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gathered at the same time, it will be the more manifest. This showeth, that bodies do preserve excellently in quicksilver; and not preserve only, but by the coldness of the quicksilver indurate; for the freshness of the flower may be merely conservation; which is the more to be observed, because the quicksilver presseth the flower; but the stiffness of the stalk cannot be without induration, from the cold, as it seemeth, of the quicksilver.
Experiment solitary touching the growth or
797. It is reported by some of the ancients, that in Cyprus there is a kind of iron, that being cut into little pieces, and put into the ground, if it be well watered, will increase into greater pieces. This is certain, and known of old, that lead will multiply and increase, as hath been seen in old statues of stone which have been put in cellars; the feet of them being bound with leaden bands; where, after a time, there appeared, that the lead did swell; insomuch as it hanged upon the stone like warts.
Experiment solitary touching the drowning of the more base metal in the more precious.
798. I call drowning of metals, when that the baser metal is so incorporate with the more rich, as it can by no means be separated again; which is a kind of -version, though false: as if silver should Le inseparably incorporated with gold; or copper and lead with silver. The ancient electrum had in it a fifth of silver to the gold, and made a compound metal, as fit for most uses as gold, and more resplendent and more qualified in some other properlies; but then that was easily separated. This to do privily, or to make the compound pass for the rich metal simple, is an adulteration or counterfeiting: but if it be done avowedly, and without disguising, it may be a great saving of the richer metal. 1 remember to have heard of a man skilful in metals, that a fifteenth part of silver incorporated rith gold will not be recovered by any water of separation, except you put a greater quantity of silver lo draw to it the less: which, he said, is the last refuge in separations. But that is a tedious way, which no man, almost, will think on. This would I* better inquired: and the quantity of the fifteenth turned to a twentieth; and likewise with some little additional, that may farther the intrinsic incorporation. Note, that silver in gold will be detected by veight, compared with the dimension; but lead in silver, lead being the weightier metal, will not be detected, if you take so much the more silver as will countervail the over-weight of the lead.
Experiment solitary touching fixation of bodies.
799. Gold is the only substance which hath no
thing in it volatile, and yet mclteth without much difficulty. The melting showeth that it is not jejune, nor scarce in spirit. So that the fixing of it is not want of spirit to fly out, but the equal spreading of the tangible parts, and the close coacervation of them: whereby they have the less appetite, and no means at all to issue forth. It were good therefore to try, whether glass re-molten do lose any weight; for the parts in glass are evenly spread; but they are not so close as in gold; as we see by the easy admission of light, heat, and cold; and by the smallness of the weight. There be other bodies fixed, which have little or no spirit; so as there is nothing to fly out; as we see in the stuff whereof coppels are made, which they put into furnaces, upon which fire worketh not: so that there are three causes of fixation ; the even spreading both of the spirits and tangible parts, the closeness of the tangible parts, and the jejuneness or extreme comminution of spirits: of which three, the two first may be joined with a nature liquefiable, the last not.
Experiment solitary touching the restless nature of things in themselves, and their desire to change.
800. It is a profound contemplation in nature, to consider of the emptiness, as we may call it, or insatisfaction of several bodies, and of their appetite to take in others. Air taketh in lights, and sounds, and smells, and vapours; and it is most manifest, that it doth it with a kind of thirst, as not satisfied with its own former consistence; for else it would never receive them in so suddenly and easily. Water, and all liquors, do hastily receive dry and more terrestrial bodies, proportionable: and dry bodies, on the other side, drink in waters and liquors: so that, as it was well said by one of the ancients, of earthy and watery substances, one is a glue to another. Parchment, skins, cloth, &c. drink in liquors, though themselves be entire bodies, and not comminuted, as sand and ashes, nor apparently porous: metals themselves do receive in readily strong waters; and strong waters likewise do readily pierce into metals and stones: and that strong water will touch upon gold, that will not touch upon silver, and e converso. And gold, which seemeth by the weight to be the closest and most solid body, doth greedily drink in quicksilver. And it seemeth, that this reception of other bodies is not violent: for it is many times reciprocal, and as it were with consent. Of the cause of this, and to what axiom it may be referred, consider attentively; for as for the pretty assertion, that matter is like a common strumpet, that desireth all forms, it is but a wandering notion. Only flame doth not content itself to take in any other body, but either to overcome and turn another body into itself, as by victory ; or itself to die, and go out.
Experiments in consort touching perception in bodies insensible, tending to natural divination or subtile trials.
It is certain, that all bodies whatsoever, though they have no sense, yet they have perception: for when one body is applied to another, there is a kind of election to embrace that which is agreeable, and to exclude or expel that which is ingrate: and whether the body be alterant, or altered, evermore a perception precedeth operation j for else all bodies would be alike one to another. And sometimes this perception in some kind of bodies, is far more subtile, than the sense; so that the sense is but a dull thing in comparison of it: we 6ee a weather-glass will find the least difference of the weather, in heat, or cold, when men find it not. And this perception also is sometimes at distance, as well as upon the touch; as when the loadstone draweth iron, or flame fircth naphtha of Babylon, a great distance off". It is therefore a subject of a very noble inquiry, to inquire of the more subtile perceptions; for it is another key to open nature, as well as the sense, and sometimes better. And besides, it is a principal means of natural divination; for that which in these perceptions appeareth early, in the great effects cometh long after. It is true also, that it serveth to discover that which is hid, as well as to foretell that which is to come, as it is in many subtile trials; as to try whether seeds be old or new, the sense cannot inform; but if you boil them in water, the new seeds will sprout sooner: and so of water, the taste will not discover the best water; but the speedy consuming of it, and many other means which we have heretofore set down, will discover it. So in all physiognomy, the lineaments of the body will discover those natural inclinations of the mind which dissimulation will conceal, or discipline will suppress. We shall therefore now handle only those two perceptions, which pertain to natural divination and discovery; leaving the handling of perception in other things to be disposed elsewhere. Now it is true that divination is attained by other means; as if you know the causes, if you know the concomitants, you may judge of the effect to follow; and the like may be said of discovery; but we tie ourselves here to that divination and discovery chiefly, which is caused by an early or subtile perception.
The aptness or propension of air, or water, to corrupt or putrify, no doubt, is to be found before it break forth into mnnifesteflectsof.diseases, blastings, or the like. We will therefore set down some prognostics of pestilential and unwholesome years.
801. The wind blowing much from the south without rain, and worms in the oak-apple, have been spoken of before. Also the plenty of frogs, grasshoppers, flies, and the like creatures bred of putrefaction, doth portend pestilential years.
802. Great and early heats in the spring, and namely in May, without winds, portend the same; and generally so do years with little wind or thunder.
803. Great droughts in summer lasting till towards the end of August, and some gentle showers upon them, and then some dry weather again, do portend a pestilent summer the year following: for about the end of August all the sweetness of the earth, which goeth into plants and trees, is exhaled, and much more if the August be dry, so that nothing then can breathe forth of the earth but a gross vapour, which is apt to corrupt the air: and that vapour, by the first showers, if they be gentle, is released, and cometh forth abundantly. Therefore they that come abroad soon after those showers, are commonly taken with sickness: and in Africa, nobody will stir out of doors after the first showers. But if the showers come vehemently, then they rather wash and fill the earth, than give it leave to breathe forth presently. But if dry weather come again, then it fixeth and continueth the corruption of the air, upon the first showers begun; and maketh it of ill influence, even to the next summer; except a very frosty winter discharge it, which seldom succeedeth such droughts.
804. The lesser infections, of the small-pox, purple fevers, agues, in the summer precedent, and hovering all winter, do portend a great pestilence in the summer following: for putrefaction doth not rise to its height at once.
805. It were good to lay a piece of raw flesh or fish in the open air; and if it putrify quickly, it is a sign of a disposition in the air to putrefaction. And because you cannot be informed whether the putrefaction be quick or late, except you compare this experiment with the like experiment in another year, it were not amiss in the same year, and at the same time, to lay one piece of flesh or fish in the open air, and another of the same kind and bigness within doors: for I judge, that if a general disposition be in the air to putrify, the flesh, or fish, will sooner putrify abroad where the air hath mon? power, than in the house, where it hath less, bein^ many ways corrected. And this experiment would be made about the end of March: for that season is likeliest to discover what the winter hath done, and what the summer following will do, upon the air. And because the air, no doubt, receiveth gTeat tincture and infusion from the earth; it were good to try that exposing of flesh or fish, both upon a stake of wood some height above the earth, and upon the flat of the earth.
806. Take May-dew, and see whether it putrify quickly or no; for that likewise may disclose the quality of the air, and vapour of the earth, more or less corrupted.
807. A dry March, and a dry May, portend a wholesome summer, if there be a showering April between: but otherwise it is a sign of a pestilential Tear.
808. As the discovery of the disposition of the air is good for the prognostics of wholesome and unwholesome years; so it is of much more use, for the choice of places to dwell in: at the least, for lodges, and retiring places for health: for mansionhouses respect provisions as well as health, wherein the experiments above mentioned may serve.
S09. But for the choice of places, or seats, it is good to make trial, not only of aptness of air to corrupt, but also of the moisture and dryness of the air, and the temper of it in heat or cold; for that may concern health diversely. We see that there be some houses, wherein sweet-meats will relent, and baked meats will mould, more than in others; and wainscots will also sweat more; so that they will almost run with water; all which, no doubt, are caused chiefly by the moistness of the air in those seats. But because it is better to know it before a man buildeth his house, than to find it after, take the experiments following.
810. Lay wool, or a sponge, or bread, in the place you would try, comparing it with some other places; and see whether it doth not moisten, and make the wool, or sponge, &c. more ponderous than the other: and if it do, you may judge of that place, as situate in a gross and moist air.
811. Because it is certain, that in some places, cither by the nature of the earth, or by the situation of woods and hills, the air is more unequal than in others; and inequality of air is ever an enemy to health; it were good to take two weather-glasses, matches in all things, and to set them, for the same hours of one day, in several places, where no shade is, nor enclosures; and to mark when you set them, how far the water cometh; and to compare them, when you come again, how the water standeth then; and if you find them unequal, you may be sure that the place where the water is lowest is in the warmer air, and the other in the colder. And the greater the inequality be, of the ascent or descent of the water, the greater is the inequality of the temper of the air.
812. The predictions likewise of cold and long winters, and hot and dry summers, are good to be known; as well for the discovery of the causes, as for divers provisions. That of plenty of haws, and Wps, and brier-berries, hath been spoken of before. If wainscot, or stone, that have used to sweat, be more dry in the beginning of winter, or the drops of the eaves of houses come more slowly down than 'hey use, it portendeth a hard and frosty winter. The cause is, for that it showeth an inclination of the air to dry weather; which in winter is ever joined with frost.
813. Generally a moist and cool summer portendeth a hard winter. The cause is, for that the vapours of the earth are not dissipated in the summer by the sun; and so they rebound upon the winter.
814. A hot and dry summer, and autumn, and 'specially if the heat and drought extend far into ^ptember, portendeth an open beginning of winter; and colds to succeed toward the latter part of
TOl. I. N
the winter, and the beginning of the spring: for till then the former heat and drought bear the sway, and the vapours are not sufficiently multiplied.
815. An open and warm winter portendeth a hot and dry summer; for the vapours disperse into the winter showers; whereas cold and frost keepeth them in, and transporteth them into the late spring and summer following.
816. Birds that use to change countries at certain seasons, if they come earlier, do show the temperature of weather, according to that country whence they came: as the winter birds, namely, woodcocks, feldfares, &c. if they come earlier, and out of the northern countries, with us show cold winters. And if it be in the same country, then they show a temperature of season, like unto that season in which they come: as swallows, bats, cuckoos, &c. that come towards summer, if they come early, show a hot summer to follow.
817. The prognostics, more immediate, of weather to follow soon after, are more certain than those of seasons. The resounding of the sea upon the shore, and the murmur of winds in the woods, without apparent wind, show wind to follow; for such winds breathing chiefly out of the earth, are not at the first perceived, except they be pent by water or wood. And therefore a murmur out of caves likewise portendeth as much.
818. The upper regions of the air perceive the collection of the matter of tempests and winds, hefore the air here below: and therefore the obscuring of the smaller stars, is a sign of tempests following. And of this kind you shall find a number of instances in our inquisition " De Vcntis."
819. Great mountains have a perception of the disposition of the air to tempests, sooner than the valleys or plains below: and therefore they say in Wales, when certain hills have their night-caps on, they mean mischief. The cause is, for that tempests, which are for the most part bred above in the middle region, as they call it, are soonest perceived to collect in the places next it.
820. The air, and fire, have subtile perceptions of wind rising, before men find it. We see the trembling of a candle will discover a wind that otherwise we do not feel; and the flexuous burning of flames doth show the air beginneth to be unquiet; and so do coals of fire by casting off the ashes more than they use. The cause is, for that no wind at the first, till it hath struck and driven the air, is apparent to the sense; but flame is easier to move than air: and for the ashes, it is no marvel, though wind unperceived shake them off; for we usually try which way the wind bloweth, by casting up grass, or chaff, or such light things into the air.
821. When wind expireth from under the sea, as it causeth some resounding of the water, whereof we spake before, so it causeth some light motions of bubbles, and white circles of froth. The cause is, for that the wind cannot be perceived by the sense, until there be an eruption of a great quantity from under the water; and so it getteth into a body: whereas in the first putting up it cometh in little portions.
822. We spake of the ashes that coals cast off; and of grass and chaff carried by the wind; so any light thing that moveth, when we find no wind, showeth a wind at hand j as when feathers, or down of thistles, fly to and fro in the air.
For prognostics of weather from living creatures, it is to be noted, that creatures that live in the open air, sub dio, must needs have a quicker impression from the air, than men that live most within doors; and especially birds, who live in the air freest and clearest; and are aptest by their voice to tell tales whnt they find; and likewise by the motion of their flight to express the same.
823. Water-fowls, as sea-gulls, moor-hens, &c. when they flock and fly together from the sea towards the shores; and contrariwise, land-birds, as crows, swallows, &c. when they fly from the land to the waters, and beat the waters with their wings, do foreshow rain and wind. The cause is, pleasure that both kinds take in the moistness and density of the air; and so desire to be in motion, and upon the wing, whithersoever they would otherwise go: for it is no marvel, that water-fowl do joy most in that air which is likest water; and land-birds also, many of them, delight in bathing, and moist air. For the same reason also, many birds do prune their feathers; and geese do gaggle; and crows seem to call upon rain: all which is but the comfort they seem to receive in the relenting of the air.
824. The heron, when she soareth high, so as sometimes she is seen to pass over a cloud, showeth winds: but kites flying aloft show fair and dry weather. The cause may be, for that they both mount most into the air of that temper wherein they delight: and the heron being a water-fowl, taketh pleasure in the air that is condensed; and besides, being but heavy of wing, needeth the help of the grosser air. But the kite affecteth not so much the grossness of the air, as the cold and freshness thereof; for being a bird of prey, and therefore hot, she delighteth in the fresh air; and, many times, flyeth against the wind; as trouts and salmons swim against the stream. And yet it is true also, that all birds find an ease in the depth of the air; as swimmers do in a deep water. And therefore when they are aloft, they can uphold themselves with their wings spread, scarce moving them.
825. Fishes, when they play towards the top of the water, do commonly foretell rain. The cause is, for that a fish hating the dry, will not approach the air till it groweth moist; and when it is dry, will fly it, and swim lower.
826. Beasts do take comfort generally in a moist air: and it makcth them eat their meat better; and therefore sheep will get up betimes in the morning to feed against rain: and cattle, and deer, and conies, will feed hard before rain; and a heifer will put up hrr nose, and .snuff in the air against rain.
827. The trefoil against rain swelleth in the stalk; and so standeth more upright; for by wet, stalks do erect, and leaves bow down. There is a small red flower in the stubble-fields, which country people call the wincopipe; which if it open in the morning, you may be sure of a fair day to follow.
828. Even in men, aches, and hurts, and corns, do engrieve either towards rain, or towards frost: for the one maketh the humours more to abound; and the other maketh them sharper. So we see both extremes bring the gout.
829. Worms, vermin, &c. do foreshow likewise rain: for earth-worms will come forth, and moles will cast up more, and fleas bite more, against rain.
830. Solidbodieslikewiseforeshowrain. Asstones and wainscot, when they sweat: and boxes and pegs of wood, when they draw and wind hard; though the former be but from an outward cause; for that the stone, or wainscot, turneth and beateth back the air against itself; but the latter is an inward swelling of the body of the wood itself.
Experiment solitary touching the nature of appetite in the stomach.
831. Appetite is moved chiefly by things that are cold and dry; the cause is, for that cold is a kind of indigence of nature, and calleth upon supply; and so is dryness: and therefore all sour things, as vinegar, juice of lemons, oil of vitriol, &c. provoke appetite. And the disease which they call appetitus caninus, consisteth in the matter of an acid and glassy phlegm in the mouth of the stomach. Appetite is also moved by sour things; for that sour things induce a contraction in the nerves placed in the mouth of the stomach, which is a great cause of appetite. As for the cause why onions, and salt, and pepper, in baked meats, move appetite, it is by vellication of those nerves; for motion whetteth. As for wormwood, olives, capers, and others of that kind, which participate of bitterness, they move appetite by abstersion. So as there be four principal causes of appetite; the refrigeration of the stomach joined with some dryness, contraction, vellication, and abstersion; besides hunger, which is an emptiness: and yet over-fasting doth, many times, cause the appetite to cease; for that want of meat maketh the stomach draw humours, and such humours as are light and choleric which quench appetite most.
Experiment solitary touching sweetness of odour from the rainbow.
832. It hath been observed by the ancients, that where a rainbow seemeth to hang over, or to touch, there breatheth forth a sweet smell. The cause is, for that this happeneth but in certain matters, which have in themselves some sweetness; which the gentle dew of the rainbow doth draw forth: and the like do soft showers; for they also make the ground sweet: but none are so delicate as the dew of the rainbow where it falleth. It may be also that the water itself hath some sweetness; for the rainbow consisteth of a glomeration of small drops, which cannot possibly fall but from the air that is very low; and therefore may hold the very sweetness of the herbs and flowers, as a distilled water: for rain, and other dew, that fall from high, cannot preserve the smell, being dissipated in the drawingup: neither do we know, whether some water itself may not have some degree of sweetness. It is true, that we find it sensibly in no pool, river, nor fountain; lot good earth newly turned up, hath a freshness and good scent; which water, if it be not too equal, for equal objects never move the sense, may also have. Certain it is, that bay-salt, which is but a kind of water congealed, will sometimes smell like violets.
Experiment solitary touching sweet smells.
833. To sweet smells heat is requisite to concoct the matter; and some moisture to spread the breath of them. For heat, we see that woods and spices are more odorate in the hot countries than in the cold: for moisture, we see that things too much dried lose their sweetness: and flowers growing, smell better in a morning or evening than at noon. Some sweet smells are destroyed by approach to the fire; as violets, wall-flowers, gilly-flowers, pinks; and generally all flowers that have cool and delicate spirits. Some continue both on the fire, and from the fire; as rose-water, &c. Some do scarce come forth, or at least not so pleasantly, as by means of the fire; as juniper, sweet gums, &c. and all smells that are enclosed in a fast body: but generally those smells are the most grateful, where the degree of heat is small; or where the strength of the smell is allayed; for these things do rather woo the sense, than satiate it. And therefore the smell of violets and roses, exceedeth in sweetness that of spices and gums; and the strongest sort of smells are best in a weft afar off.
Experiment solitary touching the corporeal substance of smells.
834. It is certain, that no smell issueth but with emission of some corporeal substance; not as it is in light, and colours, and in sounds. For we see plainly, that smell doth spread nothing that distance that the other do. It is true, that some woods of oranges, and heaths of rosemary, will smell a great way into the sea, perhaps twenty miles; but what is that, since a peal of ordnance will do as much, which moveth in a small compass? Whereas those woods and heaths are of vast spaces; besides, we see that smells do adhere to hard bodies; as in perfuming of gloves, &c. which showeth them corporeal; and do last a great while, which sounds and light do not.
Experiment solitary touching fetid and fragrant odours.
835. The excrements of most creatures smell ill; chiefly to the same creature that voideth them: for *e see, besides that of man, that pigeons and horses thrive best, if their houses and stables be kept sweet; and so of cage-birds: and the cat burieth that which she voideth: and it holdeth chiefly in those beasts which feed upon flesh. Dogs almost only of beasts delight in fetid odours; which show(th there is somewhat in their sense of smell differ">g from the smells of other beasts. But the cause ffhy excrements smell ill, is manifest; for that the Wy itself rejecteth them; much more the spirits: and we see that those excrements that are of the
first digestion, smell the worst; as the excrements from the belly; those that are from the second digestion, less ill; as urine; and those that are from the third, yet less; for sweat is not so bad as the other two; especially of some persons, that are full of heat. Likewise most putrefactions are of an odious smell: for they smell either fetid or mouldy. The cause may be, for that putrefaction doth bring forth such a consistence, as is most contrary to the consistence of the body whilst it is sound: for it is a mere dissolution of that form. Besides, there is another reason, which is profound: and it is, that the objects that please any of the senses have all some equality, and, as it were, order in their composition; but where those are wanting, the object is ever ingrate. So mixture of many disagreeing colours is ever unpleasant to the eye: mixture of discordant sounds is unpleasant to the ear: mixture, or hotch-potch of many tastes, is unpleasant to the taste: harshness and ruggedness of bodies is unpleasant to the touch: now it is certain, that all putrefaction, being a dissolution of the first form, is a mere confusion and unformed mixture of the part. Nevertheless it is strange, and seemeth to cross the former observation, that some putrefactions and excrements do yield excellent odours, as civet and musk; and, as some think, ambergrease: for divers take it, though improbably, to come from the sperm of a fish : and the moss we spake of from appletrees, is little better than an excretion. The reason may be, for that there passeth in the excrements, and remaineth in the putrefactions, some good spirits; especially where they proceed from creatures that are very hot. But it may be also joined with a farther cause, which is more subtile; and it is, that the senses love not to be over-pleased, but to have a commixture of somewhat that is in itself ingrate. Certainly, we see how discords in music, falling upon concords, make the sweetest strains: and we see again, what strange tastes delight the taste; as red herrings, caviary, parmesan, &c. And it may be the same holdeth in smells: for those kind of smells that we have mentioned, are all strong, and do pull and vellicate the sense. And we find also, that places where men urine, commonly have some smell of violets: and urine, if one hath eaten nutmeg, hath so too.
The slothful, general, and indefinite contemplations, and notions, of the elements and their conjugations; of the influences of heaven; of heat, cold, moisture, drought, qualities active, passive, and the like; have swallowed up the true passages, and processes, and affects, and consistences of matter and natural bodies. Therefore they are to be set aside, being but notional and ill limited; and definite axioms are to be drawn out of measured instances: and so assent to be made to the more general axioms by scale. And of these kinds of processes of natures and characters of matter, we will now set down some instances.
Exjieriment solitary touching the causes of
83G. AH putrefactions come chiefly from the in