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of the brain doth thicken the spirits visual, and obstructeth their passages; as we see by the decay in the sight in age ; where also the diminution of the spirits concurreth as another cause: we see also that blindness cometh by rheums and cataracts. Now in eunuchs there are all trie-notes of moisture; as the swelling of their thighs, the looseness of their belly, the smoothness of their skin, &c.

694. The pleasure in the act of Venus is the greatest of the pleasures of the senses: the matching of it with itch is improper, though that also be pleasing to the touch. But the causes are profound. First, all the organs of the senses qualify the motions of the spirits; and make so many several species of motions, and pleasures or displeasures thereupon, as there be diversities of organs. The instruments of sight, hearing, taste, and smell, are of several frame; and so are the parts for generation. Therefore Scaliger doth well to make the pleasure of generation a sixth sense; and if there were any other differing organs, and qualified perforations for the spirits to pass, there would be more than the five senses: neither do we well know, whether some beasts and birds have not senses that we know not, and the very scent of dogs is almost a sense by itself. Secondly, the pleasures of the touch are greater and deeper than those of the other senses: as we see in warming upon cold; or refrigeration upon heat: for as the pains of the touch are greater than the offences of other senses; so likewise are the pleasures. It is true, that the affecting of the spirits immediately, and, as it were, without an organ, is of the greatest pleasure; which is but in two things: sweet smells, and wine, and the like sweet vapours. For smells, we see their great and sudden effect in fetching men again when they swoon: for drink, it is certain that the pleasure of drunkenness is next the pleasure of Venus; and great joys, likewise, make the spirits move and touch themselves: and the pleasure of Venus is somewhat of the same kind.

695. It hath been always observed, thnt men are more inclined to Venus in the winter, and women in the summer. The cause is, for that the spirits, in a body more hot and dry, as the spirits of men are, by the summer are more exhaled and dissipated; and in the winter more condensed and kept entire; but in bodies that are cold and moist, as women's are, the summer doth cherish the spirits, andcalleth them forth; the winter doth dull them. Furthermore, the abstinence, or intermission of the use of Venus in moist and well habituate bodies, breedeth a number of diseases: and especially dangerous imposthumations. The reason is evident; for that it is a principal evacuation, especially of the spirits: for of the spirits there is scarce any evacuation but in Venus and exercise. And therefore the omission of either of them breedeth all diseases of repletion.

Experiments in consort touching the i?tsecta.

The nature of vivification is very worthy the inquiry: and as the nature of things is commonly better perceived in small than in great; and in imperfect than in perfect; and in parts than in whole: so the nature of vivification is best inquired in

creatures bred of putrefaction. The contemplation whereof hath many excellent fruits. First, in disclosing the original of vivification. Secondly, in disclosing the original of figuration. Thirdly, in disclosing many things in the nature of perfect creatures, which in them lie more hidden. And fourthly, in traducing, by way of operation, some observations on the insecta, to work effects upon perfect creatures. Note, that the word insecta agreeth not with the matter, but we ever use it for brevity's sake, intending by it creatures bred of putrefaction.

696. The insecta are found to breed out of several matters: some breed of mud or dung; as the earthworms, eels, snakes, &c. For they are both putrefactions: for water in mud doth putrify, as not able to preserve itself: and for dung, all excrements are the refuse and putrefactions of nourishment. Some breed in wood, both growing and cut down. Query, in what woods most, and at what seasons? We see that the worms with many feet, which round themselves into balls, are bred chiefly under logs of timber, but not in the timber; and they are said to be found also many times in gardens, where no logs are. But it seemeth their generation requireth a coverture, both from sun and rain or dew, as the timber is; and therefore they are not venomous, but contrariwise are held by the physicians to clarify the blood. It is observed also, that cimices are found in the holes of bedsides. Some breed in the hair of living creatures, as lice and tikes; which are bred by the sweat close kept, and somewhat arefied by the hair. The excrements of living creatures do not only breed insecta when they are excemed, but also while they are in the body: as in worms, whereto children are most subject, and are chiefly in the guts. And it hath been lately observed by physicians, that in many pestilent diseases, there are worms found in the upper parts of the body, where excrements are not, but only humours putrified. Fleas breed principally of straw or mats, where there hath been a little moisture; or the chamber and bed-straw kept close and not aired. It is received, that they are killed by strewing wormwood in the rooms. And it is truly observed, that bitter things are apt rather to kill, than engender putrefaction; and they be things that are fat or sweet that are aptest to putrify. There is a worm that breedeth in meal, of the shape of a large white maggot, which is given as a great dainty to nightingales. The moth breedeth upon cloth and other lanifices; especially if they be laid up dankish and wet. It delighteth to be about the flame of a candle. There is a worm called a wevil, bred under ground, and that feedeth upon roots; as parsnips, carrots, &c. Some breed in waters, especially shaded, but they must be standing waters; as the waterspider that hath six legs. The fly called the gadfly, breedeth of somewhat that swimmeth upon the top of the water, and is most about ponds. There is a worm that breedeth of the dregs of wine decayed; which afterwards, as is observed by some of the ancients, turneth into a gnat. It hath been observed by the ancients, that there is a worm that breedeth in old snow, and is of colour reddish, and dull of motion, and dieth soon after it cometh out of snow. Which should show, that snow hath in it a secret warmth; for else it could hardly vivify. And the reason of the dying of the worm, may be the sudden exhaling of that little spirit, as soon as it cometh out of the cold, which had shut it in. For as butterflies quicken with heat, which were benumbed with cold j so spirits may exhale with heat, which were preserved in cold. It is affirmed both by the ancient and modern observation, that in furnaces of copper and brass, where chalcites, which is vitriol, is often cast in to mend the working, there riseth suddenly a fly, which sometimes moveth as if it took hold of the walls of the furnace; sometimes is seen moving in the fire below; and dieth presently as soon as it is out of the furnace: which is a noble instance and worthy to be weighed; for it showeth, that as well violent heat of fire, as the gentle heat of living creatures, will vivify if it have matter proportionable. Now the great axiom of vivification is, that there must be heat to dilate the spirit of the body; an active spirit to be dilated j matter viscous or tenacious to hold in the spirit; and that matter to be put forth and figured. Now a spirit dilated by so ardent a fire as that of the fumace, as soon as everit cooleth never so little, congealeth presently. And, no doubt, this action is farthered by the chalcites, which hath a spirit that will put forth and germinate, as we see in chemical trials. Briefly, most things putrified bring forth insecta of several njmes; but we will not take upon us now to enumerate them all.

697. The insecta have been noted by the ancients to feed little: but this hath not been diligently observed; for grasshoppers eat up the green of whole countries; and silk-worms devour leaves swiftly; and ants make gTeat provision. It is true, that creatures that sleep and rest much, eat little; as dormice and bats, &c. They are all without blood: »hich may be, for that the juice of their bodies is almost all one; not blood, and flesh, and skin, and tone, as in perfect creatures; the integral parts have extreme variety, but the similar parts little. It is true, that they have, some of them, a diaphragm nd an intestine; and they have all skins; which in most of the insecta are cast often. They are not, generally, of long life; yet bees have been known to live seven years: and snakes are thought, the rather for the casting of their spoil, to live till 'hey be old: and eels, which many times breed of putrefaction, will live and grow very long: and 'hose that interchange from worms to flies in the summer, and from flies to worms in the winter, have been kt-pt in boxes four years at the least. Vet there are certain flies that are called ephemera that live but a day. The cause is the exility of the spirit, or perhaps the absence of the sun; for that if they were brought in, or kept close, they might live longer. Many of the insecta, as butterflies and other flies, revive easily when they seem dead, be"15 brought to the sun or fire. The cause whereof is the diffusion of the vital spirit, and the easy dilating of it by a little heat. They stir a good while after their heads are off", or that they be cut in

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pieces; which is caused also, for that their vital spi.-its are more diffused throughout all their parts, and less confined to organs than in perfect creatures.

698. The insecta have voluntary motion, and therefore imagination; and whereas some of the ancients have said, that their motion is indeterminate, and their imagination indefinite, it is negligently observed; for ants go right forwards to their hills; and bees do admirably know the way from a flowery heath two or three miles off to their hives. It may be, gnats and flies have their imagination more mutable and giddy, as small birds likewise have. It is said by some of the ancients, that they have only the sense of feeling, which is manifestly untrue; for if they go forth-right to a place, they must needs have sight; besides, they delight more in one flower or herb than in another, and therefore have taste: and bees are called with sound upon brass, and therefore they have hearing; which showeth likewise, that though their spirit be diffused, yet there is a seat of their senses in their head.

Other observations concerning the insecta, together with the enumeration of them, we refer to that place, where we mean to handle the title of animals in general.

Experiment solitary touching leaping.

699. A man leapeth better with weights in his hands than without. The cause is, for that the weight, if it be proportionable, strengtheneth the sinews by contracting them. For otherwise, where no contraction is needful, weight hindereth. As we see in horse-races, men are curious to foresee, that there be not the least weight upon the one horse more than upon the other. In leaping with weights the arms are first cast backwards, and then forwards, with so much the greater force; for the hands go backward before they take their rise. Query, if the contrary motion of the spirits immediately before the motion we intend, doth not cause the spirits as it were to break forth with more force ; as breath also, drawn and kept in, cometh forth more forcibly; and in casting of any thing, the arms, to make a greater swing, are first cast backward.

Experiment solitary touching the pleasures and displeasures of the se?ises, especially of hearing.

700. Of musical tones and unequal sounds we have spoken before; but touching the pleasure and displeasure of the senses, not so fully. Harsh sounds, as of a saw when it is sharpened; grinding of one stone against another; squeaking or shrieking noise; make a shivering or horror in the body, and set the teeth on edge. The cause is, for that the objects of the ear do affect the spirits, immediately, most with pleasure and offence. We see there is no colour that affecteth the eye much with displeasure; there be sights that are horrible, because they excite the memory of things that are odious or fearful; but the same things painted do little affect. As for smells, tastes, and touches, they be things that do affect by a participation or impulsion of the body of the object. So it is sound alone that doth immediately and incorporeally affect most; this is most manifest in music; and concords and discords in music; for all sounds, whether they be sharp or flat, if they be sweet, have a roundness and equality; and if they be harsh, are unequal; for a discord itself is but a harshness of divers sounds meeting. It is true that inequality not stayed upon, but passing, is rather an increase of sweetness; as in the purling of a wreathed string; and in the raucity of a trumpet; and in the nightingale-pipe of a regal; and in a discord straight falling upon

a concord; but if you stay upon it it is offensive: and therefore there be these three degrees of pleasing and displeasing in sounds, sweet sounds, discords, and harsh sounds, which we call by divers names, as shrieking or grating, such as we now speak of. As for the setting of the teeth on edge, we see plainly what an intercourse there is between the teeth and the organ of the hearing, by the taking of the end of a bow between the teeth and striking upon the string.

CENTURY VIII.

Experiment solitary touching veins of medicinal earth.

701. There be minerals and fossils in great variety; but of veins of earth medicinal, but few; the chief are, terra lemnia, terra sigillata communis, and bolus armenus; whereof terra lemnia is the chief. The virtues of them are, for curing of wounds, stanching of blood, stopping of fluxes, and rheums, and arresting the spreading of poison, infection, and putrefaction: and they have of all other simples the perfectest and purest quality of drying, with little or no mixture of any other quality. Yet it is true, that the bole-armoniac is the most cold of them, and that terra lemnia is the most hot; for which cause the island Lemnos, where it is digged, was in the old fabulous ages consecrated to Vulcan.

Experiment solitary touching the groicth of sponges.

702. About the bottom of the Straits are gathered great quantities of sponges, which are gathered from the sides of rocks, being as it were a large but tough moss. It is the more to be noted, because that there be but few substances, plant-like, that grow deep within the sea; for they are gathered sometimes fifteen fathom deep: and when they are laid on shore, they seem to be of great bulk: but crushed together, will be transported in a very small room.

Experiment solitary touching sea-fish put in fresh waters.

703. It seemeth, that fish that are used to the salt water, do nevertheless delight more in fresh. We see, that salmons and smelts love to get into rivers, though it be against the stream. At the haven of Constantinople you shall have great quantities of fish that come from the Euxine sea, that when they come into the fresh water, do inebriate, and turn up their bellies, so as you may take them with your hand. I doubt there hath not been sufficient experiment made of putting sea fish into fresh water ponds, and pools. It is a thing of great use and pleasure; for so you may have them new at some good distance from the sea: and besides, it may be, the fish will eat the pleasanter, and may fall to breed. And it is said, that Colchester oysters,

which are put into pits, where the sea goeth and cometh, but yet so that there is fresh water coming also to them when the sea voideth, become by that means fatter, and more grown.

Experiment solitary touching attraction by similitude of substance.

704. The Turkish bow giveth a very forcible shoot; insomuch as it hath been known, that the arrow hath pierced a steel target, or a piece of brass of two inches thick: but that which is more strange, the arrow, if it be headed with wood, hath been known to pierce through a piece of wood of eight inches thick. And it is certain, that we had in use at one time, for sea fight, short arrows, which they called sprights, without any other heads, save wood sharpened; which were discharged out of muskets, and would pierce through the sides of ships where a bullet would not pierce. But this dependeth upon one of the greatest secrets in all nature; which is, that similitude of substance will cause attraction, where the body is wholly freed from the motion of gravity: for if that were taken away, lead would draw lead, and gold would draw gold, and iron would draw iron, without the help of the loadstone. But this same motion of weight or gravity, which is a mere motion of the matter, and hath no affinity with the form or kind, doth kill the other motion, except itself be killed by a violent motion, as in these instances of arrows; for then the motion of attraction by similitude of substance beginneth to show itself. But we shall handle this point of nature fully in due place.

Experiment solitary touching certain drinks in Turkey.

705. They have in Turkey and the east certain confections, which they call servets, which are like to candied conserves, and are made of sugar and lemons, or sugar and citrons, or sugar and violets, and some other flowers; and some mixture of amber for the more delicate persons: and those they dissolve in water, and thereof make their drink, because they are forbidden wine by their law. But I do much marvel, that no Englishman, or Dutchman, or (ierman, doth set up brewing in Constantinople: considering they have such quantity of barley. For as for the general sort of men, frugality may be the cause of drinking water; for that it is no small saving to pay nothing for one's drink; but the better sort might well be at the cost. And yet I wonder the less at it, because I see France, Italy, or Spain, have not taken into use beer or ale; which, perhaps, if they did, would better both their healths and their complexions. It is likely it would be matter of great gain to any that should begin it in Turkey.

Experiments in consort touching sweat.

706. In bathing in hot water, sweat, nevertheless, cometh not in the parts under the water. The cause is; first, for that sweat is a kind of colliqualion, and that kind of colliquation is not made either by an over-dry heat, or an over-moist heat: for overmoisture doth somewhat extinguish the heat, as we see that even hot water quencheth fire; and overdry heat shutteth the pores: and therefore men will M>oner sweat covered l>efore the sun or fire, than if they stood naked: and earthen bottles, filled with hot water, do provoke in bed a sweat more daintily than brick-bats hot. Secondly, hot water doth cause evaporation from the skin; so as it spendeth the matter in those parts under the water, before it issneth in sweat. Again, sweat cometh more plentifully, if the heat be increased by degrees, than if it be greatest at first, or equal. The cause is, for that the pores are better opened by a gentle heat, than by a more violent: and by their opening, the sweat issueth more abundantly. And therefore physicians may do well when they provoke sweat in bed by bottles, with a decoction of sudorific herbs in hot water, to make two degrees of heat in the bottles; and to lay in the bed the less heated first, and after half an hour, the more heated.

707. Sweat is salt in taste; the cause is, for that that part of the nourishment which is fresh and sweet, tnrneth into blood and flesh; and the sweat is only that part which is separate and excerned. Blood also raw hath some saltness more than flesh: because the assimilation into flesh is not without a little and subtile excretion from the blood.

708. Sweat cometh forth more out of the upper farts of the body than the lower; the reason is, because those parts are more replenished with spirits; and the spirits are they that put forth sweat: besides, they are less fleshy, and sweat issueth, chiefly, out of the parts that are less fleshy, and more dry; as the forehead and breast.

709. Men sweat more in sleep than waking; and yet deep doth rather stay other fluxions, than cause them; as rheums, looseness of the body, &c. The cause is, for that in sleep the heat and spirits do naturally move inwards, and there rest. But when they are collected once within, the heat becometh more violent and irritate; and thereby expellcth sweat

710. Cold sweats are, many times, mortal, and near death; and always ill, and suspected; as in great fears, hypochondriacal passions, &c. The cause is, for that cold sweats come by a relaxation or forsaking of the spirits, whereby the moisture of

the body, which heat did keep firm in the parts, severeth and issueth out.

711. In those diseases which cannot be discharged by sweat, sweat is ill, and rather to be stayed; as in diseases of the lungs, and fluxes of the belly: but in those diseases which are expelled by sweat, it easeth and lighteneth; as in agues, pestilences, &c. The cause is, for that sweat in the latter sort is partly critical, and sendeth forth the matter that offendeth; but in the former, it either proceedeth from the labour of the spirits, which showeth them oppressed; or from motion of consent, when nature, not able to expel the disease where it is seated, moveth to an expulsion indifferent over all the body.

Experiment solitary touching the glow-worm.

712. The nature of the glow-worm is hitherto not well observed. Thus much we see; that they breed chiefly in the hottest months of summer; and that they breed not in champain, but in bushes and hedges. Whereby it may be conceived, that the spirit of them is very fine, and not to be refined but by summer heats: and again, that by reason of the fineness, it doth easily exhale. In Italy, and the hotter countries, there is a fly they call Lucciole, that shineth as the glow-worm doth; and it may be is the flying glow-worm. But that fly is chiefly upon fens and marshes. But yet the two former observations hold; for they are not seen but in the heat of summer; and sedge, or other green of the fens, give as good shade as bushes. It may be the glow-worms of the cold countries ripen not so far as to be winged.

Experiments in consort touching the impressions, which the passions of the mind make upon the body.

713. The passions of the mind work upon the body the impressions following. Pear causeth paleness, trembling, the standing of the hair upright, starting, and shrieking. The paleness is caused, for that the blood runneth inward to succour the heart. The trembling is caused, for that through the flight of the spirits inward, the outward parts are destituted, and not sustained. Standing upright of the hair is caused, for that by shutting of the pores of the skin, the hair that lieth aslope must needs rise. Starting is both an apprehension of the thing feared, and in that kind it is a motion of shrinking, and likewise an inquisition in the beginning, what the matter should be; and in that kind it is a motion of erection: and therefore when a man would listen suddenly to any thing, he starteth; for the starting is an erection of the spirits to attend. Shrieking is an appetite of expelling that which suddenly striketh the spirits: for it must be noted, that many motions, though they be unprofitable to expel that which hurteth, yet they are offers of nature, and cause motions by consent; as in groaning or crying upon pain.

714. Grief and pain cause sighing, sobbing, groaning, screaming, and roaring; tears, distorting of the face, grinding of the teeth, sweating. Sighing is caused by the drawing in of a greater quantity of breath to refresh the heart that laboureth; like a great draught when one is thirsty. Sobbing is the same thing stronger. Groaning, and screaming, and roaring, are caused by an appetite of expulsion, as hath been said: for when the spirits cannot expel the thing that hurteth, in their strife to do it, by motion of consent, they expel the voice. And this is when the spirits yield, and give over to resist: for if one do constantly resist pain, he will not groan. Tears are caused by contraction of the spirits of the brain j which contraction by consequence astringelh the moisture of the brain, and thereby sendcth tears into the eyes. And this contraction or compression causeth also wringing of the hands; for wringing is a gesture of expression of moisture. The distorting of the face is caused by a contention, first to bear and resist, and then to expel; which maketh the parts knit first, and afterwards open. Grinding of the teeth is caused, likewise, by a gathering and serring of the spirits together to resist, which maketh the teeth also to set hard one against another. Sweating is also a compound motion, by the labour of the spirits, first to resist, and then to expel.

715. Joy causeth a cheerfulness and vigour in the eyes, singing, leaping, dancing, and sometimes tears. All these are the effects of the dilatation and coming forth of the spirits into the outward parts; which maketh them more lively and stirring. We know it hath been seen, that excessive sudden joy hath caused present death, while the spirits did spread so much as they could not retire again. As for tears, they are the effects of compression of the moisture of the brain, upon dilatation of the spirits. For compression of the spirits worketh an expression of the moisture of the brain by consent, as hath been said in grief. But then in joy, it worketh it diversely; viz. by propulsion of the moisture, when the spirits dilate, and occupy more room.

716. Anger causeth paleness in some, and the going and coming of the colour in others: also trembling in some : swelling, foaming at the mouth, stamping, bending of the fist. Paleness, and going and coming of the colour, are caused by the burning of the spirits about the heart; which to refresh themselves, call in more spirits from the outward parts. And if the paleness be alone, without sending forth the colour again, it is commonly joined with some fear; but in many there is no paleness at all, but contrariwise redness about the cheeks and gills; which is by the sending forth of the spirits in an appetite to revenge. Trembling in anger is likewise by a calling in of the spirits; and is commonly when anger is joined with fear. Swelling is caused, both by a dilatation of the spirits by overheating, and by a liquefaction or boiling of the humours thereupon. Foaming at the mouth is from the same cause, being an ebullition. Stamping, and bending of the fist, are caused by an imagination of the act of revenge.

717. Light displeasure or dislike causeth shaking of the head, frowning and knitting of the brows. These effects arise from the same causes that trembling and horror do j namely, from the retiring of

the spirits, but in a less degree. For the shaking1 of the head is but a slow and definite trembling; and is a gesture of slight refusal; and we see also, that a dislike causeth, often, that gesture of the hand, which,we use when we refuse a thing, or warn it away. The frowning and knitting of the brows is a gathering, or serring of the spirits, to resist in some measure. And we see also this knitting of the brows will follow upon earnest studying, or cogitation of any thing, though it be without dislike.

718. Shame causeth blushing, and casting down of the eyes. Blushing is the resort of blood to the face; which in the passion of shame is the part that laboureth most. And although the blushing will be seen in the whole breast if it be naked, yet that is but in passage to the face. As for the casting down of the eyes, it proceedeth of the reverence a man beareth to other men; whereby, when he is ashamed, he cannot endure to look firmly upon others: and we see, that blushing, and the casting down of the eyes both, are more when we come before many; "ore Pompeii quid mollius? nunquam non coram pluribus erubuit;" and likewise when we come before great or reverend persons.

719. Pity causeth sometimes tears; and a flexion or cast of the eye aside. Tears come from the same cause that they do in grief: for pity is but grief in another's behalf. The cast of the eye is? gesture of aversion, or lothness to behold the object of pity.

720. Wonder causeth astonishment, or an immovable posture of the body; casting up of the eyes to heaven, and lifting up of the hands. For astonishment, it is caused by the fixing of the mind upon one object of cogitation, whereby it doth not spatiate and transcur, as it useth; for in wonder the spirits fly not, as in fear; but only settle, and are made less apt to move. As for the casting up of the eyes, and lifting up of the hands, it is a kind of appeal to the Deity, which is the author, by power and providence, of strange wonders.

721. Laughing causeth a dilatation of the month and lips; a continued expulsion of the breath, with the loud noise, which maketh the interjection of laughing; shaking of the breasts and sides; running of the eyes with w*ater, if it be violent and continued. Wherein first it is to be understood, that laughing is scarce, properly, a passion, but hath its source from the intellect; for in laughing there ever precedeth a conceit of somewhat ridicnlous. And therefore it is proper to man. Secondly, that the cause of laughing is but a light touch of the spirits, and not so deep an impression as in oiher passions. And therefore, that which hath no affinity with the passions of the mind, it is moved, and that in great vehemency, only by tickling some parts of the body: and we see that men even in a grieved state of mind, yet cannot sometimes forbear laughing. Thirdly, it is ever joined with some degree of delight: and therefore exhilaration hath some affinity with joy, though it be a much lighter morion: "res severa est verum gaudium." Fourthly, that the object of it is deformity, absurdity, shrewd turns, and the like. Now to speak of the causes of the

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