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while avoiding the danger of giving too great a control over the education of the country to a department of the executive. In a country possessing any organized system of local administration, there would be, in every district of a certain size, a school committee, composed of those inhabitants of the locality (whether elected or nominated) who took the greatest practical interest in the subject ; and to such a committee, with a representative of the Education Committee of the Privy Council for their regularly appointed adviser, the authority over the local schools might safely and properly be entrusted. But in the chaotic confusion of English local institutions, which throws such obstacles in the way of any systematic improvement in the real government of the country, it would require much more practical experience than I possess, and more meditation than I have been able to bestow on the subject, to enable me to suggest the best constitution for the local superintending body, or to define the powers which ought to be vested in it. It is even possible that both its constitution and its powers ought to be different in different localities, according to the nature of the materials available. For the present, probably, the responsibility of selecting the proper persons from among the leading inhabitants of all denominations, might with advantage be temporarily intrusted to the inspectors ; though I would by no means propose this as a permanent arrangement. In whatever manner appointed, I strongly recommend that there should be but one such body for the whole of the endowed schools of a considerable district ; comprising, however, persons from various parts of the district, who might severally act as local visitors of the schools nearest to them.

In still further extension of the same principle, I would propose that all the educational endowments of the district, together with all other charitable endowments within the same local limits which are now applied, ostensibly or really, to the relief of the

in modes which are useless or hurtful, should be brought into a single fund, to be devoted to maintaining one or a few large schools in convenient situations, in preference to a greater number of small ones.

Large schools, with numerous pupils, have a great advantage in point of economy and efficiency over small schools with few pupils

. The principal sources of this advantage area. That when the pupils are numerous they can be formed into considerable classes, of about the same degree of proficiency, and capable of profiting by the same teaching; while, if they are few in number, pupils of very unequal degrees of advancement have to be taught together, and either the majority are neglected in favour of the few most proficient, or the teacher's attention is given to them by turns, those to whom the teaching of the moment is unsuited remaining comparatively idle.

b. That by merging many small schools in one large school, it becomes possible to obtain teachers of a far better quality for the

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same cost, and to economize their labour by confining the superior teachers to the higher departments. A small number of wellpaid masters, adapted to the different grades of proficiency, are a vastly superior educational instrument to a large number of illpaid masters scattered over the country, each of whom has to teach pupils of all grades, and if he is fit for the higher work, is throwing away his labour in teaching mere elements to little boys.

c. And lastly, that large schools economize, in a similar manner, the most important labour of all, and that which requires the highest qualities in the persons intrusted with it, the labour of inspection.

These and other reasons in favour of the consolidation of schools, will be found largely illustrated in a document forming No. 120 of the papers printed by order of the House of Commons in the session of 1862, containing evidence collected by Mr. Chadwick for the former Royal Commission on Education, accompanied by comments of his own on this and other points of the very highest value.

The same Parliamentary paper contains the particulars of a most important practical application of the principles just stated —the case of the Faversham schools. This was a new foundation, growing out of a bequest by a banker of Faversham, as recently as 1840, of property yielding 2,0001. a year, for the general benefit of the poor of that place. The trustees, being thus free to adopt the best ideas of the age, and being evidently men of practical good sense, determined that the purposes of the testator could best be effected by devoting the bequest to an improved scheme of public education for the town and its neighbourhood ; and having drawn up a plan for that purpose, obtained the authority of the Court of Chancery for carrying it into execution. The plan comprehends an infant school, a national school, a middleclass or commercial school, and an evening school for adults under trained masters. The Parliamentary paper already referred to shows the great advantages which have been found to attend the union of all these schools under the same management. Pupils are promoted, as a reward for proficiency, from the national to the commercial school, where they are supplied with books, and their school fees paid, at the expense of the endowment: and there is an annual examination of the commercial school by graduates of one of the Universities, at which exhibitions are awarded, by what is stated to be in effect a competitive examination, to successful pupils, to enable them to continue their studies in an old foundation grammar school which already existed in the town under another trust, and the union of which with the new schools under a common management would complete the scheme. No religious difficulty is experienced; dissenters and churchmen, both lay and clerical, acting together with perfect cordiality, both as trustees and as members of the school committee.

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3. The possibility of securing for purposes of education, en

dowments that are now wasted. There are numerous charitable funds which are now, under the terms of antiquated trusts, distributed in mere doles, to persons supposed to be necessitous, but who have not always even that claim, such as it is. It would be a far more efficacious mode of alleviating the evil of indigence, to employ these funds in making war on its principal cause, the want of education. Full information respecting these wasted endowments could probably be obtained through the Charity Commissioners, within whose special duty it naturally falls to procure such information, when they do not already possess it. The sanction of the Court of Chancery or of Parliament would probably not be refused to the necessary change in the destination of these endowments, due regard being had to the fair claims of living individuals who may have become, in any degree, dependent on them for support. 4. The best mode of securing, or at least encouraging, a due

supply of qualified teachers. No part of the subject is more important than this; the wretched incompetency of the great majority of the existing schools for the children of the middle classes being notorious. Mr. Edward Carleton Tufnell, one of the ablest and most experienced of Her Majesty's inspectors of schools, stated in evidence to Mr. Chadwick,-“ It has frequently occurred to me to cause the “ dismissal of a master from a pauper school on account of gross “ ignorance or gross immorality. The useful power of the Poor “ Law Board prevents such people being again appointed to

pauper schools, but I have taken pains to ascertain what has “ become of those masters, and I have generally found that they “ have got places as ushers in schools for the middle or upper " classes."

With a view to correct the extreme deficiency of due qualification in the teachers, all the suggestions referred to in the letter which the Commissioners did me the honour to address to me, appear worthy of adoption, and all of them together are not more than sufficient. It would be highly important that training schools should be established for teachers, where they should learn, not only the things they will have to teach, but how to teach them; for which purpose these training schools must of course be connected with schools of the ordinary kind, where the art of teaching may be practically acquired. It is evidently proper that the restriction, in many foundations, of the office of schoolmaster to persons in holy orders, should be abolished. And it is also right that certificates of fitness for the office of teacher should be granted, after examination, either by the Universities that of London included) or by examiners appointed by the Committee of Council. I would add a recommendation that on the first appointment of teachers, the principle of competitive examination should be introduced as far as practicable, and that in their subsequent promotion a mode of examination should be resorted to, which might, if possible, test

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the results of their teaching in the schools where they had already taught. But the greatest security of all, without which no other will permanently avail, is the assured prospect of removal, in case of incompetency proved by experience. The whole chance of success of any reform in the endowed schools rests upon the degree of certainty which can be given to this expectation; and the utmost exertions of the department should, I earnestly urge, be above all directed to this end. With a view to it, the visitorial functions of the Court of Chancery should be transferred to the Privy Council, who might be empowered to avail themselves, if needful, of the aid of the Poor Law Inspectors, as well as of the Charity Commissioners. The arrangements for local visitation I have already touched upon. But all will be ineffective without efficient and vigorous examination of the pupils, by an authority totally independent of the teachers and of those by whom the teachers are appointed; and the value of this examination would be greatly increased if part of it were made competitive among the pupils of all the schools in a given district, or in the whole country.

J. S. MILL.

SAMUEL MORLEY, Esq. I. The system of gratuitous education is on many grounds inexpedient.

1. Where it has been adopted in schools for the industrial classes it has generally failed ; schools in which payments from the scholars have been required having taken a higher position and enlisted more largely the confidence of parents. In schools for the middle classes this plan would be open to graver objections, and the reasons which have recommended it for the poor cannot be urged in reference to those who occupy a higher position in society.

2. Education is essentially a parental obligation. In all sections of English society parents deem it their interest and privilege to secure for their children the highest advantages of intellectual culture within their reach, in most instances willingly making large sacrifices to attain this object. This feeling is essential to the well-being of society, and any measures tending to lessen it are to be deprecated.

3. Education without payment lessens the efficiency of the school—the interest of parents in the operations of the school is diminished—their care to secure its advantages by the punctual and regular attendance of their children is lessened, and that co-operation with the efforts of the teacher on which success so largely depends is hardly found to exist.

II. The payment of teachers by fixed incomes is incompatible with the general efficiency of schools. In almost all vocations, whether commercial or professional, the stimulus of personal interest largely operates. No reason exists for exempting teachers from a law which in regard to all other employments

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works so beneficially. Even in cases in which it would be difficult to remunerate teachers only by the results of their labour, it would be expedient that a part of their income should depend on the skill and fidelity which they bring to their work.

III. The question of educational endowments is so large and so complicated that it would be useless to deal with it by any general statement. Past experience shows the extreme difficulty of administering property which has been bequeathed for the promotion of education, the ever-changing circumstances of society rendering what may have been useful in the past injurious at a subsequent period.

The most unobjectionable appropriation of endowments are probably

1. The institution of “ exhibitions” to deserving boys, either to secure an extension of their school education or to assist the prosecution of their education at one of the universities.

2. The payment for well-ascertained results.

3. The pensioning of efficient teachers on their retirement from active service.

4. The improvement and extension of school buildings, or their erection in districts where they may be required.

IV. In reference to the supply of well-qualified teachers existing institutions furnish large facilities,--the various degrees they confer are probably of higher value than any special certificates which might be granted either by the universities or by the Government. It might be desirable that a chair for the exposition of the principles of teaching should be instituted in connexion with one or more of the existing seats of learning, and no evil would result from the issue of a certificate which would attest the possession of skill in teaching. The value of this and of other marks of literary merit would be better ascertained by experience than by any endorsement of it by the State, while to exclude from the profession of teaching all persons not having a certain certificate would not only inflict injustice on individuals, but shut out from a sphere of usefulness many who might be able to render efficient service.

In conclusion. Free and unfettered competition is that on which it is safest to rely. In all other departments of human activity this is the mainspring of success. It is therefore to be hoped that the measures proposed should interfere as little as possible with individual enterprise, and that the resources resulting from a better administration of educational and other endowments may be rendered beneficial, not to the children of any section of the community, but to the nation at large.

S. MORLEY Craven Lodge, Stamford Hill,

December 31, 1866.

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