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more, fewer: or by the partitions and cells of the womb, which may sever the sperm.
Experiments in consort touching species visible.
761. There is no doubt, but light by refraction will show greater, as well as things coloured. For like as a shilling in the bottom of the water will show greater; so will a candle in a lanthorn, in the bottom of the water. I have heard of a practice, that glowworms in glasses were put in the water to make the fish come. But I am not yet informed, whether when a diver diveth, having his eyes open, and swimmeth upon his back; whether, I say, he seeth things in the air, greater or less. For it is manifest, that when the eye standeth in the finer medium, and the object is in the grosser, things show greater: but contrariwise, when the eye is placed in the grosser medium, and the object in the finer, how it worketh I know not.
762. It would be well bolted out, whether great refractions may not be made upon reflexions, as well as upon direct beams. For example, we see, that take an empty bason, put an angel of gold, or what you will, into it; then go so far from the bason, till you cannot see the angel, because it is not in a ris;ht line; then fill the bason with water, and you shall see it out of its place, because of the reflexion. To proceed therefore, put a looking-glass into a bason of water; I suppose you shall not see the image in a right line, or at equal angles, but aside. I know not whether this experiment may not be extended so, as you might see the image, and not the glass; which for beauty and strangeness were a fine proof: for then you should see the image like a spirit in the air. As for example, if there be a cistern or pool of water, you shall place over against it a picture of the devil, or what you will, so as you do not see the water. Then put a looking-glass in the water: now if you can see the devil's picture aside, not seeing the water, it would look like a devil indeed. They have an old tale in Oxford, that Friar Bacon walked between two steeples; which was thought to be done by glasses, when he walked upon the ground.
Experiments in consort touching impulsion and percussioti.
763. A weighty body put into motion is more easily impelled than at first when it rcsteth. The cause is, partly because motion doth discuss the torpor of solid bodies; which beside their motion of gravity, have in them a natural appetite not to move at all; and partly, because a body that resteth, doth get, by the resistance of the body upon which it resteth, a stronger compression of parts than it hath of itself: and therefore needeth more force to be put in motion. For if a weighty body be pensile, and hang but by a thread, the percussion will make an impulsion very near as easily as if it were already in motion.
764. A body over-great or over-small, will not be thrown so far as a body of a middle size: so that, it scemeth, there must be a commensnration, or proportion between the body moved and the force, to make it move well. The cause is, because to the
impulsion there is requisite the force of the body that moveth, and the resistance of the body that is moved: and if the body be too great, it yicldeth too little; and if it be too small, it resisteth too little.
765. It is common experience, that no weight will press or cut so strong, being laid upon a body, as falling or strucken from above. It may be the air hath some part in farthering the percussion; but the chief cause I take to be, for that the parts of the body moved have by impulsion, or by the motion of gravity continued, a compression in them, as well downwards, as they have when they are thrown, or shot through the air, forwards. I conceive also, that the quick loss of that motion preventeth the resistance of the body below; and priority of the force always is of great efficacy, at appeareth in infinite instances.
Exjteriment solitary touching titillation.
766. Tickling is most in the soles of the feet, and under the arm-holes, and on the sides. The cause is the thinness of the skin in those parts, joined with the rareness of being touched there: for all tickling is a light motion of the spirits, which the thinness of the skin, and suddenness and rareness of touch do farther: for we see a feather, or a rush, drawn along the lip or cheek, doth tickle; whereas a thing more obtuse, or a touch more hard, doth not. And for suddenness, we see no man can tickle himself: we see also that the palm of the hand, though it hath as thin a skin as the other parts mentioned, yet is not ticklish, because it is accustomed to be touched. Tickling also causeth laughter. The cause may be the emission of the spirits, and so of the breath, by a flight from titillation; for upon tickling we see there is ever a starting or shrinking away of the part to avoid it; and we see also, that if you tickle the nostrils with a feather, or straw, it procureth sneezing; which is a sudden emission of the spirits, that do likewise expel the moisture. And tickling is ever painful, and not well endured.
Experiment solitary touching the scarcity of rain in Mgypt.
767. It is strange, that the river of Nilus overflowing, as it doth, the country of ^gypt, there should be, nevertheless, little or no rain in that country. The cause must be either in the nature of the water, or in the nature of the air, or of boih. In the water, it may be ascribed either unto the long race of the water; for swift-running waters vapour not so much as standing waters; or else to the concoction of the water; for waters well concocted vapour not so much as waters raw; no more than waters upon the fire do vapour so much after some time of boiling as at the first. And it is true that the water of Nilus is sweeter than other waters in taste; and it is excellent good for the stone, and hypochondriacal melancholy, which showeth it is lenifyingj and it runneth through a country of a hot climate, and flat, without shade, either of woods or hills, whereby the sun must needs have great power to concoct it. As for the air, from whence I conceive this want of showers cometh chiefly, the cause must be, for that the air is of itself thin and thirsty; and as soon as ever it getteth any moisture from the water, it imbibeth and dissipatcth it in the whole body of the air, and suffereth it not to remain in vapour, whereby it might breed rain.
Experiment solitary touching clarification.
768. It hath been touched in the title of percolations, namely, such as are inwards, that the whites of eggs and milk do clarify; and it is certain, that in iEgypt they prepare and clarify the water of Nile, by putting it into great jars of stone, and stirring it about with a few stamped almonds, wherewith they also besmear the mouth of the vessel; and so draw it off, after it hath rested some time. It were good to try this clarifying with almonds in new beer, or muste, to hasten and perfect the clarifying.
Experiment solitary touching plants without leaves.
7B9. There be scarce to be found any vegetables, that have branches and no leaves, except you allow coral for one. But there is also in the deserts of S. Macaria in iEgypt, a plant which is long, leafless, hrown of colour, and branched like coral, save that it closeth at the top. This being set in water within a house, spreadeth and displayeth strangely; and the people thereabout have a superstitious belief, that in the labour of women it helpeth to the easy deliverance.
Eiperiment solitary touching the materials of glass.
770. The crystalline Venice glass is reported to he a mixture in equal portions of stones brought from Pavia by the river Ticinum, and the ashes of
weed called by the Arabs kal, which is gathered in a desert between Alexandria and Rosetta; and is liy the ./Egyptians used first for fuel; and then they crash the ashes into lumps like a stone, and so sell them to the Venetians for their glass-works.
Experiment solitary touching prohibition of putrefaction, and the long conservation of bodies.
771. It is strange, and well to be noted, how long carcasses have continued uncorrupt, and in their former dimensions, as appeareth in the mummies of -Egypt; having lasted, as is conceived, some of them, three thousand years. It is true, they find means to draw forth the brains, and to take forth the entrails, which are the parts aptest to corrupt. But that is nothing to the wonder: for we see what a soft and corruptible substance the flesh of all the other parts of the body is. But it should seem, that, according to our observation and axiom in our hundredth experiment, putrefaction, which we conceive to be so natural a period of bodies, is but an accident; and that matter maketh not that haste to corruption that is conceived. And therefore bodies 'n shining amber, in quicksilver, in balms, whereof »e now speak, in wax, in honey, in gums, and, it taay be, in conservatories of snow, &c. are preserved very long. It need not go for repetition, if we resume again that which we said in the aforesaid ex
periment concerning annihilation; namely, that if you provide against three causes of putrefaction, bodies will not corrupt: the first is, that the air be excluded, for that undermineth the body, and conspireth with the spirit of the body to dissolve it. The second is, that the body adjacent and ambient be not commaterial, but merely heterogeneal towards the body that is to be preserved; for if nothing can be received by the one, nothing can issue from the other; such are quicksilver and white amber, to herbs, and flies, and such bodies. The third is, that the body to be preserved be not of that gross that it may corrupt within itself, although no part of it issue into the body adjacent: and therefore it must be rather thin and small, than of bulk. There is a fourth remedy also, which is, that if the body to be preserved be of bulk, as a corpse is, then the body that encloseth it must have a virtue to draw forth, and dry the moisture of the inward body; for else the putrefaction will play within, though nothing issue forth. I remember Livy doth relnte, that there were found at a time two coffins of lead in a tomb; whereof the one contained the body of king Numa, it being some four hundred years after his death: and the other, his books of sacred rites and ceremonies, and the discipline of the pontiffs; and that in the coffin that had the body, there was nothing at all to be seen, but a little light cinders about the sides; but in the coffin that had the books, they were found as fresh as if they had been but newly written, being written on parchment, and covered over with watch-candles of wax three or four fold. By this it seemeth that the Romans in Numa's time were not so good embalmers as the Egyptians were; which was the cause that the body was utterly consumed. But I find in Plutarch, and others, that when Augustus Ca?sar visited the sepulchre of Alexander the Great in Alexandria, he found the body to keep its dimension; but withal, that notwithstanding all the embalming, which no doubt was of the best, the body was so tender, as Cresar, touching but the nose of it, defaced it. Which maketh me find it very strange, that the Egyptian mummies should be reported to be as hard as stonepitch; for I find no difference but one, which indeed may be very material; namely, that the ancient ^Egyptian mummies were shrowded in a number of folds of linen, besmeared with gums, in manner of sear-cloth, which it doth not appear was practised upon the body of Alexander.
Experiment solitary touching the abundance of nitre in certain sea-shores.
77% Near the castle of Caty, and by the wells of Assan, in the land of Idumea, a great part of the way you would think the sea were near at hand, though it be a good distance off: and it is nothing but the shining of the nitre upon the sea sands, such abundance of nitre the shores there do put forth.
Experiment solitary touching bodies that are borne up by water.
773. The Dead sea, which vomiteth up bitumen, is of that crassitude, as living bodies bound hand and foot cast into it have been borne up, and not sunk; which showeth, that all sinking into water is but an over-weight of the body put into the water in respect of the water; so that you may make water so strong and heavy, of quicksilver, perhaps, or the like, as may bear up iron; of which I see no use, but imposture. We see also, that all metals, except gold, for the same reason, swim upon quicksilver.
Experiment solitary touching fuel that consumeth little or nothing.
77*. It is reported, that nt the foot of the hill near the Mare mortuum there is a black stone, whereof pilgrims make fires, which burnetii like a coal, and diminisheth not, but only waxeth brighter and whiter. That it should do so is not strange: for we see iron red-hot burnetii, and consumeth not; but the strangeness is, that it should continue any time so: for iron, as soon as it is out of the fire, deadelh straightways. Certainly it were a thing of grent use and profit, if you could find out fuel that would burn hot, and yet last long: neither am I altogether incredulous, but there may be such candles as they say are made of salamander's wool; being a kind of mineral, which whiteneth also in the burning, and consumeth not. The question is this; flame must be made of somewhat, and commonly it is made of some tangible body which hath weight: but it is not impossible perhaps that it should be made of spirit, or vapour, in a body, which spirit or vapour hath no weight, such as is the matter of ignis fatuus. But then you will say, that that vapour also can last but a short time: to that it may be answered, that by the help of oil, and wax, and other candle-stuff, the flame may continue, and the wick not burn.
Experiment solitary (Economical touching cheap fuel'.
775. Sea-coal lasts longer than charcoal; and charcoal of roots, being coaled into great pieces, lasts longer than ordinary charcoal. Turf and peat, and cow-sheards, are cheap fuels, and last long. Small coal, or brier-coal, poured upon charcoal, make them last longer. Sedge is a cheap fuel to brew or bake with: the rather because it is good for nothing else. Trial would be made of some mixture of sea-coal with earth or chalk; for if that mixture be, as the sea-coal men use it, privily, to make the bulk of the coal greater, it is deceit; but if it be used purposely, and be made known, it is saving.
Experiment solitary touching the gathering of wind for freshness.
77Q>. It is at this day in use in Gaza, to couch potsherds or vessels of earth in their walls, to gather the wind from the top, and to pass it down in spouts into rooms. It is a device for freshness in great heats: and it is said, there are some rooms in Italy and Spain for freshness, and gathering the winds and air in the heats of summer; but they be but pennings of the winds, and enlarging them again, and making them reverberate, and go round in circles, rather than this device of .spouts in the wall.
Experiment solitary touching the trials of airs.
777. There would be used much diligence in the choice of some bodies and places, as it were, for the tasting of air; to discover the wholesomeness or unwholesomeness, as well of seasons, as of the seats of dwellings. It is certain, that there be some houses wherein confitures and pies will gather mould more than in others. And I am persuaded, that a piece of raw flesh or fish will sooner corrupt in some airs than in others. They be noble experiments that can make this discovery; for they serve for a natural divination of seasons, better than the astronomers can by their figures: and again, they teach men where to choose their dwelling for their better health.
Experiment solitary touching increasing of milk in milch beasts.
778. There is a kind of stone about Bethlehem, which they grind to powder, and put into water, whereof cattle drink, which maketh them give more milk. Surely there should be some better trials made of mixtures of water in ponds for cattle, to make them more milch, or to fatten them, or to keep tliem from murrain. It may be chalk and nitre are of the best.
Experiment solitary touching sand of the nature of glass.
779. It is reported, that in the valley near the mountain Carmel in Judea there is a sand, which of all other hath most affinity with glass: insomuch as other minerals laid in it turn to a glassy substance without the fire; and again, glass put into it turneth into the mother sand. The thing is very strange, if it be true: and it is likeliest to be caused by some natural furnace or heat in the earth: and yet they do not speak of any eruption of flames. It were good to try in glass-works, whether the crude materials of glass, mingled with glass already made, and re-molten, do not facilitate the making of glass with less heat.
Experiment solitary touching the growth of coral.
780. In the sea, upon the south-west of Sicily, much coral is found. It is a submarine plant. It hath no leaves: it brancheth only when it is under water; it is soft, and green of colour; but being brought into the air, it becometh hard and shining red, as we see. It is said also to have a white berry; but we find it not brought over with the coral. Belike it is cast away as nothing worth: inquire better of it, for the discovery of the nature of the plant
Experiment solitary touching the gathering of manna.
781. The manna of Calabria is the best, and in most plenty. They gather it from the leaf of the mulberry-tree; but not of such mulberry-trees as grow in the valleys. And manna falleth upon the leaves by night, as other dews do. It should seem, that before those dews come upon trees in the vallevs, they dissipate and cannot hold out. It should seem also, the mulberry leaf itself hath some coagulating virtue, which inspissateth the dew, for that it is not found upon other trees: Bnd we see by the silk worm, which feedeth upon that leaf, what a dainty smooth juice it hath; and the leaves also, especially of the black mulberry, are somewhat bristly, which may help to preserve the dew. Certainly it were not amiss to observe a little better the dews that fall upon trees, or herbs, growing on mountains; for it may be many dews fall, that Bpend before they come to the valleys. And I suppose, that he that would1 gather the best May-dew for medicine, should gather it from the hills.
Eiperiment solitary touching the correcting of wine.
782. It was said they have a manner to prepare their Greek wines, to keep them from fnming and inebriating, by adding some sulphur or alum: whereof the one is unctuous, and the other is astringent. And certain it is, that those two natures do best repress fumes. This experiment would be transferred unto other wine and strong beer, by putting in iome like substances while they work; which may make them both to fume less, and to inflame less.
Eiperiment solitary touching the materials of wildfire.
783. It is conceived by some, not improbably, that the reason why wild-fires, whereof the principal ingredient is bitumen, do not quench with water, is, for that the first concretion of bitumen is a mixture of a fiery and watery substance; so is not sulphur. This appeareth, for that in the place near Puteoli, *hich they call the court of Vulcan, you shall hear under the earth a horrible thundering of fire and water conflicting together; and there break forth also spouts of boiling water. Now that place yield«h great quantities of bitumen; whereas JEtna, and Vesuvius, and the like, which consist upon sulphur, shoot forth smoke, and ashes, and pumice, but no •iter. It is reported also, that bitumen mingled »ith lime, and put under water, will make as it were M artificial rock; the substance becometh so hard.
Eiperiment solitary touching plaster growing as hard as marble.
784. There is a cement, compounded of flour, whites of eggs, and stone powder, that becometh hard as marble: wherewith Piscina Mirabilis, near Cutna, is said to have the walls plastered. And it is certain and tried, that the powder of loadstone ^d flint, by the addition of whites of eggs, and gumdragon, made into paste, will in a few days harden to the hardness of a stone.
Erperiment solitart/ touching judgment of the cure in some ulcers and hurts.
/85. It hath been noted by the ancients, that in foil or impure Itodies, ulcers or hurts in the legs are hard to cure, and in the head more easy. The cause is, for that ulcers or hurts in the legs require desiccation, which by the dcfluxion of humours to the »wer parts is hindered; whereas hurts and ulcers in
the head require it not; but contrariwise dryness maketh them more apt to consolidate. And in modern observation, the like difference hath been found between Frenchmen and Englishmen; whereof the one's constitution is more dry, and the other's more moist. And therefore a hurt of the head is harder to cure in a Frenchman, and of the leg in an Englishman.
Experiment solitary touching the healthfulness or unheallhfulness of the. southern wind.
786. It hath been noted by the ancients, that southern winds, blowing much, without rain, do cause a feverous disposition of the year; but with rain, not. The cause is, for that southern winds do of themselves qualify the air, to be apt to cause fevers; but when showers are joined, they do refrigerate in part, and check the sultry heat of the southern wind. Therefore this holdeth not in the sea-coasts, because the vapour of the sea, without showers, doth refresh.
Experiment solitary touching wounds.
787. It hath been noted by the ancients, that wounds which are made with brass heal more easily than wounds made with iron. The cause is, for that brass hath in itself a sanative virtue j and so in the very instant helpeth somewhat j but iron is corrosive, and not sanative. And therefore it were good, that the instruments which are used by chirurgcons about wounds, were rather of brass than iron.
Experiment solitary touching mortification by cold.
788. In the cold countries, when men's noses and ears are mortified, and, as it were, gangrened with cold, if they come to a fire they rot off presently. The cause is, for that the few spirits that remain in those parts, are suddenly drawn forth, and so putrefaction is made complete. But snow put upon them helpeth; for that it preserveth those spirits that remain, till they can revive; and besides, snow hath in it a secret warmth: as the monk proved out of the text; "qui dat nivem sicut lanam, gelu sicut cineres spargit." Whereby he did infer, that snow did warm like wool, and frost did fret like ashes. Warm water also doth good; because by little and little it openeth the pores, without any sudden working upon the spirits. This experiment may be transferred to the cure of gangrenes, either coming of themselves, or induced by too much applying of opiates; wherein you must beware of dry heat, and resort to things that are refrigerant, with an inward warmth, and virtue of cherishing.
Experiment solitary touching weight.
789. Weigh iron and aqua fortis severally; then dissolve the iron in the aqua fortis, and weigh the dissolution; and you shall find it to bear as good weight as the bodies did severally : notwithstanding a good deal of waste by a thick vapour that issuelh during the working; which showeth that the opening of a body doth increase the weight This was tried once or twice, but I know not whether there were any error in the trial.
Experiment solitary touching the super-natation of bodies.
790. Take of aqua fortis two ounces, of quicksilver two drams, for that charge the aqua fortis will bear; the dissolution will not bear a flint as big as a nutmeg: yet, no doubt, the increasing of the weight of water will increase its power of bearing; as we see brine, when it is salt enough, will bear an egg. And I remember well a physician, that used to give some mineral baths for the gout, &c. and the body when it was put into the bath, could not get down so easily as in ordinary water. But it seemeth, the weight of the quicksilver more than the weight of a stone, doth not compcnse the weight of a stone more than the weight of the aqua fortis.
Experiment solitary touching the flying of unequal bodies in the air.
791. Let there be a body of unequal weight, as of wood and lead, or bone and lead ; if you throw it from you with the light end forward, it will turn, and the weightier end will recover to be forwards; unless the body be over-long. The cause is, for that the more dense body hath a more violent pressure of the parts from the first impulsion; which is the cause, though heretofore not found out, as hath been often said, of all violent motions; and when the hinder part moveth swifter, for that it less endureth pressure of parts, than the forward part can make way for it, it must needs be that the body turn over: for, turned, it can more easily draw forward the lighter part. Galiheus noteth it well, that if an open trough, wherein water is, be driven faster than the water can follow, the water gathereth upon a heap towards the hinder end, where the motion began, which he supposeth, holding confidently the motion of the earth, to he the cause of the ebbing and flowing of the ocean; because the earth over-runneth the water. Which theory, though it be false, yet the first experiment is true. As for the inequality of the pressure of parts, it appeareth manifestly in this ; that if you take a body of stone or iron, and another of wood, of the same magnitude and shape, and throw them with equal force, you cannot possibly throw the wood so far as the stone or iron.
Experiment solitary touching water, that it may be the medium of sounds.
792. It is certain, as it hath been formerly in part touched, that water may be the medium of sounds. If you dash a stone against a stone in the bottom of the water, it maketh a sound. So a long pole struck upon gravel in the bottom of the water maketh a sound. Nay, if you should think that the sound cometh up by the pole, and not by the water, you shall find that an anchor let down by a rope maketh a sound: and yet the rope is no solid body whereby the sound can ascend.
Experiment solitary of the flight of the spirits upon odious objects.
793. All objects of the senses which are very
offensive, do cause the spirits to retire: and upon their flight, the parts are, in some degree, destitute; and so there is induced in them a trepidation and horror. For sounds, we see that the grating of a saw, or any very harsh noise, will set the teeth on edge, and make all the body shiver. For tastes, we see that in the taking of a potion or pills, the head and the neck shake. For odious smells, the like effect followeth, which is less perceived, because there is a remedy at hand by stopping of the nose; but in horses, that can use no such help, we see the smell of a carrion, especially of a dead horse, maketh them fly away, and take on almost as if they were mad. For feeling, if you come out of the sun suddenly into a shade, there followeth a chillness or shivering in all the body. And even in sight, which hath in effect no odious object, coming into sudden darkness, induceth an offer to shiver.
Experiment solitary touching the super-reflection of echos.
794. There is in the city of Ticinum in Italy, a church that hath windows only from above; it is in length a hundred feet, in breadth twenty feet, and in height near fifty; having a door in the midst. It reporteth the voice twelve or thirteen times, if you stand by the close end-wall over-against the door. The echo fadeth, and dieth by little and little, as the echo at Pont-Charenton doth. And the voice soundeth as if it came from above the door. And if you stand at the lower end, or on either side of the door, the echo holdeth; but if you stand in the door, or in the midst, just over-against the door, not. Note, that all echos sound better against old walls than new; because they are more dry and hollow.
Experiment solitary touching the force of imagination, imitating that of the sense.
795. Those effects which are wrought by the percussion of the sense, and by things in fact, are produced likewise in some degree by the imagination. Therefore if a man see another eat sour or acid things, which set the teeth on edge, this object tainteth the imagination. So that he that seeth the thing done by another, hath his own teeth also set on edge. So if a man see another turn swiftly and long, or if he look upon wheels that turn, himself waxeth turn-sick. So if a man be upon a high place without rails or good hold, except he be used to it, he is ready to fall: for imagining a fall, it putteth his spirits into the very action of a fall. So many upon the seeing of others bleed, or strangled, or tortured, themselves are ready to faint, as if they bled, or were in strife.
Experiment solitary touching preservation of bodies.
796. Take a stock-gilly-flower, and tie it gently upon a stick, and put them both into a stoop-glass full of quicksilver, so that the flower be covered: then lay a little weight upon the top of the glass that may keep the stick down ; and look upon them afler four or five days; and yon shall find the flower fresh, and the stalk harder and less flexible than it was. If you compare it with another flower