
Birds
332
Introduction
341
Body Temperature and Activity
342
Diurnal vs Nocturnal
343
Timing of Food
344
Masking
346
Cattle
348
Poultry
349
Peak Times
351
Excretion Rates
353
Urinary Rhythms
354
A Primary Circadian Oscillator
355
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
356
Diseases Pests and Stress
357
Bacterial Infections
358
Flies
359
Fleas
360
Photoperiod
361
Domestic Fowl
362
Sheep
363
Horses
364
Pigs and Goats
365
Implications
366
Introduction
376
Past and Present
377
Time Schedules
378
Social Synchronization
380
Circadian Events
381
Ultradian and Infradian Events
384
Night and Shiftwork
385
Problems with Shiftwork
386
Adjusting to Shiftwork
387
The Global Workplace
388
Work Schedules and Outsourcing
389
Body Temperature and Performance Variables
391
Jet Lag and Professional Sports
392
Travel on the Earths Surface
393
Driver Fatigue and Vehicle Accidents
394
Alcohol Driving and Fatigue
395
The PostLunch Dip
396
Jet Lag
397
Life in Space
398
Travel Beneath the Seas
399
Mealtimes and Health
401
Preclinical MealTiming Studies
402
Changes in Body Weight and Rhythms
404
What How Much and When
408
Effects on Melatonin Production
409
Effects on Clinical Health
410
Better Lighting Practices
411
BirthdateBased Biorhythms
412
Lack of Scientific Support
413
Rigidity vs Elasticity of Infradian Periods
414
TakeHome Message
415
Introduction
426
Circadian Rhythms in Health
427
Adjusting Urinary Concentrations for Volume and Time
428
Overview of Rhythms in Body Systems
430
What and When is Normal?
433
TimeSpecified Normal Limits
438
Circadian Rhythms in Symptoms and Disease
441
Birth and Death
442
Cardiovascular Disease
443
Circannual Rhythms in Health
445
Circannual Rhythms in Symptoms and Disease
446
Cardiovascular Disease
448
The Coagulation System
449
Cholesterol
450
Respiratory Illness
452
The Menstrual Cycle10
453
Disorders
454
Medical Procedures
455
Melatonin and Human Health
456
Sexuality
458
Immune Function
459
Light Melatonin and Cancer
460
Light Leaks at Night
461
When to Sample?
462
Diagnosing Normal Levels
463
Diagnosing Infectious Agents
464
Diagnosing Abnormal Levels
467
Hours of Changing Resistance
470
Early PreClinical Findings
471
Stage of Rhythm vs Time of Day
473
Chronotherapy
475
Three Times a Day?
476
RhythmDependent Effects of Some Drugs
478
Examples of Applied Chronotherapy
480
Asthma
481
CancerAnimal Studies
482
CancerHuman Trials
484
Cellular Clocks and Chronotherapy
486
TimeIndicating Genes
487
Marker Rhythms
488
The Medical Community and the Concept of Timing
489
TakeHome Message
491
Introduction
526
Measuring Your Own Body Rhythms
527
School Children
528
Adults
529
Monitoring Symptoms
530
Internal Marker Rhythm
531
Measurement Site
532
What and When is Normal?
533
Blood Pressure
534
Ambulatory Monitoring
535
Morningness vs Life Factors
536
Cognitive Tasks
537
SelfMeasurements During Isolation
540
Long SelfMeasurement Series
544
What can be SelfMeasured?
545
Internal or External Body Temperature
546
Temperature Devices
547
Blood Pressure Devices
550
Other Equipment
552
Saliva Urine and Blood
555
Looking at the Data
556
Testing for a TimeEffect
557
TakeHome Message
558
Recording Sheet for SelfMeasurement of Oral Temperature and other functions
568
Appendices 569
569
Detailed Instructions for Performing Self measurements
570
Random Number Adding Speed Test Sheet 1
572
Random Number Memory Test Sheet 1
574
Introduction
577
Data Collection
578
Number ofTimepoints
579
How Long?
580
Data Preparation
582
Editing or Transforming Data
583
Standard Deviation and Error
584
Partitioning Data Spans
585
Statistical Detection of Time Effects
586
Statistical Detection of Rhythms
588
Analyzing TimeSeries by Curve Fitting
589
The LeastSquares Technique
590
The BestFitting Curve
591
Statistical Significance
592
Rhythm Parameter Comparisons
593
Descriptive Rhythm Parameters
595
The Cosinor Illustrated
596
TakeHome Message
600
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