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the like written of Greenland, and divers other the cold countries.*
The trees in the cold countries are such as are fuller of rosin, pitch, tar, which are matters apt for fire, and the woods themselves more combustible than those in much hotter countries; as for example, fir, pine-apple, juniper: Qu. whether their trees of the same kind that ours are, as oak and ash, bear not, in the more cold countries, a wood more brittle and ready to take fire than the same kinds with us?
The sun-beams heat manifestly by reflexion, as in countries pent in with hills, upon walls or buildings, upon pavements, upon gravel more than earth, np<m arable more than grass, upon rivers if they be not very open, &c.
The uniting or collection of the sun-beams multiplied heat, as in burning-glasses, which are made thinner in the middle than on the sides, as I take it, contrary to spectacles; and the operation of them is, as I remember, first to place them between the sun and the body to be fired, and then to draw them upward towards the sun, which it is true maketh the angle of the cone sharper. But then I take it if the glass had been first placed at the same distance, to which it is after drawn, it would not have had that force, and yet that had been all one to the sharpness of the angle. Qu.
•So in that the sun's beams are hotter perpendicularly than obliquely, it may be imputed to the union of the beams, which in case of perpendicularity reflect into the very same lines with the direct; and the farther from perpendicularity the more obtuse the angle, and the greater distance between the direct beam and the reflected beam.
The sun-beams raise vapours out of the earth, and when they withdraw they fall back in dews.
The sun-beams do many times scatter the mists which are in the mornings.
The sun-beams cause the divers returns of the herbs, plants, and fruits of the earth; for we see in lemon-trees and the like, that there is coming on at once fruit ripe, fruit unripe, and blossoms; which may show that the plant worketh to put forth continually, were it not for the variations of the accesses and recesses of the sun, which call forth and put back.
The excessive heat of the sun doth wither and destroy vegetables, as well as the cold doth nip and blast them.
The heat or beams of the sun doth take away 'he smell of flowers, specially such as are of a milder
The beams of the sun do disclose summer flowers, as the pimpernel, marigold, and almost all flowers rise, for they close commonly morning and evening, or in overcast weather, and open in the brightness of the sun; which is but imputed to dryness and moisture, which doth make the beams heavy or erect; and not to any other propriety in the sunbeams; so they report not only a closing but a
* No doubt but infinite power of the heat of the sun in cold entries, though it be not to the analogy of men, and fruits,
bending or inclining in the heliotropium and calendula. Qu.
The sun-beams do ripen all fruits, and addeth to them a sweetness or fatness; and yet some sultry hot days overcast, are noted to ripen more than bright days.
The sun-beams are thought to mend distilled waters, the glasses being well stopped, and to make them the more virtuous and fragrant.
The sun-beams do turn wine into vinegar; but Qu. whether they would not sweeten verjuice?
The sun-beams do pall any wine or beer that is set in them.
The sun-beams do take away the lustre of any silks or arras.
There is almost no mine but lieth some depth in the earth; gold is conceived to lie highest, and in the hottest countries, yet Thracia and Hungary are cold, and the hills of Scotland have yielded gold, but in small grains or quantity.
If you set a root of a tree too deep in the ground, that root will perish, and the stock will put forth a new root nearer the superficies of the earth.
Some trees and plants prosper best in the shade: as the bayes, strawberries, some wood-flowers.
Almost all flies love the sun-beams, so do snakes; toads and worms the contrary.
The sun-beams tanneth the skin of man; and in some places turneth it to black.
The sun-beams are hardly endured by many, but cause head-ache, faintness, and with many they cause rheums; yet to aged men they are comfortable.
The sun causes pestilence, which with us rages about autumn: but it is reported in Barbary they break up about June, and rage most in tlte winter.
The heat of the sun, and of fire, and living creatures, agree in some things which pertain to vivification; as the back of a chimney will set forward an apricot-tree as well as the sun; the fire will raise a dead butterfly as well as the sun; and so will the heat of a living creature. The heat of the sun in sand will hatch an egg. Qu.
The heat of the sun in the hottest countries nothing so violent as that of fire, no not scarcely so hot to the sense as that of a living creature.
The sun, a fountain of light as well as heat. The other celestial bodies manifest in light, and yet nan constat whether all borrowed, as in the moon; but obscure in heat.
The southern and western wind with us is the warmest, whereof the one bloweth from the sun, the other from the sea; the northern and eastern the more cold. Qu. whether in the coast of Florida, or at Brasil, the east wind be not the warmest, and the west the coldest; and so beyond the antarctic tropic, the southern wind the coldest.
The air useth to be extreme hot before thunders.
The sea and air ambient appeareth to be hotter than that at land; for in the northern voyages two or three degrees farther at the open sea, they find less ice than two or three degrees more south near land: but Qu. for that may be by reason of the shores and shallows.
The snows dissolve fastest upon the sea-coasts, yet the winds are counted the bitterest from the sea, and such as trees will bend from. Qu.
The streams or clouds of brightness which appear in the firmament, being such through which the stars may be seen, and shoot not, but rest, are signs of heat.
The pillars of light, which are so upright, and do commonly shoot and vary, are signs of cold; but both these are signs of drought.
The air when it is moved is to the sense colder; as in winds, fannings, ventilabra.
The air in things fibrous, as fleeces, furs, &c. warm; and those stuffs to the feeling warm.
The water to man's body seemeth colder than the air; and so in summer, in swimming it seemeth at the first going in; and yet after one hath been in a while, at the cometh forth again, the air seemeth colder than the water.
The snow more cold to the sense than water, and the ice than snow; and they have in Italy means to keep snow and ice for the cooling of their drinks: Qu. whether it be so in froth in respect of the liquor?
Baths of hot water feel hottest at the first going
The frost dew which we see in hoar frost, and in the rimes upon trees or the like, accounted more mortifying cold than snow; for snow cherisheth the ground, and any thing sowed in it; the other biteth and killeth.
Stone and metal exceeding cold to the feeling more than wood: yea, more than jet or amber, or horn, which are no less smooth.
The snow is ever in the winter season, but the hail, which is more of the nature of ice, is ever in the summer season; whereupon it is conceived, that as the hollows of the earth are warmest in the winter, so that region of the air is coldest in the summer; as if they were a fugue of the nature of either from the contrary, and a collecting itself to an union, and so to a farther strength.
So in the shades under trees, in the summer, which stand in an open field, the shade noted to be colder than in a wood.
Cold effecteth congelation in liquors, so as they do consist and hold together, which before did run.
Cold breaketh glasses, if they be close stopped, in frost, when the liquor freezeth within.
Cold in extreme maketh metals, that are dry and brittle, cleft and crack, ^raque dissiliunt; so of pots of earth and glass.
Cold maketh bones of living creatnres more fragile.
Cold maketh living creatures to swell in the joints, and the blood to clot, and turn more blue.
Bitter frosts do make all drinks to taste more dead and flat.
Cold maketh the arteries and flesh more asper and rough.
Cold causes rheums and distillations by compressing the brain, and laxes by like reason.
Cold increases appetite in the stomach, and willingness to stir.
Cold maketh the fire to scald and sparkle.
Paracelsus reporteth, that if a glass of wine be set upon a terras in a bitter frost, it will leave some liquor unfrozen in the centre of the glass, which excelleth spiritus vini drawn by fire.
Cold in Muscovy, and the like countries, causes those parts which are voidest of blood, as the nose, the ears, the toes, the fingers, to mortify and rot; especially if you come suddenly to fire, after you have been in the air abroad, they are sure to moulder and dissolve. They use for remedy, as is said, washing in snow water.
If a man come out of a bitter cold suddenly to the fire, he is ready to swoon, or be overcome.
So contrariwise at Nova Zembla, when they opened their doors at times to go forth, he that opened the door was in danger to be overcome.
The quantity of fish in the cold countries, Norway, &c. very abundant.
The quantity of fowl and eggs laid in the cliffs in great abundance.
In Nova Zembla they found no beasts but bean and foxes, whereof the bears gave over to be seen about September, and the foxes began.
Meat will keep from putrifying longer in frosty weather, than at other times.
In Iceland they keep fish, by exposing it to the cold, from putrifying without salt.
The nature of man endureth the colds in the countries of Scricfinnia, Biarmia, Lappia, Iceland, Greenland; and that not by perpetual keeping in stoves in the winter time, as they do in Russia: but contrariwise, their chief fairs and intercourse is written to be in the winter, because the ice evens and levelleth the passages of waters, plashes, &c.
A thaw after a frost doth greatly rot and mellow the ground.
Extreme cold hurteth the eyes, and causeth blindness in many beasts, as is reported.
The cold maketh any solid substance, as wood, stone, metal, put to the flesh, to cleave to it, and to pull the flesh after it, and so put to any cloth that is moist.
Cold maketh the pilage of beasts more thick and long, as foxes of Muscovy, sables, &c.
Cold make the pilage of most beasts incline to grayness or whiteness, as foxes, bears, and so the plumage of fowls; and maketh also the crests of cocks and their feet white, as is reported.
Extreme cold will make nails leap out of the walls, and out of locks, and the like.
Extreme cold maketh leather to bestiff like horn.
In frosty weather the stars appear clearest and most sparkling.
In the change from frost to open weather, or from open weather to frosts, commonly great mists.
In extreme colds any thing never so little which arresteth the air maketh it to congeal; as we see in cobwebs in windows, which is one of the least and weakest threads that is, and yet drops gather about it like chains of pearl.
So in frosts, the inside of glass windows gathereth a dew; Qu. if not more without.
Qu. Whether the sweating of marble and stones be in frost, or towards rain.
Oil in time of frost gathereth to a substance, as of tallow; and it is said to sparkle some time, 30 as it giveth a light in the dark.
The countries which lie covered with snow, have a hastier maturation of all grain than in other countries, all being within three months, or thereabouts.
Qu. It is said, that compositions of honey, as mead, do ripen, and are most pleasant in the great colds.
The frosts with us are casual, and not tied to any months, so as they are not merely caused by the recess of the sun, but mixed with some inferior caoses. In the inland of the northern countries, as in Russia, the weather for the three or four months of November, December, January, February, is constant, viz. clear and perpetual frost, without snows or rains.
There is nothing in our region, which, by approach of a matter hot, will not take heat by transition or excitation.
There is nothing hot here with us but is in a kind of consumption, if it carry heat in itself; for all fired things are ready to consume; chafed things are ready to fire; and the heat of men's bodies needeth aliment to restore.
The transition of heat is without any imparting of substance, and yet remaineth after the body heated is withdrawn: for it is not like smells, for they leave some airs or parts; not like light, for that abideth not when the first body is removed; not unlike to the motion of the loadstone, which is lent without adhesion of substance, for if the iron be filed where it was rubbed, yet it will draw or turn
INQUISITIONS TOUCHING THE COMPOUNDING OF METALS.
To make proof of the incorporation of iron with flint, or other stone. For if it can be incorporated without over-great charge, or other incommodity, the cheapness of the flint or stone doth make the compound stuff profitable for divers uses. The doubts may be three in number.
First, Whether they will incorporate at all, otherwise than to a body that will not hold well together, but become brittle and uneven?
Secondly, Although it should incorporate well, yet whether the stuff will not be so stubborn as it will not work well with a hammer, whereby the charge in working will overthrow the cheapness of the material?
Thirdly, Whether they will incorporate, except the iron and stone be first calcined into powder? And if not, whether the charge of the calcination will not eat out the cheapness of the material?
The uses are most probable to be j first for the implements of the kitchen; as spits, ranges, cobirons, pots, &c.; then for the wars, as ordnance, portcullises, grates, chains, &c.
Note; the finer works of iron are not so probable to be served with such a stuff; as locks, clocks, small chains. &c. because the stuff is not like to be tough enough.
For the better use, in comparison of iron, it is like the stuff will be far lighter: for the weight of iron to flint is double and a third part; and, secondly, it is like to rust not so easily, but to be more clean.
The ways of trial are two: first, by the iron and stone of themselves, wherein it must be inquired, what are the stones that do easiliest melt. Secondly, with an additament, wherein brimstone is approved to help to the melting of iron or steel. But then it must be considered, whether the charge of the additament will not destroy the profit.
It must be known also, what proportion of the stone the iron will receive to incorporate well with it, and that with once melting; for if either the proportion be too small, or that it cannot be received but piecemeal by several meltings, the work cannot be of value.
To make proof of the incorporating of iron and brass. For the cheapness of the iron in comparison of the brass, if the uses may be served, doth promise profit. The doubt will be touching their incorporating; for that it is approved, that iron will not incorporate, neither with brass nor other metals, of itself, by simple fire: so as the inquiry must be upon the calcination, and the additament, and the charge of them.
The uses will be for such things as are now made of brass, and might be as well served by the compound stuff; wherein the doubts will be chiefly of the toughness, and of the beauty.
First, therefore, if brass ordnance could be made of the compound stuff, in respect of the cheapness of the iron, it would be of great use.
The vantage which brass ordnance hath over iron, is chiefly, as I suppose, because it will hold the blow, though it be driven far thinner than the iron can be; whereby it saveth both in the quantity of the material, and in the charge and commodity of mounting and carriage, in regard, by reason of the thinness, it beareth much less weight: there may be also somewhat in being not so easily over-heated.
Secondly, for the beauty. Those things wherein the beauty or lustre are esteemed, are andirons, and all manner of images, and statues, and columns, and tombs, and the like. So as the doubt will be double for the beauty; the one, whether the colour will please so well, because it will not be so like gold as brass? The other, whether it will polish so well? Wherein for the latter it is probable it will; for steel glosses are more resplendent than the like plates of brass would be; and so is the glittering of a blade. And besides, I take it, andiron brass, which they call white brass, hath some mixture of tin to help the lustre. And for the golden colour, it may be by some small mixture of orpiment, such as they use to brass in the yellow alchemy; it will easily recover that which the iron loseth. Of this the eye must be the judge upon proof made.
But now for pans, pots, curfews, counters, and the like, the beauty will not be so much respected, so as the compound stuff is like to pass.
For the better use of the compounded stuff, it will be sweeter and cleaner than brass alone, which jieldeth a smell or soiliness j and therefore may be better for the vessels of the kitchen and brewing. It will also be harder than brass, where hardness may be required.
For the trial, the doubts will be two: first, the over-weight of brass towards iron, which will make iron float on the top in the melting. This perhaps will be holpen with the calaminar stone, which consented! so well with brass, and, as I take it, is lighter than iron. The other doubt will be the stiffness and dryness of iron to melt; which must be holpen either by moistening the iron, or opening it. For the first, perhaps some mixture of lead will help. Which is as much more liquid than brass, as iron is less liquid. The opening may be holpen by some mixture of sulphur: so as the trials would be with brass, iron, calaminar stone, and sulphur; and then again with the same composition, and an addition of some lead; and in all this the charge must be considered, whether it eat not out the profit of the cheapness of iron?
There be two proofs to be made of incorporation of metals for magnificence and delicacy. The one for the eye, and the other for the ear. Statue-metal, and bell-metal, and trumpet-metal, and.string-metal; in all these, though the mixture of brass or copper should be dearer than the brass itself, yet the pleasure will advance the price to profit.
First therefore for statue-metal, see Pliny's mixtures, which are almost forgotten, and consider the charge.
Try likewise the mixture of tin in large proportion with copper, and observe the colour and beauty, it being polished. But chiefly let proof be made'of the incorporating of copper or brass with glass-metal, for that is cheap, and is like to add a great glory and shining.
For bell-metal. First, it is to be known what is the composition which is now in use. Secondly, it is probable that it is the dryness of the metal that doth help the clearness of the sound, and the moistness that dnlleth it; and therefore the mixtures that are probable, are steel, tin, glass-metal.
For string-metal, or trumpet-metal, it is the same reason; save that glass-metal may not be used, because it will make it too brittle; and trial may be made with mixture of silver, it being but a delicacy, with iron or brass.
To make proof of the incorporation of silver and tin in equal quantity, or with two parts silver and °ne part tin, and to observe whether it be of equal beauty and lustre with pure silver; and also whether >t yield no soiliness more than silver? And again, whether it will endure the ordinary fire which belongeth to chafing-dishes, posnets, and such other silver vessels? And if it do not endure the fire, yet whether by some mixture of iron it may not be made more fixed? For if it be in beauty and all the uses aforesaid equal to silver, it were a thing of singular profit to the state, and to all particular persons, to change silver plate or vessel into the compound stuff, •*ing a kind of silver electre, and to turn the rest
*ol. i. R
into coin. It may be also questioned, whether the compound stuff will receiye gilding as well as silver, and with equal lustre? It is to be noted, that the common allay of silver coin is brass, which doth discolour more, and is not so neat as tin.
The drownings of metals within other metals, in such sort as they can never rise again, is a thing of great profit. For if a quantity of silver can be so buried in gold, as it will never be reduced again, neither by fire, nor parting waters, nor other ways: and also that it serve all uses as well as pure gold, it is in effect all one as if so much silver were turned into gold i only the weight will discover it; yet that taketh off but half of the profit j for gold is not fully double weight to silver, but gold is twelve times price to silver.
The burial must be by one of these two ways, either by the smallness of the proportion, as perhaps fifty to one, which will be but six-pence gains in fifty shillings; or it must be holpen by somewhat which may fix the silver, never to be restored or vapoured away, when it is incorporated into such a mass of gold; for the less quantity is ever the harder to sever: and for this purpose iron is the likest, or coppel stuff, upon which the fire hath no power of consumption.
The making of gold seemeth a thing scarcely possible; because gold is the heaviest of metals, and to add matter is impossible: and again, to drive metals into a narrower room than their natural extent beareth, is a condensation hardly to be expected. But to make silver seemeth more easy, because both quicksilver and lead are weightier than silver j so as there needeth only fixing, and not condensing. The degree unto this that is already known, is infusing of quicksilver in a parchment, or otherwise, in the midst of molten lead when it cooleth; for this stupifieth the quicksilver that it runneth no more. This trial is to be advanced three ways. First, by iterating the melting of the lead, to see whether it will not make the quicksilver harder and harder. Secondly, to put realgar hot into the midst of the quicksilver, whereby it may be condensed, as well from within as without. Thirdly, to try it in the midst of molten iron, or molten steel, which is a body more likely to fix the quicksilver than lead. It may be also tried, by incorporating powder of steel, or coppel dust, by pouncing into the quicksilver, and so to proceed to the stnpifying.
Upon glass four things would be put in proof. The first, means to make the glass more crystalline. The second, to make it more strong for falls, and for fire, though it come not to the degree to be malleable. The third, to make it coloured by tinctures, comparable to or exceeding precious stones. The fourth, to make a compound body of glass and galletyle j that is, to have the colour milky like a chalcedon, being a stuff between a porcelane and a glass.
For the first, it is good first to know exactly the several materials whereof the glass in use is made; window-glass, Normandy and Burgundy, ale-house glass, English drinking-glass: and then thereupon to consider what the reason is of the coarseness or clearness; and from thence to rise to a con