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aqua vitse be poured upon it, and inflamed, yet one may endure the flame a pretty while. The other is some extreme cold and quenching virtue in the body of that creature, which choketh the fire. We see that milk quencheth wild-fire better than water, because it entereth better.
Experiment solitary touching the contrary operations of time upon fruits and liquors.
861. Time doth change fruit, as apples, pears, pomegranates, &c. from more sour to more sweet: but contrariwise liquors, even those that are of the juice of fruit, from more sweet to more sour: as wort, muste, new verjuice, &c. The cause is, the congregation of the spirits together: for in bolh kinds the spirit is attenuated by time; but in the first kind it is more diffused, and more mastered by the grosser parts, which the spirits do but digest: but in drinks the spirits do reign, and finding less opposilion of the parts, become themselves more strong! which causeth also more strength in the liquor; such as, if the spirits be of the hotter sort, the liquor becometh apt to burn: but in time, it causeth likewise, when the higher spirits are evaporated, more sourness.
Experiment solitary touching blows and bruises.
862. It hath been observed by the ancients, that plates of metal, and especially of brass, applied presently to a blow, will keep it down from swelling. The cause is repercussion, without humectation or entrance of any body: for the plate hath only a virtual cold, which doth not search into the hurt; whereas all plasters and ointments do enter. Surely, the cause that blows and bruises induce swellings is, for that the spirits resorting to succour the part that laboureth, draw also the humours with them: for we see, that it is not the repulse and the return of the humour in the part strucken that causeth it; for that gouts and tooth-aches cause swelling, where there is no percussion at all.
Experiment solitary touching the orrice root.
863. The nature of the orrice root is almost singular; for there be few odoriferous roots ; and in those that are in any degree sweet, it is but the same sweetness with the wood or leaf: but the orrice is not sweet in the leaf; neither is the flower any thing so sweet as the root. The root seemeth to have a tender dainty heat; which, when it cometh above ground to the sun and the air, vanisheth : for it is a great mollifier; and hath a smell like a violet.
Experiment solitary touching the compression of liquors.
864. It hath been observed by the ancients, that a great vessel full, drawn into bottles, and then the liquor put again into the vessel, will not fill the vessel again so full as it was, but that it may take in more liquor: and that this holdeth more in wine than in water. The cause may be trivial; namely, by the expense of the liquor, in regard some may stick to the sides of the bottles : but there may be a cause more subtile; which is, that the liquor in the
vessel is not so much compressed Bs in the bottle; because in the vessel the liquor meeteth with liquor chiefly; but in the bottles a small quantity of liquor meeteth with the sides of the bottles, which compress it so that it doth not open again.
Experiment solitary touching the working of water upon air contiguous.
865. Water, being contiguous with air, cooleth it, but moisteneth it not, except it vapour. The cause is. for that heat and cold have a virtual transition, without communication of substance; but moisture not: and to all madefaction there is required an imbibition: but where the bodies are of such several levity and gravity as they mingle not, there can follow no imbibition. And therefore, oil likewise lieth at the top of the water, without commixture: and a drop of water running swiftly over a straw or smooth body, wetteth not.
Experiment solitary touching the nature of air.
866. Star-light nights, yea, and bright moon-shine nights, are colder than cloudy nights. The cause is, the dryness and fineness of the air, which thereby becometh more piercing and sharp; and therefore great continents are colder than islands: and as for the moon, though itself inclineth the air to moisture, yet when it shineth bright, it argueth the air is dry. Also close air is warmer than open air; which, it may be, is, for that the true cause of cold is an expiration from the globe of the earth, which in open places is stronger; and again, air itself, if it be not altered by that expiration, is not without some secret degree of heat; as it is not likewise without some secret degree of light: for otherwise cats and owls could not see in the night; but that air hath a little light, proportionable to the visual spirits of those creatures.
Experiments in consort touching the eyes and sight.
867. The eyes do move one and the same way; for when one eye moveth to the nostril, the other movcth from the nostril. The cause is motion of consent, which in the spirits and parts spiritual is strong. But yet use will induce the contrary; for some can squint when they will: and the common tradition is, that if children be set upon a table with a candle behind them, both eyes will move outwards, as affecting to see the light, and so induce squinting.
868. We see more exquisitely with one eye shut, than with both open. The cause is, for that the spirits visual unite themselves more, and so become stronger. For you may see, by looking in a glass, that when you shut one eye, the pupil of the other eye that is open dilateth.
869. The eyes, if the sight meet not in one angle, see things double. The cause is, for that seeing two things, and seeing one thing twice, worketh the same effect: and therefore a little pellet held between two fingers laid across, seemeth double.
870. Pore-blind men see best in the dimmer lights; and likewise have their sight stronger near hand, than those that are not pore-blind; and can read and write smaller letters. The cause is, for that the spirits visual in those that are pore-blind, are thinner and rarer than in others; and therefore the greater light disperseth them. For the same cause they need contracting; but being contracted, are more strong than the visual spirits of ordinary eyes are; as when we see through a level, the sight is the stronger; and so is it when you gather the eye-lids somewhat close: and it is commonly seen in those that are pore-blind, that they do much gather the eye-lids together. But old men, when they would see to read, put the paper somewhat afar off: the cause is, for that old men's spirits visual, contrary to those of pore-blind men, unite not, but when the object is at some good distance from their eyes.
871. Men see better, when their eyes are overagainst the sun or a candle, if they put their hand a little before their eyes. The reason is, for that the glaring of the sun or the candle doth weaken the eye; whereas the light circumfuscd is enough for the perception. For we see that an over-light maketh the eyes dazzle; insomuch as perpetual looking against the sun would cause blindness. Again, if men come out of a great light into a dark room; and contrariwise, if they come out of a dark room into a light room, they seem to have a mist before their eyes, and see worse than they shall do after they have stayed a little while, either in the light or in the dark. The cause is, for that the spirits visual are, upon a sudden change, disturbed and put out of order; and till they be recollected do not perform their function well. For when they are much dilated by light, they cannot contract suddenly j and when they are much contracted by darkness, they cannot dilate suddenly. And excess of both these, that is, of the dilatation and contraction of the spirits visual, if it be long, destroyeth the eye. For as long looking against the sun or fire hurteth the eye by dilatation; so curious painting in small volumes, and reading of small letters, do hurt the eye by contraction.
872. It hath been observed, that in anger the eyes wax red; and in blushing, not the eyes, but the ears, and the parts behind them. The cause is, for that in anger the spirits ascend and wax eager; which is most easily seen in the eyes, because they are translucid; though withal it maketh both the cheeks and the gills red: but in blushing, it is true the spirits ascend likewise to succour both the eyes and the face, which are the parts that labour; but then they are repulsed by the eyes, for that the eyes, in shame, do put back the spirits that ascend to them, as unwilling to look abroad: for no man in that passion doth look strongly, but dejectedly; and that repulsion from the eyes diverteth the spirits and heat more to the ears, and the parts by them.
873. The objects of the sight may cause a great pleasure and delight in the spirits, but no pain or great offence; except it be by memory, as hath been said. The glimpses and beams of diamonds that strike the eye; Indian feathers, that have glorious colours; the coming into a fair garden ; the coming into a fair room richly furnished; a beautiful person; and the like; do delight and exhilarate the spirits much. The reason why it holdeth not in
the offence is, for that the sight is the most spiritual of the senses; whereby it hath no object gross enough to offend it. But the cause chiefly is, for that there be no active objects to offend the eye. For harmonical sounds, and discordant sounds, are both active and positive: so are sweet smells and stinks: so are bitter and sweet in tastes: so are over-hot and over-cold in touch: but blackness and darkness are indeed but privatives; and therefore have little or no activity. Somewhat they do contristate, but very little.
Experiment solitary touching the colour of the sea, or other water.
874. Water of the sea, or otherwise, looketh blacker when it is moved, and whiter when it resteth. The cause is, for that by means of the motion, the beams of light pass not straight, and therefore must be darkened; whereas, when it resteth, the beams do pass straight. Besides, splendour hath a degree of whiteness; especially if there be a little repercussion: for a looking-glass with the steel behind, looketh whiter than glass simple. This experiment deserveth to be driven farther, in trying by what means motion may hinder sight.
Experiment solitary touching shell-ftsh.
875. Shell-fish have been, by 6ome of the ancients, compared and sorted with the insecta; but I see no reason why they should; for they have male and female as other fish have: neither are they bred of putrefaction; especially such as do move. Nevertheless it is certain, that oysters, and cockles, and mussels, which move not, have no discriminate sex. Query, in what time, and how they are bred? It seemeth, that shells of oysters are bred where none were before; and it is tried, that the great horsemussel, with the fine shell, that breedeth in ponds, hath bred within thirty years: but then, which is strange, it hath been tried, that they do not only gape and shut as the oysters do, but remove from one place to another.
Experiment solitary touching the right side and the left.
876. The senses are alike strong, both on the right side and on the left; but the limbs on the right side are stronger. The cause may be, for that the brain, which is the instrument of sense, is alike on both sides; but motion, and abilities of moving, are somewhat holpen from the liver, which lieth on the right side. It may be also, for that the senses are put in exercise indifferently on both sides from the time of our birth; but the limbs are used most on the right side, whereby custom helpeth ; for we see that some are left-handed; which are such as have used the left hand most.
Experiment solitary touching frictions.
877. Frictions make the parts more fleshy and full; as we see both in men, and in the currying of horses, &c. The cause is, for that they draw greater quantity of spirits and blood to the parts: and again, because they draw the aliment more forcibly from within: and again, because they relax the poreB, and so make better passage for the spirits, blood, and aliment: lastly, because they dissipate and digest any inutile or excrementitious moisture which lieth in the flesh; all which help assimilation. Frictions also do more fill and impinguate the body, than eiercise. The cause is, for that in frictions the inward parts are at rest; which in exercise are beaten, many times, too much: and for the same reason, as we have noted heretofore, galley-slaves are fat and lieshy, because they stir the limbs more, and the inward parts less.
Experiment solitary touching globes appearing flat at distance.
878. All globes afar off appear flat. The cause is, for that distance, being a secondary object of sight, is not otherwise discerned, than by more or ins light; which disparity, when it cannot be discerned, all seemeth one: as it is, generally, in objects not distinctly discerned; for so letters, if they be so far off as they cannot be discerned, show but it a du&kish paper; and all engravings and embossings, afar off, appear plain.
Experiment solitary touching shadows.
8?9. The uttermost parts of shadows seem ever to tremble. The cause is, for that the little motes which we see in the sun do ever stir, though there be no wind; arid therefore those moving, in the meeting of the light and the shadow, from the light to the shadow, and from the shadow to the light, do show the shadow to move, because the medium moveth.
Experiment solitary touching the rolling and breaking of the seas.
880. Shallow and narrow seas break more than deep and large. The cause is, for that, the impulsion being the same in both, where there is greater quantity of water, and likewise space enough, there the water rolleth and moveth, both more slowly, and *ith a sloper rise and fall: but where there is less water, and less space, and the water dasheth more against the bottom, there it moveth more swiftly, and more in precipice; for in the breaking of the waves there is ever a precipice.
Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of salt water.
881. It hath been observed by the ancients, that salt water boiled, or boiled and cooled again, is more potable, than of itself raw: and yet the taste of salt in distillations by fire riseth not, for the distilled water will be fresh. The cause may be, for that the salt part of the water doth partly rise into a kind of scum on the top, and partly goeth into a sediment in the bottom; and so is rather a separation than an evaporation. But it is too gross to rise into a tapour; and so is a bitter taste likewise; for simple distilled waters, of wormwood, and the like, are not bitter.
Experiment solitary touching the return of saltness in pits upon the sea-shore.
882. It hath been set down before, that pits upon the sea-shore turn into fresh water, by percolation of the salt through the sand; but it is farther noted, by some of the ancients, that in some places of Africa, after a time, the water in such pits will become brackish again. The cause is, for that after a time, the very sands through which the salt water passeth, become salt; and so the strainer itself is tinctured with salt. The remedy therefore is, to dig still new pits, when the old wax brackish; as if you would change your strainer.
Experiment solitary touching attraction by similitude of substance.
883. It hath been observed by the ancients, that salt water will dissolve salt put into it, in less time than fresh water will dissolve it. The cause may be, for that the salt in the precedent water doth, by similitude of substance, draw the salt new put in unto it; whereby it diffuseth in the liquor more speedily. This is a noble experiment, if it be true, for it showeth means of more quick and easy infusions; and it is likewise a good instance of attraction by similitude of substance. Try it with sugar put into water formerly sugared, and into other water unsugared.
Experiment solitary touching attraction.
884. Put sugar into wine, part of it above, part under the wine, and you shall find, that which may seem strange, that the sugar above the wine w ill soften and dissolve sooner than that within the wine. The cause is, for that the wine entereth that part of the sugar which is under the wine, by simple infusion or spreading; but that part above the wine is likewise forced by sucking; for all spongy bodies expel the air and draw in liquor, if it be contiguous: as we see it also in sponges put part above the water. It is worthy the inquiry, to see how you may make more accurate infusions, by help of attraction.
Experiment solitary touching heat under earth.
885. Water in wells is warmer in winter than in summer; and so air in caves. The cause is, for that in the hither parts, under the earth, there is a degree of some heat, as appeareth in sulphureous veins, &c. which shut close in, as in winter, is the more; but if it perspire, as it doth in summer, it is the less.
Experiment solitary touching flying in the air.
886. It is reported, that amongst the Leucadians, in ancient time, upon a superstition they did use to precipitate a man from a high cliff into the sea; tying about him with strings, at some distance, many' great fowls; and fixing unto his body divers feathers, spread, to break the fall. Certainly many birds of good wing, ns kites, and the like, would bear up a good weight, as they fly; and spreading of feathers thin and close, and in great breadth, will likewise
bear up a great weight, being even laid, without tilting upon the sides. The farther extension of this experiment for flying may be thought upon.
Experiment solitary touching the dye of scarlet.
887. There is in some places, namely in Cephalonia, a little shrub which they call holly-oak, or dwarf-oak: upon the leaves whereof there riseth a tumour like a blister; which they gather, and rub out of it a certain red dust, that converteth, after a while, into worms, which they kill with wine, as is reported, when they begin to quicken: with this dust they dye scarlet.
Experiment solitary touching maleficiating.
888. In Zant it is very ordinary to make men impotent to accompany with their wives. The like is practised in Gascony; where it is called nouer P eguillette. It is practised always upon the weddingday. And in Zant the mothers themselves do it, by way of prevention; because thereby they hinder other charms; and can undo their own. It is a thing the civil law taketh knowledge of j and therefore is of no light regard.
Experime?it solitary touching the rise of water by means of flame.
889. It is a common experiment, but the cause is mistaken. Take a pot, or better a glass, because therein you may see the motion, and set a candle lighted in the bottom of a bason of water, and turn the mouth of the pot or glass over the candle, and and it will make the water rise. They ascribe it to the drawing of heat; which is not true: for it appeareth plainly to be but a motion of nexe, which they call ne detur vacuum; and it proceedeth thus. The flame of the candle, as soon as it is covered, being suffocated by the close air, lesseneth by little and little j during which time there is some little ascent of water, but not much: for the flame occupying less and less room, as it lesseneth, the water succeedeth. But upon the instant of the candle's going out, there is a sudden rise of a great deal of water; for that the body of the flame filleth no more place, and so the air and the water succeed. It worketh the same effect, if instead of water you put flour or sand into the bason: which showeth, that it is not the flame's drawing the liquor as nourishment, as it is supposed; for all bodies are alike unto it as it is ever in motion of nexe; insomuch as I have seen the glass, being held by the hand, hath lifted up the bason and all; the motion of nexe did so clasp the bottom of the bason. That experiment, when the bason was lifted up, was made with oil, and not with water: nevertheless this is true, that at the very first setting of the mouth of the glass upon the bottom of the bason,
,it draweth up the water a little, and then standeth at a stay, almost till the candle's going out, as was said. This may show some attraction at first: but of this we will speak more, when we handle attractions by heat.
Experiments in consort touching the influences of 'the moon.
Of the power of the celestial bodies, and what more secret influences they have, besides the two manifest influences of heat and light, we shall speak when we handle experiments touching the celestial bodies; meanwhile we will give some directions for more certain trials of the virtue and influences of the moon, which is our nearest neighbour.
The influences of the moon, most observed, are four; the drawing forth of heat; the inducing of putrefaction; the increase of moisture ; the exciting of the motions of spirits.
890. For the drawing forth of heat, we have formerly prescribed to take water warm, and to set part of it against the moon-beams, and part of it with a screen between; and to see whether that which standeth exposed to the beams will not cool sooner. But because this is but a small interposition, though in the sun we see a small shade dcth much, it were good to try it when the moon shineth, and when the moon shineth not at all; and with water warm in a glass bottle, as well as in a dish; and with cinders; and with iron red-hot, &c.
891. For the inducing of putrefaction, it were good to try it with flesh or fish exposed to the moonbeams; and again exposed to the air when the moon shineth not, for the like time; to see whether will corrupt sooner: and try it also with capon, cr some other fowl, laid abroad, to see whether it will mortify and become tender sooner: try it also with dead flies, or dead worms, having a little water cast upon them, to see whether will pntrify sooner. Try it also with an apple or orange, having holes made in their tops, to see whether will rot or mould sooner. Try it also with Holland cheese, having wine put into it, whether will breed mites sooner or greater.
892. For the increase of moisture, the opinion received is; that seeds will grow soonest; and hair, and nails, and hedges, and herbs, cut, &c. will grow soonest, if they be set or cut in the increase of the moon. Also that brains in rabbits, woodcocks, calves, &c. are fullest in the full of the moon: and so of marrow in the bones: and so of oysters and cockles, which of all the rest are the easiest tried if you have them in pits.
893. Take some seeds, or roots, as onions, &c. and set some of them immediately after the change; and others of the same kind immediately after the full: let them be as like as can be; the earth also the same as near as may be; and therefore best in pots. Let the pots also stand where no rain or sun may come to them, lest the difference of the weather confound the experiment: and then see in what time the seeds set in the increase of the moon come to a certain height; and how they differ from those that are set in the decrease of the moon.
894. It is like, that the brain of man waxeth moister and fuller upon the full of the moon: and therefore it were good for those that have moist brains, and are great drinkers, to take fume of lignum, aloes, rosemary, frankincense, Src. about the full of the moon. It is like also, that the humours in men's bodies increase and decrease as the moon doth: and therefore it were good to purge some day or two after the full; for that then the humours will not replenish so soon again.
895. As for the exciting of the motion of the spirits, you must note that the growth of hedges, herbs, hair, &c. is caused from the moon, by exciting of the spirits, as well as by increase of the moisture. But for spirits in particular, the great instance is in lunacies.
896. There may be other secret effects of the influence of the moon, which are not yet brought into observation. It may be, that if it so fall out that ihe wind be north, or north-east, in the full of the moon, it increaseth cold; and if south, or southwest, it disposeth the air for a good while to warmth and rain; which would be observed.
89/. It may be, that children and young cattle, that are brought forth in the full of the moon, are stronger and larger than those that are brought forth in the wane; and those also which are begotten in the full of the moon t so that it might be good husbandry to put rams and bulls to their females, somewhat before the full of the moon. It may be also, that the eggs laid in the full of the moon breed the better birds; and a number of the like effects which may be brought into observation. Qvenj also, whether great thunders and earthquakes be not most in the full of the moon.
Experiment solitary touching vinegar.
898. The turning of wine to vinegar is a kind of putrefaction: and in making of vinegar, they use to set vessels of wine over-against the noon sun; which calleth out the more oily spirits, and leaveth the liquor more sour and hard. We see also, that burnt *ine is more hard and astringent than wine unburnt. It is said, that cider in navigations under the line ripeneth, when wine or beer sou ret h. It were good to set a rundlet of verjuice over against the sun in summer, as they do vinegar, to see whether it will ripen and sweeten.
Experiment solitary touching creatures that sleep all winter.
899. There be divers creatures that sleep all winas the bear, the hedge-hog, the bat, the bee, &c.
These all wax fat when they sleep, and egest not. The cause of their fattening during their sleeping time, may be the want of assimilating; for whatever assimilateth not to flesh turneth either to sweat or fat. These creatures, for part of their sleeping time, have been observed not to stir at all; and for the other part, to stir, but not to remove. And they get warm and close places to sleep in. When the Flemings wintered in Nova Zembla, the
bears about the middle of November went to sleep; and then the foxes began to come forth, which durst not before. It is noted by some of the ancients, that the she-bear breedeth, and lyeth in with her young, during that time of rest: and that a bear big with young hath seldom been seen.
Experiment solitary touching the generation of creatures by copulation, and by putrefaction.
900. Some living creatures are procreated by copulation between male and female: some by putrefaction: and of those which come by putrefaction, many do, nevertheless, afterwards procreate by copulation. For the cause of both generations: first, it is most certain, that the cause of all vivification :a a gentle and proportionable heat, working upon a glutinous and yielding substance: for the heat doth bring forth spirit in that substance: and the substance being glutinous produceth two effects; the one, that the spirit is detained, and cannot break forth: the other, that the matter being gentle and yielding, is driven forwards by the motion of the spirits, after some swelling, into shape and members. Therefore all sperm, all menstruous substance, all matter whereof creatures are produced by putrefaction, have evermore a closeness, lentor, and sequacity. It seemeth therefore, that the generation by sperm only, and by putrefaction, have two different causes. The first is, for that creatures which have a definite and exact shape, as those have which are procreated by copulation, cannot be produced by a weak and casual heat; nor out of matter which is not exactly prepared according to the species. The second is, for that there is a greater time required for maturation of perfect creatures; for if the time required in vivification be of any length, then the spirits will exhale before the creature be mature; except it be enclosed in a place where it may have continuance of the heat, access of some nourishment to maintain it, and closeness that may keep it from exhaling: and such places are the wombs and matrices of the females. And therefore all creatures made of putrefaction are of more uncertain shape; and are made in shorter time; and need not so perfect an enclosure, though some closeness be commonly required. As for the heathen opinion, which was, that upon great mutations of the world, perfect creatures were first engendered of concretion; fcs well as frogs, and worms, and flies, and such like, are now; we know it to be vain: but if any snch thing should be admitted, discoursing according to sense, it cannot be, except you admit of a chaos first, and commixture of heaven and earth. For the frame of the world, once in order, cannot affect it by any excess or casualty.