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ward spirits of the body; and partly also from the ambient body, be it air, liquor, or whatsoever else. And this last, by two means: either by ingress of the substance of the ambient body into the body putrified; or by excitation and solicitation of the body putrified, and the parts thereof, by the body ambient. As for the received opinion, that putrefaction is caused, either by cold, or peregrine and preternatural heat, it is but nugation: for cold in things inanimate, is the greatest enemy that is to putrefaction; though it extinguisheth vivificalion, which ever consisteth in spirits attenuate, which the cold doth congeal and coagulate. And as for the peregrine heat, it is thus far true, that if the proportion of the adventive heat be greatly predominant to the natural heat and spirits of the body, it tendeth to dissolution, or notable alteration. But this is wrought by emission, or suppression, or suffocation, of the native spirits; and also by the disordination and discomposure of the tangible parts, and other passages of nature, and not by a conflict of heats.
Experiment solitary touching bodies imperfectly mixed.
837. In versions, or main alterations of bodies, there is a medium between the body, as it is at first, and the body resulting; which medium is corpus imperfecta mistum, and is transitory and not durable; as mists, smokes, vapours, chylus in the stomach, living creatures in the first vivification: and the middle action, which produceth such imperfect bodies, is fitly called, by some of the ancients, inquination, or inconcoction, which is a kind of putrefaction: for the parts are in confusion, till they settle one way or other.
Experiment solitary touching concoction and
838. The word concoction, or digestion, is chiefly taken into use from living creatures and their organs; and from thence extended to liquors and fruits, &c. Therefore they speak of meat concocted; urine and excrements concocted; and the four digestions, in the stomach, in the liver, in the arteries and nerves, and in the several parts of the body, arc likewise called concoctions: and they are all made to be the works of heat; all which notions are but ignorant catches of a few things, which are most obvious to men's observations. The constantest notion of concoction is, that it should signify the degrees of alteration, of one body into another, from crudity to perfect concoction; which is the ultimity of that action or process; and while the body to be converted and altered is too strong for the efficient that should convert or alter it, whereby it rcsisteth and holdeth fast in some degree the first form or consistence, it is all that while crude and inconcoct: and the process is to be called crudity and inconcoction. It is true, that concoction is in great part the work of heat, but not the work of heat alone: for all things that farther the conversion, or alteration, as rest, mixture of a body already concocted, &c. are also means to concoction. And there are of concoction two periods;
the one assimilation, or absolute conversion and subaction; the other maturation; whereof the former is most conspicuous in the bodies of living creatures; in which there is an absolute conversion and assimilation of the nourishment into the body: and likewise in the bodies of plants: and again in metals, where there is a full transmutation. The other, which is maturation, is seen in liquors and fruits: wherein there is not desired, nor pretended, an utter conversion, but only an alteration to that form which is most sought for man's use; as in clarifying of drinks, ripening of fruits, &c. But note, that there be two kinds of absolute conversions; the one is, when a body is converted into another body, which was before; as when nourishment is turned into flesh; that is it which we call assimilation. The other is, when the conversion is into a body merely new, and which was not before; as if silver should be turned to gold, or iron to copper: and this conversion is better called, for distinction sake, transmutation.
Experiment solitary touching alterations, which may be called majors.
839. There are also divers other great alterations of matter and bodies, besides those that tend to concoction and maturation; for whatsoever doth so alter a body, as it returneth not again to that it was, may be called alteratiomajor; as when meat is boiled, or roasted, or fried, &c.; or when bread and meat are baked; or when cheese is made of curds, or batter of cream, or coals of wood, or bricks of earth: and a number of others. But to apply notions philosophical to plebeian terms; or to say, where the notions cannot fitly be reconciled, that there wanteth a term or nomenclature for it, as the ancients used, they be but shifts of ignorance; for knowledge will be ever a wandering and indigested thing, if it be but a commixture of a few notions that are at hand and occur, and not excited from sufficient number of instances, and those well collated.
The consistences of bodies are very diverse: dense, rare; tangible, pneumatical; volatile, fixed; determinate, not determinate; hard, soft; cleaving, not cleaving; congelable, not congelable; liquefiable, not liquefiable; fragile, tough: flexible, inflexible; tractile, or to be drawn forth in length, intractile; porous, solid; equal and smooth, unequal; venous and fibrous, and with grains, entire; and divers others; all which to refer to heat, and cold, and moisture, and drought, is a compendious and inutile speculation. But of these see principally our "Abecedarium Naturffi;" and otherwise sparsim in this our " Sylva Sylvarum:" nevertheless, in some good part, we shall handle divers of them new presently.
Experiment solitary touching bodies liquefiable, and not liquefiable.
840. Liquefiable, and not liquefiable, proceed from these causes: liquefaction is ever caused by the detention of the spirits, which play within the body and open it. Therefore such bodies as are more turgid of spirit; or that have their spirits more straidy imprisoned; or, again, that hold them better pleased and content, are liquefiable: for these three dispositions of bodies do arrest the emission of the spirits. An example of the first two properties is in metals; and of the last in grease, pitch, sulphur, butter, wax, &c. The disposition not to liquefy proceedeth from the easy emission of the spirits, whereby the grosser parts contract; and therefore bodies jejune of spirits, or which part with their spirits more willingly, are not liquefiable; as wood, clay, free-stone, &c. But yet even many of those bodies that will not melt, or will hardly melt, will notwithstanding soften; as iron, in the forge; and a stick bathed in hot ashes, which thereby becometh more flexible. Moreover there are some bodies which do liquefy or dissolve by fire: as metals, wax, &c. and other bodies which dissolve in water; as salt, sugar, &c. The cause of the former proceedeth from the dilatation of the spirits by heat: the cause of the latter proceedeth from the opening of the tangible parts, which desire to receive the liquor. Again, there are some bodies that dissolve with both; as gum, &c. And those be such bodies, as on the one side have good store of spirit; and on the other side, have the tangible parts indigent of moisture; for the former helpeth to the dilating of the spirits by the fire; and the latter stimulateth the parts to receive the liquor.
Experiment solitary touching bodies fragile and tough.
841. Of bodies some are fragile; and some are tough, and not fragile; and in the breaking, some fragile bodies break but where the force is; some sUtter and fly in many places. Of fragility, the cr.use is an impotency to be extended; and therefore stone is more fragile than metal; and so fictile earth is more fragile than crude earth; and dry wood than green. And the cause of this unaptness to extension, is the small quantity of spirits; for it is the spirit that farthereth the extension or dilatation of bodies; and it is ever concomitant with porosity, and with dryness in the tangible parts: contrariwise, tough bodies have more •pirit, and fewer pores, and moister tangible parts: therefore we see that parchment or leather will stretch, paper will not; woollen cloth will tenter, linen scarcely.
Experiment solitary touching the two kinds of pneumaticals in bodies.
842. All solid bodies consist of parts of two several natures, pneumatical and tangible; and it is well to be noted, that the pneumatical substance is in some bodies the native spirit of the body, and in some other, plain air that is gotten in; as in bodies desiccate by heat or age: for in them, when the native spirit goeth forth, and the moisture with it, the air with time getteth into the pores. And those bodies are ever the more fragile; for the native spirit is more yielding and extensive, especially to follow the parts, than air. The native spirits also admit great diversity; as hot, cold, active, dull, &c. "hence proceed most of the virtues and qualities,
as we call them, of bodies: but the air intermixed is without virtues, and maketh things insipid, and without any exstimulation.
Experiment solitary touching concretion and dissolution of bodies.
843. The concretion of bodies is commonly solved by the contrary; as ice, which is congealed by cold, is dissolved by heat; salt and sugar, which are excocted by heat, are dissolved by cold and moisture. The cause is, for that these operations are rather returns to their former nature, than alterations; so that the contrary cureth. As for oil, it doth neither easily congeal with cold, nor thicken with heat. The cause of both effects, though they be produced by contrary efficients, seemeth to be the same; and that is, because the spirit of the oil by either means exhaleth little, for the cold keepeth it in; and the heat, except it be vehement, doth not call it forth. As for cold, though it take hold of the tangible parts, yet as to the spirits, it doth rather make them swell than congeal them: as when ice is congealed in a cup, the ice will swell instead of contracting, and sometimes rift.
Experiment solitary touching hard and soft
844. Of bodies, some we see are hard, and some soft: the hardness is caused chiefly by the jejuneness of the spirits, and their imparity with the tangible parts: both which, if they be in a greater degree, make them not only hard, but fragile, and less enduring of pressure; as steel, stone, glass, dry wood, &c. Softness cometh, contrariwise, by the greater quantity of spirits, which ever helpeth to induce yielding and cession, and by the more equal spreading of the tangible parts, which thereby are more sliding and following: as in gold, lead, wax, &c. But note, that soft bodies, as we use the word, are of two kinds; the one, that easily giveth place to another body, but nltereth not bulk, by rising in other places: and therefore we see that wax, if you put any thing into it, doth not rise in bulk, but only giveth place: for you may not think, that in printing of w-ax, the wax riseth up at all; but only the depressed part giveth place, and the other rcmaineth as it was. The other that altereth bulk in the cession, as water, or other liquors, if you put a stone or any thing into them, they give place indeed easily, but then they rise all over; which is a false cession; for it is in place, and not in body.
Experiment solitary touching bodies ductile and tensile.
845. All bodies ductile and tensile, as metals, that will be drawn into wires; wool, and tow, that will be drawn into yarn or thread, have in them the appetite of not discontinuing strong, which maketh them follow the force that pulleth them out; and yet so, as not to discontinue or forsake their own body. Viscous bodies likewise, as pitch, wax, birdlime, cheese toasted, will draw forth and rope. But the difference between bodies fibrous and bodies viscous is plain: for all wool, and tow, and cotton, and silk, especially raw silk, have, besides their desire of continuance, in regard of the tenuity of their thread, a greediness of moisture: and by moisture to join and incorporate with other thread; especially if there be a little wreathing; as appeareth by the twisting of thread, and the practice of twirling about of spindles. And we sec also, that gold and silver thread cannot be made without twisting.
Experiment solitary touching other passions of matter, and characters of bodies.
846. The differences of impressible and not impressible; figurable and not figurable; mouldable and not mouldable; scissile and not scissile; and many other passions of matter, are plebeian notions, applied unto the instruments and uses which men ordinarily practise; but they are all but the effects of some of these causes following, which we will enumerate without applying them, because that will be too long. The first is the cession or not cession of bodies, into a smaller space or room, keeping the outward bulk, and not flying up. The second is the stronger or weaker appetite in bodies to continuity, and to fly discontinuity. The third is the disposition of bodies to contract or not contract: and again, to extend or not extend. The fourth is the small quantity or great quantity of the pneumatical in bodies. The fifth is the nature of the pneumatical, whether it be native spirit of the body, or common air. The sixth is the nature of the native spirits in the body, whether they be active and eager, or dull and gentle. The seventh is the emission or detention of the spirits in bodies. The eighth is the dilatation or contraction of the spirits in bodies, while they are detained. The ninth is the collocation of the spirits in bodies, whether the collocation be equal or unequal; and again, whether the spirits be coacervate or diffused. The tenth is the density or rarity of the tangible parts. The eleventh is the equality or inequality of the tangible parts. The twelfth is the digestion or crudity of the tangible parts. The thirteenth is the nature of the matter, whether sulphureous or mercurial, watery or oily, dry and terrestrial, or moist and liquid; which natures of sulphureous and mercurial, seem to be natures radical and principal. The fourteenth is the placing of the tangible parts in length or transverse, as it is in the warp and the woof of textiles, more inward, or more outward, &c. The fifteenth is the porosity or imporosity betwixt the tangible parts, and the greatness or smallness of the pores. The sixteenth is the collocation and posture of the pores. There may be more causes; but these do occur for the present.
Experiment solitary touching induration by
847. Take lead and melt it, and in the midst of it, when it beginneth to congeal, make a little dint or hole, and put quicksilver wrapped in a piece of linen into that hole, and the quicksilver will fix and run no more, and endure the hammer. This is a noble instance of induration, by consent of one body with another, and motion of excitation to imitate;
for to ascribe it only to the vapour of lead, is less probable. Query, whether the fixing may be in such a degree, as it will be figured like other metals? For if so, you may make works of it for some purposes, so they come not near the fire.
Experiment solitary touching honey and sugar.
848. Sugar hath put down the use of honey, insomuch as we have lost those observations and preparations of honey which the ancients had, when it was more in price. First, it seemeth that there was in old time tree-honey, as well as bee-honey, which was the tear or blood issuing from the tree: insomuch as one of the ancients relateth, that in Trebisond there was honey issuing from the boxtrees, which made men mad. Again, in ancient time there was a kind of honey, which either of its own nature, or by art, would grow as hard as sugar, and was not so luscious as ours. They had also a wine of honey, which they made thus. They crushed the honey into a great quantity of water, and then strained the liquor: after they boiled it in a copper to the half; then they poured it into earthen vessels for a small time; and after turned it into vessels of wood, and kept it for many years. They have also at this day, in Russia and those northern countries, mead simple, which, well made and seasoned, is a good wholesome drink, and very clear. They use also in Wales a compound drink of mead, with herbs and spices. But meanwhile it were good, in recompence of that we have lost in honey, there were brought in use a sugar-mead, for so we may call it, though without any mixture at all of honey; and to brew it, and keep it stale, as they use mead: for certainly, though it would not be so abstersive, and opening, and solutive a drink as mead; yet it will be more grateful to the stomach, and more lenitive, and fit to be used in sharp diseases : for we see, that the use of sugar in beer and ale hath good effects in such cases.
Experiment solitary touching the finer sort of base metals.
849. It is reported by the ancients, that there was a kind of steel in some places, which would polish almost as white and bright as silver. And that there was in India a kind of brass, which, being polished, could scarce be discerned from gold. This was in the natural ure: but I am doubtful, whether men have sufficiently refined metals, which we count base; as whether iron, brass, and tin be refined to the height? But when they come to such a fineness, as serveth the ordinary use, they try no farther.
Experiment solitary touching cements and quarries.
850. There have been found certain cements under earth that are very soft; and yet, taken forth into the sun, harden as hwd as marble: there are also ordinary quarries in Somersetshire, which in the quarry cut soft to any bigness, and in the building prove firm and hard.
Experiment solitary touching the altering of the colour of hairs and feathers.
851. Living creatures generally do change their hair with age, turning to be grey and white: as is seen in men, though some earlier, some later; in horses that are dappled, and turn white; in old squirrels that turn grisly; and many others. So do some birds; as rrgnets from grey turn white; hawks from brown turn more white. And some birds there be that upon their moulting do turn colour; as robin-red-breasts, after their moulting, growing to be red again by degrees; so do goldfinches upon trie head. The cause is, for that moisture doth chiefly colour hair and feathers, and dryness tumeth them grey and white: now hair in age waxeth dryer; so do feathers. As for feathers, after moulting, they are young feathers, and so all one as the feathers of young birds. So the beard is younger than the hair of the head, and doth, for the most part, wax hoary later. Out of this ground a man may devise the means of altering the colour of birds, and the retardation of hoary hairs. But of this see the fifth experiment.
Experiment solitary touching the differences of living creatures, male and female.
852. The difference between male and female, in tome creatures, is not to be discerned, otherwise than in the parts of generation: as in horses and mares, dogs and bitches, doves he and she, and others. But some differ in magnitude, and that diferely; for in most the male is the greater; as in nan, pheasants, peacocks, turkeys, and the like: and in some few, as in hawks, the female. Some differ in the hair and feathers, both in the quantity, crispation, and colours of them; as he-lions are hirsute, and have great manes: the she-lions are smooth like cats. Bulls are more crisp upon the forehead than cows; the peacock, and pheasant-cock, and goldfinch-cock, have glorious and fine colours; the hens have not. Generally the males in birds have fairest feathers. Some differ in divers features: as bucks have horns, does none; rams have more vreathed horns than ewes; cocks have great combs and spurs, hens little or none; boars have great fangs, sows much less; the turkey-cock hath great and swelling gills, the hen hath less; men have generally deeper and stronger voices than women. Some differ in faculty; as the cocks amongst singing-birds are the best singers. The chief eause of all these, no doubt, is, for that the males have more strength of heat than the females; which appeareth manifestly in this, that all young creatures males arc like females; and so are eunuchs, and gelt creatures of all kinds, like females. Now heat causeth greatness of growth, generally, where there is moisture enough to work upon: but if there be found in any creature, which is seen rarely, an over-great heat in proportion to the moisture, in them the female is the greater; as in hawks and sparrows. And if the heat be balanced with the moisture, then there is no difference to be seen between male and female; as in the instances of horses and dogs. We see also, that the horns of oxen and cows, for
the most part, are larger than the bulls; which is caused by abundance of moisture, which in the horns of the bull faileth. Again, heat causeth pilosity and crispation, and so likewise beards in men. It also expelleth finer moisture, which want of heat cannot expel; and that is the cause of the beauty and variety of feathers. Again, heat doth put forth many excrescences, and much solid matter, which want of heat cannot do: and this is the cause of horns, and of the greatness of them; and of the greatness of the combs and spurs of cocks, gills of turkey-cocks, and fangs of boars. Heat also dilateth the pipes and organs, which causeth the deepness of the voice. Again, heat refineth the spirits, and that causeth the cock singing-bird to excel the hen.
Experiment solitary touching the comparative magnitude of living creatures.
853. There be fishes greater than any beasts; as the whale is far greater than the elephant: and beasts are generally greater than birds. For fishes, the cause may be, that because they live not in the air, they have not their moisture drawn and soaked by the air and sun-beams. Also they rest always in a manner, and are supported by the water: whereas motion and labour do consume. As for the greatness of beasts more than of birds, it is caused, for that beasts stay longer time in the womb than birds, and there nourish and grow; whereas in birds, after the egg laid, there is no farther growth or nourishment from (he female; for the sitting doth vivify, and not nourish.
Experiment solitary touching exossation of fruits:
854. We have partly touched before the means of producing fruits without cores or stones. And this we add farther, that the cause must be abundance of moisture; for that the core and stone are made of a dry sap: and we see, that it is possible to make a tree put forth only in blossom, without fruit; as in cherries with double flowers; much more into fruit without stone or cores. It is reported, that a cion of an apple, grafted upon a colewort stalk, sendeth forth a great apple without a core. It is not unlikely, that if the inward pith of a tree were taken out, so that the juice came only by the bark, it would work the effect. For it hath been observed, that in pollards, if the water get in on the top, and they become hollow, they put forth the more. We add also, that it is delivered for certain by some, that if the cion be grafted the small end downwards, it will make fruit have little or no cores and stones.
Experiment solitary touching the melioration of tobacco.
855. Tobacco is a thing of great price, if it be in request: for an acre of it will be worth, as is affirmed, two hundred pounds by the year towards charge. The charge of making the ground and otherwise is great, but nothing to the profit; but the English tobacco hath small credit, as being too dull and earthy: nay, the Virginian tobacco, though that be in a hotter climate, can get no credit for the same cause: so that a trial to make tobacco more aromatical, and better concocted, here in England, were a thing of great profit. Some have gone about to do it by drenching the English tobacco in a decoction or infusion of Indian tob;icco: but those are but sophistications and toys; for nothing that is once perfect, and hath run its race, can receive much amendment. You must ever resort to the beginnings of things for melioration. The way of maturation of tobacco must, as in other plants, be from the heat either of the earth or of the sun: we see some leading of this in musk-melons, which are sown upon a hot-bed dunged below, upon a bank turned upon the south sun, to give heat by reflection; laid upon tiles, which increaseth the heat, and covered with straw to keep them from cold. They remove them also, which addeth some life: and by these helps they become as good in England, as in Italy or Provence. These, and the like means, may be tried in tobacco. Inquire also of the steeping of the roots in some such liquor as may give them vigour to put forth strong.
Experiment solitary touching several heats working the same effects.
856. Heat of the sun for the maturation of fruits; yea, and the heat of vivification of living creatures, are both represented and supplied by the heat of fire; and likewise the heats of the sun, and life, are represented one by the other. Trees set upon the backs of chimneys do ripen fruit sooner. Vines, that have been drawn in at the window of a kitchen, have sent forth grapes ripe a month at least before others. Stoves at the back of walls bring forth oranges here with us. Eggs, as is reported by some, have been hatched in the warmth of an oven. It is reported by the ancients, that the ostrich layeth her eggs under sand, where the heat of the sun discloseth them.
Experiment solitary touching swelling and dilatation in boiling.
857. Barley in the boiling swelleth not much; wheat swelleth more; rice extremely; insomuch as a quarter of a pint, unboiled, will arise to a pint boiled. The cause no doubt is, for that the more close and compact the body is, the more it will dilate: now barley is the most hollow; wheat more solid than that; and rice most solid of all. It may be also that some bodies have a kind of lentour, and more depertible nature than others: as we see it evident in coloration; for a small quantity of saffron will tinct more than a very great quantity of brasil or wine.
Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of fruits.
858. Fruit groweth sweet by rolling, or pressing them gently with the hand; as rolling pears, damascenes, &c.: by rottenness; as medlars, services, sloes, hips, &c.: by time; as apples, wardens, pomegranates, &c.: by certain special maturations; as by laying them in hay, straw, &c.: and by fire; as in roasting, stewing, baking, &c. The cause of the sweetness by rolling and pressing, is cmollition, which they properly induce; as in beating of stock
fish, flesh, &c.: by rottenness is, for that the spirits of the fruit by putrefaction gather heat, and thereby digest the harder part, for in all putrefactions there is a degree of heat: by time and keeping is, because the spirits of the body do ever feed upon the tangible parts, and attenuate them: by several maturations is, by some degree of heat: and by fire is, because it is the proper work of heat to refine, and to incorporate; and all sourness consisteth in some grossness of the body; and all incorporation doth make the mixture of the body more equal in all its parts; which ever induceth a milder taste.
Experiment solitary touching flesh edible, and not edible.
859. Of fleshes, some are edible; some, except it be in famine, not. For those that are not edible, the cause is, for that they have commonly too much bitterness of taste; and therefore those creatures which are fierce and choleric are not edible; as lions, wolves, squirrels, dogs, foxes, horses, &c. As for kine, sheep, goats, deer, swine, conies, hares, &c. we see they are mild and fearful. Yet it is true, that horses, which are beasts of courage, have been, and are eaten by some nations; as the Scythians were called Hyppophagi; and the Chinese eat horse-flesh at this day; and some gluttons have used to have colt's flesh baked. In birds, such as are carnivorse, and birds of prey, are commonly no good meat; but the reason is, rather the choleric nature of those birds, than their feeding upon flesh: for pewets, gulls, shovellers, ducks, do feed upon flesh, and yet are good meat. And we see that those birds which are of prey, or feed upon flesh, are good meat when they are very young; as hawks, rooks out of the nest, owls, &c. Man's flesh is not eaten. The reasons are three: first, because men in humanity do abhor it: secondly, because no living creature that dieth of itself is good to eat: and therefore the cannibals themselves eat no man's flesh of those that die of themselves, but of such as are slain. The third is, because there must be generally some disparity between the nourishment and the body nourished; and they must not be over-near, or like: yet we see, that in great weaknesses and consumptions, men have been sustained with women's inilk; and Ficinus, fondly, as I conceive, adviseth, for the prolongation of life, that a vein be opened in the arm of some wholesome young man, and the biood to be sucked. It is said that witches do greedily eat man's flesh: which if it be true, besides a devilish appetite in them, it is likely to proceed, for that man's flesh may send up high and pleasing vapours, which may stir the imagination; and witches' felicity is chiefly in imagination, as hath been said.
Experiment solitary touching the salamander.
860. There is an ancient received tradition of the salamander, that it liveth in the fire, and hath force also to extinguish the fire. It must have two things, if it be true, to this operation: the one a very close skin, whereby flame, which in the midst is not so hot, cannot enter; for we see that if the palm of the hand be anointed thick with white of egg, and then