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and this shall be done in the space of less than a
290. The sudden generation and perishing of sounds, must be one of these two ways. Either that the air sunereth some force by sound, and then restoreth itself, as water doth; which being divided maketh many circles, till it restore itself to the natural consistence: or otherwise, that the air doth willingly imbibe the sound as grateful, but cannot maintain it; for that the air hath, as it should seem, a secret and hidden appetite of receiving the sound at the first; but then other gross and more materiate qualities of the air straightways suffocate it; like unto flame, which is generated with alacrity, but straight quenched by the enmity of the air or other ambient bodies.
There be these differences in general, by which sounds are divided: 1. Musical, immusical. 2. Treble, base. 3. Flat, sharp. 4. Soft, loud. 5. Exterior, interior. 6. Clean, harsh, or purling. 7. Articulate, inarticulate.
We have laboured, as may appear, in this inquisition of sounds diligently; both because sound is one of the most hidden portions of nature, as we said in the beginning, and because it is a virtue which may be called incorporeal and immateriate; whereof there be in nature but few. Besides, we were willing, now in these our first centuries, to make a pattern or precedent of an exact inquisition; and we shall do the like hereafter in some other subjects which require it. For we desire that men should leam and perceive, how severe a thing the true inquisition of nature is; and should accustom themselves by the light of particulars to enlarge their minds to the amplitude of the world, and not reduce the world to the narrowness of their minds.
Experiment solitary touching the orient colours in dissolution of metals.
291. Metals give orient and fine colours in dissolutions; as gold giveth an excellent yellow; quicksilver an excellent green; tin giveth an excellent azure: likewise in their putrefactions or rusts; as vermilion, verdigrease, bise, cirrus, &c. and likewise in their vitrifactions. The cause is, for that by their strength of body they are able to endure the fire or strong waters, and to be put into an equal posture; and again to retain a part of their principal spirit: which two things, equal posture and quick spirits, are required chiefly to make colours lightsome.
Etperiment solitary touching prolongation of life.
292. It conduceth unto long life, and to the more placid motion of the spirits, which thereby do less prey and consume the juice of the body, either •hat men's actions be free and voluntary, that nothing lie done invita Minerva, but secundum genium;
on the other side, that the actions of men be full "fregulation and commands within themselves: for then the victory and performing of the command spvelh a good disposition to the spirits; especially •f there be a proceeding from degree to degree; for •hen the sense of the victory is the greater. An
example of the former of these is in a country life; and of the latter in monks and philosophers, and such as do continually enjoin themselves.
Experiment solitary touching appetite of union in bodies.
293. It is certain that in all bodies there is an appetite of union, and evitation of solution of continuity: and of this appetite there be many degrees; but the most remarkable and fit to be distinguished are three. The first in liquors; the second in hard bodies; and the third in bodies cleaving or tenacious. In liquors this appetite is weak: we see in liquors, the threading of them in stillicides, as hath been said; the falling of them in round drops, which is the form of union; and the staying of them for a little time in bubbles and froth. In the second degree or kind, this appetite is strong; as in iron, in stone, in wood, &c. In the third, this appetite is in a medium between the other two: for such bodies do partly follow the touch of another body, and partly stick and continue to themselves; and therefore they rope, and draw themselves in threads; as we see in pitch, glue, bird-lime, &c. But note, that all solid bodies are cleaving more or less: and that they love better the touch of somewhat that is tangible, than of air. For water in small quantity clcaveth to any thing that is solid: and so would metal too, if the weight drew it not off. And therefore gold foliate, or any metal foliate, cleaveth: but those bodies which are noted to be clammy and cleaving, are such as have a more indifferent appetite at once to follow another body, and to hold to themselves. And therefore they are commonly bodies ill mixed; and which take more pleasure in a foreign body, than in preserving their own consistence; and which have little predominance in drought or moisture.
Experiments solitary touching the like operations of heat and time.
294. Time and heat are fellows in many effects. Heat drieth bodies that do easily expire; as parchment, leaves, roots, clay, &c. And so doth time or age arefy; as in the same bodies, &c. Heat dissolveth and melteth bodies that keep in their spirits; as in divers liquefactions: and so doth time in some bodies of a softer consistence, as is manifest in honey, which by age waxeth more liquid, and the like in sugar; and so in old oil, which is ever more clear and more hot in medicinable use. Heat causeth the spirits to search some issue out of the body; as in the volatility of metals; and so doth time; as in the rust of metals. But generally heat doth that in small time which age doth in long.
Experiment solitary touching the differing operations of fire and time.
295. Some things which pass the fire are softest at first, and by time grow hard, as the crumb of bread. Some are harder when they come from the fire, and afterwards give again, and grow soft, as the crust of bread, bisket, sweetmeats, salt, &c. The cause is, for that in those things which wax hard with time, the work of the fire is a kind of melting; and in those that wax soft with time, contrariwise, the work of the fire is a kind of baking; and whatsoever the fire baketh, time doth in some degree disselvc.
Experiment solitary touching motions by imitation.
296. Motions pass from one man to another, not so much by exciting imagination as by invitation; especially if there be an aptness or inclination before. Therefore gaping, or yawning, and stretching do pass from man to man; for that that causeth gaping and stretching is, when the spirits are a little heavy by any vapour, or the like. For then they strive, as it were, to wring out and expel that which loadeth them. So men drowsy, and desirous to sleep, or before the fit of an ague, do use to yawn and stretch; and do likewise yield a voice or sound, which is an interjection of expulsion; so that if another be apt and prepared to do the like, he followeth by the sight of another. So the laughing of another maketh to laugh.
Experiment solitary touching infectious diseases.
297. There be some known diseases that are infectious; and others that are not. Those that are infections are, first, such as are chiefly in the spirits, and not so much in the humours; and therefore pass easily from body to body; such are pestilences, lippitudes, and such like. Secondly, such as taint the breath, which we see passeth manifestly from man to man; and not invisibly, as the effects of the spirits do; such are consumptions of the lungs, &c. Thirdly, such as come forth to the skin, and therefore taint the air or the body adjacent; especially if they consist in an unctuous substance not apt to dissipate; such are scabs and leprosy. Fourthly, such as are merely in the humours, and not in the spirits, breath, or exhalations; and therefore they never infect but by touch only; and such a touch also as cometh within the epidermis; as the venom of the French pox, and the biting of a mad dog.
Experiment solitary touching the incorporation of powders and liquors.
298. Most powders grow more close and coherent by mixture of water, than by mixture of oil, though oil be the thicker body; as meal, &c. The reason is the congmity of bodies; which if it be more, maketh a perfecter imbibition and incorporation; which in most powders is more between them and water, than between them and oil; but painters' colours ground, and ashes, do better incorporate with oil.
Experiment solitary touching exercise of the body.
299. Much motion and exercise is good for some bodies; and sitting and less motion for others. If the body be hot and void of superfluous moistures, too much motion hurteth: and it is an error in physicians, to call too much upon exercise. Likewise men ought to beware, that they use not exercise and a spare diet both; but if much exercise, then a plentiful diet; and if sparing diet, then little exercise. The benefits that come of exercise are, first, that it sendeth nourishment into the parts more forcibly. Secondly, that it helpelh to excem by sweat, and so maketh the parts assimilate the more perfectly. Thirdly, that it maketh the substance of the body more solid and compact; and so less apt to be consumed and depredated by the spirits. The evils that come of exercise are, first, that it maketh the spirits more hot and predatory. Secondly, that it doth absorb likewise, and attenuate too much the moisture of the body. Thirdly, that it maketh too great concussion, especially if it be violent, of the inward parts, which delight more in rest But generally exercise, if it be much, is no friend to prolongation of life; which is one cause why women live longer than men, because they stir less.
Experiment solitary touching meats that induce satiety.
300. Some food we may use long, and much, without glutting; as bread, flesh that is not fat or rank, &c. Some other, though pleasant, glutteth sooner; as sweet-meats, fat meats, &c. The cause is. for that appetite consisteth in the emptiness of the mouth of the stomach; or possessing it with somewhat that is astringent; and therefore cold and dry. But things that are sweet and fat are more filling; and do swing and hang more about the mouth of the stomach; and go not down 60 speedily: and again turn sooner to choler, which is hot, and ever abate; li the appetite. We see also that another cause of satiety is an over-custom ; and of appetite is novelty; and therefore meats if the same be continually taken, induce loathing. To give the reason of the distaste of satiety, and of the pleasure in novelty; and to distinguish not only the meats and drinks, but also in motions, loves, company, delights, studies, what they be that custom maketh more grateful, and what more tedious, were a large field. But for meats, the cause is attraction, which is quicker, and more excited towards that which is new, than towards that whereof there remaineth a relish by former use. And, generally, it is a rule, that whatsoever is somewhat ingrate at first, is made grateful by custom; but whatsoever is too pleasing at first, groweth quickly to satiate.
Etftrimenls in consort touching the clarification of liquors, and the accelerating thereof.
AccELEBATioif of time, in works of nature, may well be esteemed inter magnalia naturae. And even in divine miracles, accelerating of the time is next to ihe creating of the matter. We will now therefore proceed to the inquiry of it: and for acceleration of germination, we will refer it over unto the place where we shall handle the subject of plants generally; and will now begin with other accelerations.
301. Liquors are, many of them, at the first thick and troubled; as muste, wort, juices of fruits, or herbs expressed, &c. and by time they settle and clarify. But to make them clear before the time is a great work; for it is a spur to nature, and puttcth her out of her pace; and, besides, it is of good use for making drinks and sauces potable and serviceable speedily. But to know the means of accelerating clarification, we must first know the causes of clarification. The first cause is, by the separation of the grosser parts of the liquor from the finer. The second, by the equal distribution of the spirits of the liquor with the tangible parts: for that ever representeth bodies clear and untroubled. The third by the refining the spirit itself, which thereby giveth to Ihe liquor more splendour and more lustre.
302. First, for separation, it is wrought by weight, as in the ordinary residence or settlement of liquors; by heat, by motion, by precipitation, or sublimation, that is, a calling of the several pnrts either up or down, which is a kind of attraction; by adhesion, as when a body more viscous is mingled and agitated with the liquor, which viscous body, afterwards severed, draweth with it the grosser parts of the liquor; and lastly, by percolation or passage.
303. Secondly, for the even distribution of the spirits, it is wrought by gentle heat; and by agitation or motion, for of time we speak not, because it it that we would anticipate and represent; and it is wrought also by mixture of some other body which hath a virtue to open the liquor, and to make the spirits the better pass through.
304. Thirdly, for the refining of the spirit, it is *ronght likewise by heat; by motion ; and by mixtore of some body which hath virtue to attenuate. So therefore, having shown the causes, for the accelerating of clarification in general, and the inducing of it, take these instances and trials.
305. It is in common practice to draw wine or Iter from the lees, which wc call racking, whereby it will clarify much the sooner; for the lees, though they keep the drink in heart, and make it lasting, Jet withal they cast up some spissitude: and this instance is to be referred to separation.
306. On the other side it were good to try, what •be adding to the liquor more lees than his own will
work; for though the lees do make the liquor turbid, yet they refine the spirits. Take therefore a vessel of new beer, and take another vessel of new beer, and rack the one vessel from the lees, and pour the lees of the racked vessel into the unracked vessel, and see the effect: this instance is referred to the refining of the spirits.
307. Take new beer, and put in some quantity of stale beer into it, and see whether it will not accelerate the clarification, by opening the body of the beer, and cutting the grosser parts, whereby they may fall down into lees. And this instance again is referred to separation.
308. The longer malt or herbs, or the like, are infused in liquor, the more thick and troubled the liquor is; but the longer they be decocted in the liquor, the clearer it is. The reason is plain, because in infusion, the longer it is, the greater is the part of the gross body that goeth into the liquor: but in decoction, though more goeth forth, yet it either purgeth at the top, or settleth at the bottom. And therefore the most exact way to clarify is, first, to infuse, and then to take off the liquor and decoct it; as they do in beer, which hath malt first infused in the liquor, and is afterwards boiled with the hop. This also is referred to separation.
309. Take hot embers, and put them about a bottle filled with new beer, almost to the very neck; let the bottle be well stopped, lest it fly out: and continue it, renewing the embers every day, by the space of ten days; and then compare it with another bottle of the same beer set by. Take also lime both quenched and unquenched, and set the bottles in them, ut supra. This instance is referred both to the even distribution, and also to the refining of the spirits by heat.
310. Take bottles, and swing them, or carry them in a wheel-barrow upon rough ground twice in a day; but then you may not fill the bottles full, but leave some air; for if the liquor come close to the stopple, it cannot play nor flower: and when you have shaken them well either way, pour the drink into another bottle stopped close after the usual manner; for if it stay with much air in it, the drink will pall; neither will it settle so perfectly in all the parts. Let it stand some twenty-four hours: then take it, and put it again into a bottle with air, ut supra: and thence into a bottle stopped, ut supra: and so repeat the same operation for seven days. Note, that in the emptying of one bottle into another, you must do it swiftly lest the drink pall. It were good also to try it in a bottle with a little air below the neck, without emptying. This instance is referred to the even distribution and refining of the spirits by motion.
311. As for percolation inward and outward, which belongeth to separation, trial would be made of clarifying by adhesion, with milk put into new beer, and stirred with it: for it may be that the grosser part of the beer will cleave to the milk: the doubt is, whether the milk will sever well again; which is soon tried. And it is usual in clarifying hippocras to put in milk j which after severeth and carrieth with it the grosser parts of the hippocras, as hath been said elsewhere. Also for the better clarification by percolation, when they tun new beer, they use to let it pass through a strainer; and it is like the finer the strainer is, the clearer it will be.
Experiments in consort touching maturation, and the accelerating thereof. And first, touching the maturation and quickening of drinks. And next, touching the maturation of fruits.
The accelerating of maturation we will now inquire of. And of maturation itself. It is of three natures. The maturation of fruits: the maturation of drinks: and the maturation of imposthumes and ulcers. This last we refer to another place, where we shall handle experiments medicinal. There be also other maturations, as of metals, &c. whereof we will Speak as occasion serveth. But we will begin with that of drinks, because it hath such affinity with the clarification of liquors.
312. For the maturation of drinks, it is wrought by the congregation of the spirits together, whereby they digest more perfectly the grosser parts: and it is effected partly by the same means that clarification is, whereof we spake before; but then note, that an extreme clarification doth spread the spirits so smooth, as they become dull, and the drink dead, which ought to have a little flowering. And therefore all your clear amber drink is flat.
313. We see the degrees of maturation of drinks; in muste, in wine, as it is drunk, and in vinegar. Whereof muste hath not the spirits well congregated; wine hath them well united, so as they make the parts somewhat more oily; vinegar hath them congregated, but more jejune, and in smaller quantity, the greatest and finest spirit and part being exhaled: for we see vinegar is made by setting the vessel of wine against the hot sun; and therefore vinegar will not burn; for that much of the finer parts is exhaled.
314. The refreshing and quickening of drink palled or dead, is by enforcing the motion of the spirit: so we see that open weather relaxeth the spirit, and maketh it more lively in motion. We see also bottling of beer or ale, while it is new and full of spirit, so that it spirteth when the stopple is taken forth, maketh the drink more quick and windy. A pan of coles in the cellar doth likewise good, and maketh the drink work again. New drink put to drink that is dead provoketh it to work again: nay, which is more, as some affirm, a brewing of new beer set by old beer, maketh it work again. It were good also to enforce the spirits by some mixtures, that may excite and quicken them; as by putting into the bottles, nitre, chalk, lime, &c. We see cream is matured, and made to rise more speedily by putting in cold water; which, as it seemeth, getteth down the whey.
315. It is tried, that the burying of bottles of drink well stopped, either in dry earth a good depth;
or in the bottom of a well within water; and best of all, the hanging of them in a deep well somewhat above the water for some fortnight's space, is an excellent means of making drink fresh and quick; for the cold doth not cause any exhaling of the spirits at all, as heat doth, though it rarifieth the rest that remain: but cold maketh the spirits vigorous, and irritateth them, whereby they incorporate the parts of the liquor perfectly.
316. As for the maturation of fruits; it is wrought by the calling forth of the spirits of the body outward, and so spreading them more smoothly: and likewise by digesting in some degree the grosser parts; and this is effected by heat, motion, attraction; and by a rudiment of putrefaction: for the inception of putrefaction hath in it a maturation.
317. There were taken apples, and laid in straw; in hay; in flour; in chalk; in lime; covered over with onions; covered over with crabs; closed up in wax; shut in a box, &c. There was also an apple hanged up in smoke; of all which the experiment sorted in this manner.
318. After a month's space, the apple enclosed in wax was as green and fresh as at the first putting in, and the kernels continued white. The cause is, for that all exclusion of open air, which is ever predatory, maintaineth the body in its first freshness and moisture: but the inconvenience is, that it tasteth a little of the wax; which 1 suppose, in a pomegranate, or some such thick-coated fruit, it would not do.
319. The apple hanged in the smoke, turned like an old mellow apple, wrinkled, dry, soft, sweet, yellow within. The cause is, for that such a degree of heat, which doth neither melt nor scorch, (for we see that in a great heat, a roast apple softeneth and melteth; and pigs' feet, made of quarters of wardens, scorch and have a skin of cole,) doth mellow, and not adure: the smoke also maketh the apple, as it were, sprinkled with soot, which helpeth to mature. We see that in drying of pears and prunes in the oven, and removing of them often as they begin to sweat, there is a like operation; but that is with a far more intense degree of heat.
320. The apples covered in the lime and ashes were well matured; as appeared both in their yellowness and sweetness. The cause is, for that that degree of heat which is in lime and ashes, being a smothering heat, is of all the rest most proper, for it doth neither liquefy nor arcfy; and that is true maturation. Note, that the taste of those apples was good; and therefore it is the experiment fittest for use.
321. The apples covered with crabs and onions were likewise well matured. The cause is, not any heat; but for that the crabs and the onions draw forth the spirits of the apple, and spread them equally throughout the body; which taketh away hardness. So we see one apple ripeneth against another. And therefore in making of cider they turn the apples first upon a heap. So one cluster of grapes that toucheth another whilst it groweth, ripeneth faster; "botrus contra botrum citius maturescit."
322. The apples in hay and the straw ripened apparently, though not so much as the others; but the apple in the straw more. The cause is, for that the hay and straw have a very low degree of heat, but yet close and smothering, and which drieth not.
323. The apple in the close box wa9 ripened also: the cause is, for that all air kept close hath a degree of warmth: as we see in wool, fur, plush, &c. Note, that all these were compared with another apple of the same kind, that lay of itself: and in comparison of that were more sweet and more yellow, and so appeared to be more ripe.
324. Take an apple, or pear, or other like fruit, and roll it upon stable hard: we see in common experience, that the rolling doth soften and sweeten the fruit presently ; which is nothing but the smooth distribution of the spirits into the parts: for the unequal distribution of the spirits maketh the harshness: but this hard rolling is between concoction, and a simple maturation; therefore, if you should roll them but gently, perhaps twice a day; and continue it some seven days, it is like they would mature more finely, and like unto the natural maturation.
325. Take an apple, and cut out a piece of the top, and cover it, to see whether that solution of continuity will not hasten a maturation: we see that where a wasp, or a fly, or a worm hath bitten, in a grape, or any fruit, it will sweeten hastily.
326. Take an apple, &c. and prick it with a pin fall of holes, not deep, and smear it a little with sack, or cinnamon water, or spirit of wine, every day for ten days, to see if the virtual heat of the wine or strong waters will not mature it.
In these trials also, as was used in the first, set another of the same fruits by, to compare them; and try them by their yellowness and by their sweetness.
Experiment solitary touching the making of gold.
The world hath been much abused by the opinion of making of gold: the work itself I judge to be possible; but the means, hitherto propounded, to effect it, are in the practice, full of error and imposture, and in the theory, full of unsound imaginations. For to say, that nature hath an intention to make all metals gold; and that, if she were delivered from impediments, she would perform her own work; and that, if the crudities, impurities, and lepresities of metals were cured, they would become gold; and that a little quantity of the medicine, in the work of projection, will turn a sea of the baser metal into gold by multiplying: all these are but dreams; and so are many other grounds of alchemy. And to help the matter, the alchemists call in likewise many vanities out of astrology, natural magic, superstitious interpretations of Scriptures, auricular traditions, feigned testimonies of ancient authors, *nd the like. It is true, on the other side, they have brought to light not a few profitable experiments, and thereby made the world some amends. But we, when we shall come to handle the version and transnntation of bodies, and the experiments concerning metals and minerals, will lay open the true ways and passages of nature, which may load to this
great effect. And we commend the wit of the Chinese, who despair of making of gold, but are mad upon the making of silver: for certain it is, that it is more difficult to make gold, which is the most ponderous and materiate amongst metals, of other metals less ponderous and less materiate, than via versa, to make silver of lead or quicksilver; both which are more ponderous than silver; so that they need rather a farther degree of fixation, than any condensation. In the mean time, by occasion of handling the axioms touching maturation we will direct a trial touching the maturing of metals, and thereby turning some of them into gold: for we conceive indeed that a perfect good concoction, or digestion, or maturation of some metals, will produce gold. And here we call to mind, that we knew a Dutchman, that had wrought himself into the belief of a great person, by undertaking that he could make gold: whose discourse was, that gold might be made; but that the alchemists over-fired the work: for, he said, the making of gold did require a very temperate heat, as being in nature a subterrany work, where little heat cometh ; but yet more to the making of gold than of any other metal; and therefore that he would do it with a great lamp that should carry a temperate and equal heat: and that it was the work of many months. The device of the lamp was folly; but the over-firing now used, and the equal heat to be required, and the making it a work of some good time, are no ill discourses.
We resort therefore to our axioms of maturation, in effect touched before. The first is, that there be used a temperate heat; for they are ever temperate heats that digest and mature : wherein we mean temperate according to the nature of the subject; for that may be temperate to fruits and liquors, which will not work at all upon metals. The second is, that the spirit of the metal be quickened, and the tangible parts opened: for without those two operations, the spirit of the metal wrought upon will not be able to digest the parts. The third is, that the spirits do spread themselves even, and move not subsultorily; for that will make the parts close and pliant. And this requireth a heat that doth not rise and fall, but continue as equal as may be.- The fourth is, that no part of the spirit be emitted, but detained : for if there be emission of spirit, the body of the metal will be hard and churlish. And this will be performed, partly by the temper of the fire, and partly by the closeness of the vessel. The fifth is, that there be choice made of the likeliest and best prepared metal for the version; for that will facilitate the work. The sixth is, that you give time enough for the work; not to prolong hopes, as the alchemists do, but indeed to give nature a convenient space to work in. These principles are most certain and true; we will now derive a direction of trial out of them, which may, perhaps, by farther meditation be improved.
327- Let there be a small furnace made of a temperate heat; let the heat be such as may keep the metal perpetually molten, and no more; for that above all importeth to the work. For the material, take silver, which is the metal that in nature sym