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of a dead tree, that hath gotten no name, but it is large, and of a chestnut colour, and hard and pithy: whereby it should seem, that even dead trees forget sot their putting forth; no more than the carcasses of men's bodies, that put forth hair and nails for a time.

553. There is a cod, or bag, that groweth commonly in the fields; that at the first is hard like a tennis-ball, and white; and after groweth of a mushroom colour, and full of light dust upon the breaking; and is thought to be dangerous for the eyes if the powder get into them; and to be good for kibes. Belike it hath a corrosive and fretting nature.

554. There is an herb called Jew's ear, that groweth upon the roots and lower parts of the bodies of trees; especially of elders, and sometimes ashes. It hath a strange property; for in warm water it swelleth, and openeth extremely. It is not green, but of a dusky brown colour. And it is used for ajuinancies and inflammations in the throat; whereby it seemeth to have a mollifying and lenifying virtue.

555. There is a kind of spungy excrescence, which groweth chiefly upon the roots of the laser-tree; and sometimes upon cedar and other trees. It is "ry white, and light, and friable; which we call agaric. It is famous in physic for the purging of tough phlegm. And it is also an excellent opener for the liver; but offensive to the stomach: and in taste, it is at the first sweet, and after bitter.

556. We find no super-plant that is a formed plant, but misseltoe. They have an idle tradition, that there is a bird called a missel bird, that feedeth upon a seed, which many times she cannot digest, and so expelleth it whole with her excrement: which falling upon the bough of a tree that hath some rift, potteth forth the misseltoe. But this is a fable; for it is not probable that birds should feed upon •hat they cannot digest. But allow that, yet it cannot be for other reasons: for first, it is found but upon certain trees; and those trees bear no such fruit, as may allure that bird to sit and feed upon theni. It may be, that bird feedeth upon the misMltoe-berries, and so is often found there; which may have given occasion to the tale. But that which maketh an end of the question is, that misseltoe hath been found to put forth under the boughs, and not only above the boughs; so it cannot be any thing that falleth upon the bough. Misseltoe groweth chiefly upon crab-trees, apple-trees, sometimes upon hazels, and rarely upon oaks; the misseltoe whereof is counted very medicinal. It is "er green winter and summer; and beareth a white glistering berry: and it is a plant utterly differing from the plant upon which it groweth. Two things therefore may be certainly set down: first, that superfiEtation must be by abundance of sap in the bough that putteth it forth : secondly, that that sap must be such as the tree doth excern, and cannot assimilate; for else it would go in{p a bough; and besides, it seemeth to be more fat and unctuous than the ordinary sap of the tree; both by the berry, which is clammy; and by that it continueth green winter and summer, which the tree doth not.

Vol. i. t

557. This experiment of misseltoe may give light to other practices. Therefore trial would be made by ripping of the bough of a crab-tree in the bark; and watering of the wound every day with warm water dunged, to see if it would bring forth misseltoe, or any such like thing. But it were yet more likely to try it with some other watering or anointing, that were not so natural to the tree as water is; as oil, or barm of drink, &c. so they be such things as kill not the bough.

558. It were good to try what plants would put forth, if they be forbidden to put forth their natural boughs; poll therefore a tree, and cover it some thickness with clay on the top, and see what it will put forth. I suppose it will put forth roots; for so will a cion, being turned down into clay: therefore, in this experiment also, the tree would be closed with somewhat that is not so natural to the plant as clay is. Try it with leather, or cloth, or painting, so it be not hurtful to the tree. And it is certain, that a brake hath been known to grow out of a pollard.

559. A man may count the prickles of trees to be a kind of excrescence; for they will never be boughs, nor bear leaves. The plants that have prickles are thorns, black und white; brier, rose, lemon-trees, crab-trees, gooseberry, berberry; these have it in the bough : the plants that have prickles in the leaf are, holly, juniper, whin-bush, thistle; nettles also have a small venomous prickle; so hath borage, but harmless. The cause must be hasty putting forth, want of moisture, and the closeness of the bark; for the haste of the spirit to put forth, and the want of nourishment to put forth a bough, and the closeness of the bark, cause prickles in boughs; and therefore they are ever like a pyramis, for that the moisture spendeth after a little putting forth. And for prickles in leaves, they come also of putting forth more juice into the leaf than can spread in the leaf smooth, and therefore the leaves otherwise are rough, as borage and nettles are. As for the leaves of holly, they are smooth, but never plain, but as it were with folds, for the same cause.

560. There be also plants, that though they have no prickles, yet they have a kind of downy or velvet rind upon their leaves; as rose-campion, stockgilly-flowers, colt's-foot; which down or nap cometh of a subtil spirit, in a soft or fat substance. For it is certain, that both stock-gilly-flowers and rosecampions, stamped, have been applied with success to the wrists of those that have had tertian or quartan agues; and the vapour of colt's-foot hath a sanative virtue towards the lungs; and the leaf also is healing in surgery.

561. Another kind of excrescence is an exudation of plants joined with putrefaction; as we see in oakapples, which are found chiefly upon the leaves of oaks, and the like upon willows: and country people have a kind of prediction, that if the oak-apple broken be full of worms, it is a sign of a pestilent year; which is a likely thing, because they grow of corruption.

56'2. There is also upon sweet, or other brier, a fine tuft or brush of moss of divers colours; which if you cut you shall ever find full of little white worms.

Experiments in consort touching the producing of perfect plants without seed.

563. It is certain that earth taken out of the foundations of vaults and houses, and bottoms of wells, and then put into pots, will put forth sundry kinds of herbs: but some time is required for the germination: for if it be taken but from a fathom deep, it will put forth the first year; if much deeper, not till after a year or two.

564. The nature of the plants growing out of earth so taken up, doth follow the nature of the mold itself; as if the mold be soft and fine, it putteth forth soft herbs; as grass, plantain, and the like; if the earth be harder and coarser, it putteth forth herbs more rough, as thistles, firs, &c.

565. It is common experience, that where alleys are close gravelled, the earth putteth forth the first year knot grass, and after spire grass. The cause is, for that the hard gravel or pebble at the first laying will not suffer the grass to come forth upright, but turneth it to find his way where it can; but after that the earth is somewhat loosened at the top, the ordinary grass cometh up.

566. It is reported, that earth being taken out of shady and watery woods some depth, and potted, will put forth herbs of a fat and juicy substance; as penny-wort, purslane, houseleek, penny-royal, &c.

567. The water also doth send forth plants that have no roots fixed in the bottom; but they are less perfect plants, being almost but leaves, and those small ones; such is that we call duck weed, which hath a leaf no bigger than a thyme leaf, but of a fresher green, and putteth forth a little string into the water far from the bottom. As for the water lily it hath a root in the ground; and so have a number of other herbs that grow in ponds.

568. It is reported by some of the ancients, and some modern testimony likewise, that there be some plants that grow upon the top of the sea, being supposed to grow of some concretion of slime from the water, where the sun beateth hot, and where the sea stirreth little. As for alga marina, sea weed, and eryngium, sea thistle, both have roots; but the sea weed under the water, the sea thistle but upon the shore.

569. The ancients have noted, that there are some herbs that grow out of snow laid up close together and putrified, and that they are all bitter; and they name one specially, flomus, which we call moth-mullein. It is certain, that worms are found in snow commonly, like earth-worms; and therefore it is not unlike, that it may likewise put forth plants.

570. The ancients have affirmed, that there are some herbs that grow out of stone; which may be, for that it is certain that toads have been found in the middle of a free-stone. We see also that flints, lying above ground, gather moss; and wall-flowers, and some other flowers, grow upon walls; but whether upon the main brick or stone, or whether out of the lime or chinks, is not well observed: for elders and ashes have been seen to grow out of steeples; but they manifestly grow out of clefts; inso

much as when they grow big, they will disjoin the stone. And besides, it is doubtful whether the mortar itself putteth it forth, or whether some seeds be not let fall by birds. There be likewise rockherbs; but I suppose those are where there is some mold or earth. It hath likewise been found, that great trees growing upon quarries have put down their root into the stone.

571. In some mines in Germany, as is reported, there grow in the bottom vegetables ; and the workfolks use to say they have magical virtue, and will not suffer men to gather them.

572. The sea sands seldom bear plants. 'Whereof the cause is yielded by some of the ancients, for that the sun exhaleth the moisture before it can incorporate with the earth, and yield a nourishment for the plant. And it is affirmed also that sand hath always its root in clay; and that there be no veins of sand any great depth within the earth.

573. It is certain that some plants put forth for a time of their own store, without any nourishment from earth, water, stone, &c. of which vide the experiment 29.

Experiments in consort touching foreign plants.

574. It is reported that earth that was brought out of the Indies and other remote counties, for ballast of ships, cast upon some grounds in Italy, did put forth foreign herbs, to us in Europe not known; and, that which is more, that of their roots, barks, and seeds contused together, and mingled with other earth, and well watered with warm water, there came forth herbs much like the other.

575. Plants brought out of hot countries will endeavour to put forth at the same time that they usually do in their own climate; and therefore to preserve them, there is no more required, than to keep them from the injury of putting back by coM. It is reported also, that grain out of the hotter countries translated into the colder, will be more forward than the ordinary grain of the cold country. It is likely that this will prove better in grains than in trees, for that grains are but annual, and so the virtue of the seed is not worn out; whereas in a tree it is embased by the ground to which it is removed.

576. Many plants which grow in the hotter countries, being set in the colder, will nevertheless, even in those cold countries, being sown of seeds late in the spring, come up and abide most part of the summer; as we find it in orange and lemon seeds, &c. the seeds whereof sown in the end of April will bring forth excellent sallads, mingled with other herbs. And I doubt not, but the seeds of clove trees, and pepper seeds, &c, if they could come hither green enough to be sown, would do the like.

Experiments in consort touching the seasons in which plants come forth.

577. There be some flowers,blossoms, grains, and fruits, which come more early, and others which come more late in the year. The flowers that come early with us are primroses, violets, anemonies, water-daffodillies, crocus vermis, and some early tulips. And they are all cold plants; which therefore, as it should seem, have a quicker perception of the heat of the sun increasing than the hot herbs have; as a cold hand will sooner find a little warmth than a hot. And those that come next after, are wall-flowers, cowslips, hyacinths, rosemary flowers, &c. and after them pinks, roses, flower-de-luces, &c. and the latest are gilly-flowers, holyonls, larksfoot, &e. The earliest blossoms nre the blossoms of peaches, almonds, cornelians, mezerions, &c. and they are of such trees as have much moisture, either watery or oily. And therefore crocus vernus also, being an herb that hath an oily juice, putteth forth early; for those also find the sun sooner than the drier trees. The grains are, first rye and wheat; then oats and barley; then peas and beans. For though green peas and beans be eaten sooner, yet the dry ones that are used for horse-meat, are ripe last; and it seemeth that the fatter grain cometh first. The earliest fruits are strawberries, cherries, gooseberries, currants; and after them early apples, early pears, apricots, rasps; and after them, damascenes, and most kind of plums, peaches, &c. j and the latest, are apples, wardens, grapes, nuts, quinces, almonds, sloes, brier-berries, hips, medlars, services, cornelians, &c.

5/8. It is to be noted, that, commonly, trees that ripen latest, blossom soonest; as peaches, cornelians, sloes, almonds, &-c.; and it seemeth to be a work of providence that they blossom so soon; for otherwise ihey conld not have the sun long enough to ripen.

579. There be fruits, but rarely, that come twice a year; as some pears, strawberries, &c. And it seemeth they are such as abound with nourishment; whereby after one period, before the sun waxeth too weak, they can endure another. The violet also, amongst flowers, cometh twice a year, especially the double white; and that also is a plant full of moisture. Roses come twice, but it is not without cutting, as hath been formerly said.

580. In Muscovy, though the corn come not up till late spring, yet their harvest is as early as ours. The canse is, for that the strength of the ground is sept in with the snow; and we see with us, that if it be a long winter, it is commonly a more plentiful year: and after those kind of winters likewise, the lowers and com, which are earlier and later, do come commonly at once, and at the same time; which troubleth the husbandman many times; for you shall have red roses and damask roses come together; and likewise the harvest of wheat and barley. But this happeneth ever, for that the earlier stayeth for the later; and not that the later cometh sooner.

581. There be divers fruit trees in the hot countries, which have blossoms, and young fruit, and ripe fruit, almost all the year, succeeding one another. And it is said the orange hath the like with us, for a greatpart of summer; and so also hath the fig. And no doubt the natural motion of plants is to have so; but that either they want juice to spend; or they meet with the cold of the winter: and therefore this circle of ripening cannot be but in succulent plants, and hot countries.

582. Some herbs are but annual, and die, root

and all, once a year; as borage, lettuce, cucumbers, musk-melons, basil, tobacco, mustard-seed, and all kinds of corn: some continue many years; as hyssop, germander, lavender, fennel, &c. The cause of the dying is double; the first is, the tenderness and weakness of the seed, which maketh the period in a small time; as it is in borage, lettuce, cucumbers, com, &c. and therefore none of these are hot. The other cause is, for that some herbs can worse endure cold; as basil, tobacco, mustard-seed. And these have all much heat.

Experiments in consort touching the lasting of herbs and trees.

583. The lasting of plants is most in those that are largest of body: as oaks, elm, chestnut, the loattree, &c. and this holdeth in trees; but in herbs it is often contrary: for borage, colewort, pompions, which are herbs of the largest size, are of small durance; whereas hyssop, winter-savoury, germander, thyme, sage, will last long. The cause is, for that trees last according to the strength and quantity of their sap and juice; being well munited by their bark against the injuries of the air: but herbs draw a weak juice, and have a soft stalk; and therefore those amongst them which last longest, are herbs of strong smell, and with a sticky stalk.

584. Trees that bear mast, and nuts, are commonly more lasting than those that bear fruits; especially the moister fruits : as oaks, beeches, chestnuts, walnuts, almonds, pine trees, &c. last longer than apples, pears, plums, &c. The cause is the fatness and oiliness of the sap; which ever wasteth less than the more watery.

585. Trees that bring forth their leaves late in the year, and cast them likewise late, are more lasting than those that sprout their leaves early, or shed them betimes. The cause is, for that the late coming forth showeth a moisture more fixed; and the other more loose, and more easily resolved. And the same cause is, that wild trees kst longer than garden trees; and in the same kind, those whose fruit is acid, more than those whose fruit is sweet.

586. Nothing procureth the lasting of trees, bushes, and herbs, so much as often cutting; for every cutting causeth a renovation of the juice of the plant; that it neither goeth so far, nor riseth so faintly, as when the plant is not cut; insomuch as annual plants, if you cut them seasonably, and will spare the use of them, and suffer them to come up still young, will last more years than one, as hath been partly touched; such as is lettuce, purslane, cucumber, and the like. And for great trees, we see almost all overgrowing trees in churchyards, or near ancient buildings, and the like, are pollards, or dottards, and not trees at their full height.

587. Some experiment would be made, how by art to make plants more lasting than their ordinary period: as to make a stalk of wheat, &c. last a whole year. You must ever presuppose, that you handle it so as the winter killcth it not; for we speak only of prolonging the natural period. I conceive that the rule will hold, that whatsoever maketh the herb come later than at its time, will make it last longer time: it were good to try it in a stalk of wheat, &c. set in the shade, and encompassed with a case of wood, not touching the straw, to keep out open air.

As for the preservation of fruits and plants, as well upon the tree or stalk, as gathered, we shall handle it under the title of conservation of bodies.

Experiments in consort touching the several. Jigures of plants.

588. The particular figures of plants we leave to their descriptions; but some few things in general we will observe. Trees and herbs, in the growing forth of their boughs and branches, are not figured, and keep no order. The cause is, for that the sap being restrained in the rind and bark, breaketh not forth at all, as in the bodies of trees, and stalks of herbs, till they begin to branch; and then when they make an eruption, they break forth casually, where they find best way in the bark or rind. It is true, that some trees are more scattered in their boughs; as sallow-trees, warden-trees, quince-trees, medlar-trees, lemon-trees, &c.; some are more in the form of a pyramis, and come almost to todd; as the pear-tree, which the critics will have to borrow his name of -nip, fire, orange-trees, fir-trees, service-trees, lime-trees, &c.; and some are more spread and broad; as beeches, hornbeam, &c.; the rest are more indifferent The cause of scattering the boughs, is the hasty breaking forth of the sap; and therefore those trees rise not in a body of any height, but branch near the ground. The cause of the pyramis is the keeping in of the sap long before it branch; and the spending of it, when it beginneth to branch, by equal degrees. The spreading is caused by the carrying up of the sap plentifully without expense; and then putting it forth speedily and at once.

589. There be divers herbs, but no trees, that may be said to have some kind of order in the putting forth of their leaves: for they have joints or knuckles, as it were stops in their germination; as have gilly-flowers, pinks, fennel, corn, reeds, and canes. The cause whereof is, for that the sap ascendeth unequally, and doth, as it were, tire and stop by the way. And it seemeth they have some closeness and hardness in their stalk, which hindereth the sap from going up, until it hath gathered into a knot, and so is more urged to put forth. And therefore they are most of them hollow when the slalk is dry, as fennel-stalk, stubble, and canes.

590. Flowers have all exquisite figures; and the flower numbers are chiefly five, and fourj as in primroses, brier-roses, single musk-roses, single pinks, and gilly-flowers, &c. which have five leaves: lilies, flower-de-luces, borage, bugloss, &c. which have four leaves. But some put forth leaves not numbered; but they are ever small ones; as marygolds, trefoils, &c. We see also, that the sockets and supporters of flowers are figured; as in the five brethren of the rose, sockets of gilly-flowers, &c. Leaves also are all figured; some round; some long; none square; and many jagged on the sides; which leaves of flowers seldom are. For I account

the jagging of pinks and gilly-flowers, to be like the inequality of oak leaves, or vine leaves, or the like: but they seldom or never have any small purls.

Experiments in consort touching some principal differences in plants.

591. Of plants, some few put forth their blossoms before their leaves; as almonds, peaches, cornelians, black thorn, &c.; but most put forth some leaves before their blossoms; as apples, pears, plums, cherries, white thorn, &c. The cause is, for that those that put forth their blossoms first, have either an acute and sharp spirit, and therefore commonly they all put forth early in the spring, and ripen very late; as most of the particulars before mentioned, or else an oily juice, which is apter to put out flowers than leaves.

592. Of plants, some are green all winter; others cast their leaves. There are green all winter, holly, ivy, box, fir, yew, cypress, juniper, bays, rosemary, &c. The cause of the holding green, is the close and compact substance of their leaves, and the pedicles of them. And the cause of that again is either the tough and viscous juice of the plant, or the strength and heat thereof. Of the first sort is holly; which is of so viscous a juice, as they make birdlime of the bark of it. The stalk of ivy is tough, and not fragile, as we see in other small twigs dry. Fir yicldeth pitch. Box is a fast and heavy wood, as we see it in bowls. Yew is a strong and tough wood, as we see it in bows. Of the second sort is juniper, which is a wood odorate; and maketh a hot fire. Bays is likewise a hot and aromatical wood; and so is rosemary for a shrub. As for the leaves, their density appeareth, in that either they are smooth and shining, as in bays, holly, ivy, box, &c. or in that they are hard and spiry, as in the rest. And trial would be made of grafting of rosemary, and bays, and box, upon a holly-stock ; because they are plants that come all winter. It were good to try it also with grafts of other trees, either fruit trees, or wild trees; to see whether they will not yield their fruit, or bear their leaves later and longer in the winter; because the sap of the holly putteth forth most in the winter. It may be also a mezerion-tree, grafted upon a holly, will prove both an earlier and a greater tree.

593. There be some plants that bear no flower, and yet bear fruit: there be some that bear flowers and no fruit: there be some that bear neither flowers nor fruit. Most of the great timber trees, as oaks, beeches, &c. bear no apparent flowers; some few likewise of the fruit trees; as mulberry, walnut, &c. and some shrubs, as juniper, holly, &c. bear no flowers. Divers herbs also bear seeds, which is as the fruit, and yet bear no flowers; as purslane, &c. Those that bear flowers and no fruit are few, as the double cherry, the sallow, &c. But for the cherry, it is doubtful whether it be not by art or culture; for if it be by art, then trial would be made, whether apple, and other fruit blossoms, may not be doubled. There are some few that bear neither fruit nor flower; as the elm, the poplars, box, brakes, &c.

594. There be some plants that shoot still upwards, and can support themselves; as the greatest part of trees and plants: there be some other that creep along the ground; or wind about other trees or props, and cannot support themselves; as vines, ivy, brier, briony, woodbines, hops, climatis, camomile, &c. The cause is, as hath been partly touched, for that all plants naturally move upwards; but if the sap put up too fast, it maketh a slender stalk, which will not support the weight: and therefore these latter sort are all swift and hasty comers.

Experiments in consort touching all manner of composts, and helps of ground.

595. The first and most ordinary help is stercoration. The sheep's dung is one of the best; and next the dang of kine : and thirdly, that of horses, which is held to be somewhat too hot unless it be mingled. That of pigeons for a garden, or a small quantity of ground, excelleth. The ordering of dung is, if the ground be arable, to spread it immediately before the ploughing and sowing; and so to plough it in: for if you spread it long before, the sun will draw out much of the fatness of the dung: if the ground be grazing ground, to spread it somewhat late towards winter; that the sun may have the less power to dry it up. As for special composts for gardens, as a hot bed, &c. we have handled them before.

596. The second kind of compost is, the spreading of divers kinds of earths ; as marie, chalk, sea-sand, earth upon earth, pond earth: and the mixtures of them. Marie is thought to be the best, as having most fatness; and not heating the ground too much. The next is sea sand, which no doubt obtaineth a special virtue by the salt: for salt is the first rudiment of life. Chalk over-heateth the ground a little; and therefore is best upon cold clay grounds, or moist grounds: but I heard a great husband say that it was a common error, to think that chalk helpeth arable grounds, but helpeth not grazing grounds; whereas indeed it helpeth grass as well as corn: but that which breedeth the error is, because after the chalking of the ground they wear it out »ith many crops without rest; and then indeed afterwards it will bear little grass, because the ground i« tired out It were good to try the laying of chalk upon arable grounds a little while before ploughing; and to plough it in as they do the dung; but then it must be friable first by rain or lying. As for earth, it composteth itself; for I knew a great garden that had a field, in a manner, poured upon it; and it did benr fruit excellently the first year of the planting: for the surface of the earth is ever the fruitfullest And earth so prepared hath a double surface. But it is true, as I conceive, that such earth as hath salt-petre bred in it, if you can procure it without too much charge, doth excel. The *ay to hasten the breeding of salt-petre, is to forbid the sun, and the growth of vegetables. And therefore if you make a large hovel, thatched, over some quantity of ground; nay, if you do but plank the ground over, it will breed salt-petre. As for pond earth, or river earth, it is a very good compost; especially if the pond have been long uncleansed, and so the water be not too hungry: and I judge it wiH be yet better if there be some mixture of chalk.

597. The third help of ground is, by some other substances that have a virtue to make ground fertile, though they be not merely earth; wherein ashes excel; insomuch as the countries about ,3itna and Vesuvius have a kind of amends made them, for the mischief the eruptions many times do, by the exceeding fruitfulness of the soil, caused by the ashes scattered about. Soot also, though thin spread in a field or garden, is tried to be a very good compost. For salt, it is too costly; but it is tried, that mingled with seed-corn, and sown together, it doth good: and I am of opinion, that chalk in powder, mingled with seed-corn, would do good; perhaps as much as chalking the ground all over. As for the steeping of the seeds in several mixtures with water to give them vigour, or watering grounds with compostwater, we have spoken of them before.

598. The fourth help of ground is, the suffering of vegetables to die into the ground, and so to fatten it; as the stubble of corn, especially peas. Brakes cast upon the ground in the beginning of winter, will make it very fruitful. It were good also to try whether leaves of trees swept together, with some chalk and dung mixed, to give them more heart, would not make a good compost; for there is nothing lost so much as leaves of trees; and as they lie scattered, and without mixture, they rather make the ground sour than otherwise.

599. The fifth help of ground is, heat and warmth. It hath been anciently practised to burn heath, and ling, and sedge, with the vantage of the wind, upon the ground. We see that warmth of walls and enclosures mendeth ground: we see also, that lying open to the south mendeth ground: we see again, that the foldings of sheep help ground, as well by their warmth as by their compost: and it may be doubted, whether the covering of the ground with brakes in the beginning of the winter, whereof we spake in the last experiment, helpeth it not, byreason of the warmth. Nay, some very good husbands do suspect, that the gathering up of flints in flinty ground, and laying them on heaps, which is much used, is no good husbandry, for that they would keep the ground warm.

600. The sixth help of ground is by watering and irrigation; which is in two manners; the one by letting in and shutting out waters at seasonable times: for water at some seasons, and with reasonable stay, doth good; but at some other seasons, and with too long stay, doth hurt: and this serveth only for meadows which are along some river. The other way is, to bring water from some hanging grounds, where there are springs, into the lower grounds, carrying it in some long furrows; and from those furrows, drawing it traverse to spread the water. And this maketh an excellent improvement, both for corn and grass. It is the richer, if those hanging grounds be fruitful, because it washeth off some of the fatness of the earth; but howsoever it profiteth much. Generally where there are great overflows in fens, or the like, the drowning of them in the winter maketh the summer following more fruitful: the cause may be, for that it keepeth the ground warm, and nourisheth it. But the fen-men

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