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ire nature's remote materials, and not the chemist's principles. As if you dissolve antimony by aqua regis, there will be real brimstone swimming upon the water: as appears by the colour of the fire when it is burnt, and by the smell.
The third teller of the cross-row, touching the variation of metals into several shapes, bodies, or natures, the particulars whereof follow.
Tincture: turning to rust: calcination: sublimation: precipitation : amalgamating, or turning into a soft body : vitrification : opening or dissolving into liquor: sproutings, or branchings, or arborescents: induration and mollification: making tough or brittle: volatility and fixation: transmutation, or version.
For tincture: it is to be inquired how metal may be tinged through and through, and with what, and into what colours; as tinging silver yellow, tinging copper white, and tinging red, green, blue; especially with keeping the lustre.
Item, tincture of glasses.
Item, tincture of marble, flint, or other stone.
For turning into rust, two things are chiefly to be inquired; by what corrosives it is done, and into what colours it turns; as lead into white, which they call ceruss; iron into yellow, which they call crocus martis; quicksilver into vermilion; brass into green, which they call verdigrease.
For calcination j how every metal is calcined, and into what kind of body, and what is the exquisitest way of calcination.
For sublimation; to inquire the manner of subliming, and what metals endure subliming, and what body the sublimate makes.
For precipitation likewise; by what strong water every metal will precipitate, and with what additamtnis, and in what time, and into what body.
So for amalgama; what metals will endure it, what are the means to do it, and what is the manner of the body.
For vitrification likewise; what metals will endure it, what are the means to do it, into what colour it turns; and farther, where the whole metal is turned into glass, and where the metal doth but hang in the glassy parts; also what weight the vitrified body bears, compared with the crude body; also because vitrification is accounted a kind of death of metals, what vitrification will admit of turning back again, and what not.
For dissolution into liquor, we are to inquire what is the proper menstruum to dissolve any metal, and in the negative, what will touch upon the one and not upon the other, and what several menstrua will dissolve any metal, and which most exactly. Item, the process or motion of the dissolution, the manner of rising, boiling, vapouring more violent, or more gentle, causing much heat or less. Item, the quantity or charge that the strong water will bear, and then give over. Item, the colour into which the liquor will turn. Above all, it is to be inquired, whether there be any menstruum to dissolve any metal that is not fretting, or corroding; and openeth the body by sympathy, and not by mordacity or violent penetration.
For sprouting or branching, though it be a thing but transitory, and a kind of toy or pleasure, yet there is a more serious use of it: for that it discovered the delicate motions of spirits, when they put forth and cannot get forth, like unto that which is in vegetables.
For induration, or mollification j it is to be inquired what will make metals harder and harder, and what will make them softer and softer. And this inquiry tendeth to two ends: first, for use; as to make iron soft by the fire makes it malleable. Secondly, because induration is a degree towards fixation, and mollification towards volatility; and therefore the inquiry of them will give light towards the other.
For tough and brittle, they are much of the same kind, but yet worthy of an inquiry apart, especially to join hardness with toughness, as making glass malleable, &c. and making blades strong to resist and pierce, and yet not easy to break.
For volatility and fixation. It is a principal branch to be inquired: the utmost degree of fixation is that whereon no fire will work, nor strong water joined with fire, if there be any such fixation possible. The next is when fire simply will not work without strong waters. The next is by the test. The next is when it will endure fire not blown, or such a strength of fire. The next is when it will not endure, but yet is malleable. The next is when it is not malleable, but yet is not fluent, but stupified. So of volatility, the utmost degree is when it will fly away without returning. The next is when it will fly up, but with ease return. The next is when it will fly upwards over the helm by a kind of exsufflation without vapouring. The next is when it will melt though not rise. The next is when it will soften though not melt. Of all these diligent inquiry is to be made in several metals, especially of the more extreme degrees.
For transmutation or version. If it be real and true, it is the farthest part of art, and would be well distinguished from extraction, from restitution, and from adulteration. I hear much of turning iron into copper; I hear also of the growth of lead in weight, which cannot be without a conversion of some body into lead: but whatsoever is of this kind, and well expressed, is diligently to be inquired and set down.
Dr. Meverel's answers to the foregoing questions, concerning the variation of metals and minerals.
1. For tinctures, there are none that I know, but that rich variety which springs from mixture of metals with metals, or imperfect minerals.
2. The imperfect metals arc subject to rust, all of them except mercury, which is made into vermilion by solution, or calcination. The rest are rusted by any salt, sour, or acid water. Lead into a white body called cerussa. Iron into a pale red called ferrugo. Copper is turned into green, named asrugo, nes viride. Tin into white: but this is not in use, neither hath it obtained a name.
The Scriptures mention the ru6t of gold, but that is in regard of the allay.
3. Calcination. AH metals- may be calcined by strong waters, or by admixtion of salt, sulphur, and mercury. The imperfect metals may be calcined by continuance of simple fire; iron thus calcined is called crocus martis.
And this is their best way. Gold and silver are best calcined by mercury. Their colour is grey. Lead calcined is very red. Copper dusky red.
4. Metals are sublimed by joining them with mercury or salts. As silver with mercury, gold with sal armoniac, mercury with vitriol.
5. Precipitation is, when any metal being dissolved into a strong water, is beaten down into a powder by salt water. The chiefest in this kind is oil of tartar.
6. Amalgamation is the joining or mixing of mercury with any other of the metals. The manner is this in gold, the rest are answerable: take six parts of mercury, make them hot in a crucible, and pour them to one part of gold made red hot in another crucible, stir these well together that they may incorporate; which done, cast the mass into cold water and wash it. This is called the amalgama of gold.
7. For vitrification. All the imperfect metals may be turned by strong fire into glass, except mercury; iron into green; lead into yellow; brass into blue; tin into pale yellow. For gold and silver I have not known them vitrified, except joined with antimony. These glassy bodies may be reduced into the form of mineral bodies.
8. Dissolution. All metals without exception may be dissolved.
(1.) Iron may be dissolved by any tart, salt, or vitriolated water; yea, by common water, if it be first calcined with sulphur. It dissolves in aqua fortis with great ebullition and heat, into a red liquor, so red as blood.
(2.) Lead is fittest dissolved in vinegar, into a pale yellow, making the vinegar very sweet.
(3.) Tin is best dissolved with distilled salt water. It retains the colour of the menstruum.
(4.) Copper dissolves as iron doth, in the same liquor, into a blue.
(5.) Silver hath its proper menstruum, which is aqua fortis. The colour is green, with great heat and ebullition.
(6.) Gold is dissolved with aqua regia, intoayellow liquor, with little heat or ebullition.
(7.) Mercury is- dissolved with much heat and boiling, into the same liquors which gold and silver are. It alters not the colour of the menstruum.
Note. Strong waters may be charged with half their weight of fixed metals, and equal of mercury; if the workman be skilful.
9. Sprouting. This is an accident of dissolution. For if the menstruum be overcharged, then within short time the metals will shoot into certain crystals.
10. For induration, or mollification, they depend upon the quantity of fixed mercury and sulphur. I have observed little of them, neither of toughness nor briltleness.
11. The degrees of fixation and volatility I ac
knowledge except the two utmost, which never were observed.
12. The question of transmutation is very doubtful. Wherefore I refer your honour to the fourth tome of " Theatrum Chymicum:" and there, to that tract which is entitled " Disquisitio Heliana;" where you shall find full satisfaction.
The fourth letter of the cross-row, touching
First, therefore, it is to be inquired in the negative, what bodies will never return, either by their extreme fixings, as in some vitrifications, or by extreme volatility.
It is also to be inquired of the two means of reduction; and first by the fire, which is but by congregation of homogeneal parts.
The second is, by drawing them down by some body that hath consent with them. As iron draweth down copper in water; gold draweth quicksilver in vapour; whatsoever is of this kind, is very diligently to be inquired.
Also it is to be inquired what time, or age, will reduce without help of fire or body.
Also it is to be inquired what gives impediment to union or restitution, which is sometimes called mortification; as when quicksilver is mortified with turpentine, spittle, or butter.
Lastly, it is to be inquired, how the metal restored, diflereth in any thing from the metal rare: as whether it become not more churlish, altered in colour, or the like.
Dr. Meverel's answers touching the restitutions of metals and minerals.
Reduction is chiefly effected by fire, wherein if they stand and nele, the imperfect metals vapour away, and so do all manner of salts which separated them in minimas partes before.
Reduction is singularly holpen, by joining store of metal of the same nature with it in the melting.
Metals reduced are somewhat churlish, but not altered in colour.
THE LORD VERULAM'S INQUISITION
Concerning the versions, transmutations, mulliplica lions, and effections of bodies.
Earth by fire is turned into brick, which is of the nature of a stone, and serveth for building, as stone doth; and the like of tile. Qu. the manner.
Naphtha, which was the bituminous mortar used in the walls of Babylon, grows to an entire and very hard matter like a stone.
In clay countries, where there is pebble and gravel, you shall find great stones, where you may see the pebbles or gravel, and between them a substance of stone us hard or harder than the pebble itself.
There are some springs of water, wherein if you put wood, it will turn into the nature of stone: so as that within the water shall be stone, and that above the water continue wood.
The slime about the reins and bladder in man's body turn into stone: and stone is likewise found often in the gall; and sometimes, though rarely, in vena porta.
Query, what time the substance of earth in quarries asketh to be turned into stones?
Water, as it seems, turneth into crystal, as is seen in divers caves, where the crystal hangs in stillicidiis.
Try wood, or the stalk of herbs, buried in quicksilver, whether it will not grow hard and stony.
They speak of a stone engendered in a toad's head.
There was a gentleman, digging in his moat, found an egg turned into stone, the white and the yolk keeping their colour, and the shell glistering like a stone cut with corners.
Try some things put into the bottom of a well; aswood, or some soft substance: but let it not touch the water, because it may not putrify.
They speak, that the white of an egg, with lying long in the sun, will turn stone.
Mud in water turns into shells of fishes, as in horse-mussels, in fresh ponds, old and over-grown. And the substance is a wondrous fine substance, light and shining.
A SPEECH TOUCHING THE RECOVERING OF DROWNED MINERAL WORKS,
Prepared for the parliament fas Mr. Bushel affirmed) by the Viscount of St. Albans, then Lord High Chancellor of England*
MT LORDS AND GENTLEMEN,
The king, my royal master, was lately graciously pleased to move some discourse to me concerning Mr. Sutton's hospital, and such like worthy foundations of memorable piety: which humbly seconded by myself, drew his majesty into a serious consideration of the mineral treasures of his own territories, and the practical discoveries of them by way of my philosophical theory: which he then so well resented, that afterwards, upon a mature digestion of my whole design, he commanded me to let your lordships understand how great an inclination he hath to further so hopeful a work, for the honour of his dominions, as the most probable means to relieve all the poor thereof, without any other stock or benevolence, than that which divine bounty should ennfer on their own industries and honest labours, in recovering all such drowned mineral works, as have been, or shall be therefore deserted.
And, my lords, all that is now desired of his majesty and your lordships, is no more than a gracious act of this present parliament to authorize them herein, adding a mercy to a munificence, which is. the persons of such strong and able petty felons, "ho, in true penitence for their crimes, shall implore his majesty's mercy and permission to expiate their offences by their assiduous labours in so innocent and hopeful a work.
For by this unchargeable way, my lords, have I proposed to erect the academical fabric of this island's Solomon's House, modelled in my New Atlantis.
* See Mr. Bee's extract, p. 18, 19.
And I can hope, my lords, that my midnight studies, to make our countries flourish and outvie European neighbours in mysterious and beneficent arts, have not so ingratefully affected your noble intellects, that yon will delay or resist his majesty's desires, and my humble petition in this benevolent, yea, magnificent affair; since your honourable posterities may be enriched thereby, and my ends are only to make the world my heir, and the learned fathers of my Solomon's House, the successive and sworn trustees in the dispensation of this great service, for God's glory, my prince's magnificence, this parliament's honour, our country's general good, and the propagation of my own memory.
And I may assure your lordships, that all my proposals in order to this great architype, seemed so rational and feasible to my royal sovereign, our christian Solomon, that I thereby prevailed with his majesty to call this honourable parliament, to confirm and empower me in my own way of mining, by an act of the same, after his majesty's more weighty affairs were considered in your wisdoms; both which he desires your lordships, and you gentlemen that are chosen as the patriots of your respective countries, to take speedy care of: which done, I shall not then doubt the happy issue of my undertakings in this design, whereby concealed treasures, which now seem utterly lost to mankind, shall be confined to so universal a piety, and brought into use by the industry of converted penitents, whose wretched carcasses the impartial laws have, or shall dedicate, as untimely feasts, to the worms of the earth, in whose womb those deserted mineral riches must ever lie buried as lost abortments, unless those be made the active midwives to deliver them. For, my lords, I humbly conceive them to be the fittest of all men to effect this great work, for the ends and causes which I have before expressed.
All which, my lords, I humbly refer to your grave and solid judgments to conclude of, together with such other assistances to this frame, as your own oraculous wisdom shall intimate, for the magnifying our Creator in his inscrutable providence, and admirable works of nature.
Certain experiments made hj the Lord Bacon about weight in air and water.
A New sovereign of equal weight in the air to the piece in brass, overweigheth in the water nine grains: in three sovereigns the difference in the water is but twenty-four grains.
The same sovereign overweigheth an equal weight of lead, four grains in the water, in brass grains for gold: in three sovereigns about eleven grains.
The same sovereign overweigheth an equal weight of stones in the air, at least sixty-five grains in the water: the grains being for the weight of gold in brass metal.
A glass filled with water weighing, in Troy weights, thirteen ounces and five drams, the glass and the water together weigheth severally, viz. the water nine ounces and a half, and the glass four ounces and a dram.
A bladder weighing two ounces seven drams and a half, a pebble laid upon the top of the bladder makes three ounces six drams and a half, the stone weighing seven drams.
The bladder, as above, blown, and the same fallen, weigheth equal.
A sponge dry weigheth one ounce twenty-six grains: the same sponge being wet, weigheth fourteen ounces sixdram8 and three quarters: the water weigheth in several eleven ounces one dram and a half, and the sponge three ounces and a half, and three quarters of a dram. First time.
The sponge and water together weigh fifteen ounces and seven drams: in several, the water weigheth eleven ounces and seven drams, and the sponge three ounces seven drams and a half. Second time.
Three sovereigns made equal to a weight in silver in the air, differ in the water.
For false weights, one beam long, the other thick.
The stick and thread weigh half a dram, and twenty grains, being laid in the balance.
The stick tied to reach within half an inch of the end of the beam, and so much from the tongue, weigheth twenty-eight grains; the difference is twenty-two grains.
The same stick being tied to hang over the end of the beam an inch and a half, weigheth half a dram and twenty-four grains, exceeding the weight of the said stick in the balance by four grains.
The same stick being hanged down beneath the thread, as near the tongue as is possible, weigheth only eight grains.
Two weights of gold being made equal in the air, and weighing severally seven drams; the one balance being put into the water, and the other hanging in the air, the balance in the water weigheth only five drams and three grains, and abateth of the weight in the air, one dram and a half, and twenty-seven grains.
The same trial being made the second time, and more truly and exactly betwixt gold and gold, weighing severally, as above; and making a just and equal weight in the air, the one balance being put into the water the depth of five inches, and the other hanging in the air, the balance in the water weigheth only four drams, and fifty-five grains, and abateth of the weight in the air two drams and five grains.
The trial being made betwixt lead and lead, weighing severally seven drams in the air, the balance in the water weigheth only four drams and forty-one grains, and abateth of the weight in the air two drams and nineteen grains; the balance kept the same depth in the water as abovesaid.
The trial being made betwixt silver and silver, weighing severally seven drams in the air, the balance in the water weigheth only four drams and twenty-five grains. So it abateth two drams and thirty-five grains; the same depth in the water observed.
In iron and iron, weighing severally each balance in the air seven drams, the balance in the water weigheth only four drams and eighteen grains; and
abateth of the weight in the air two drams and fortytwo grains; the depth observe as above.
In stone and stone, the same weight of seven drams equally in the air, the balance in the water weigheth only two drams and twenty-two grains; and abateth of the weight in the air four drams and thirty-eight grains; the depth as above.
In brass and brass, the same weight of seven drams in each balance, equal in the air, the balance in the water weigheth only four drams and twentytwo grains; and abateth in the water two drams and thirty-eight grains; the depth observed.
The two balances being weighed in air and water, the balance in the air overweigheth the other in the water one dram and twenty-eight grains; the depth in the water as aforesaid.
It is a profitable experiment which showeth the weights of several bodies in comparison with water. It is of use in lading of ships, and other bottoms, and may help to show what burden in the several kinds they will bear.
Certain sudden thoughts of the Lord Bacon's, net down by him under the title of Experiments For Profit.
Muck of leaves: muck of river, earth, and chalk: muck of earth closed, both for salt-petre and muck: setting of wheat and peas: mending of crops by steeping of seeds: making peas, cherries, and strawberries come early: strengthening of earth for often returns of radishes, parsnips, turnips, &c.; making great roofs of onions, radishes, and other esculent roots: sowing of seeds of trefoil: setting of woad: setting of tobacco, and taking away the rawns: grafting upon boughs of old trees: making of a hasty coppice: planting of osiers in wet grounds: making of candles to last long: building of chimneys, furnaces, and ovens, to give heat with less wood: fixing of logwood: other means to make yellow and green fixed: conserving of oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, &c. all summer: recovering of pearl, coral, turcoise colour, by a conservatory of snow: sowing of fennel: brewing with hay, haws, trefoil, broom, hips, bramble-berries, woodbines, wild thyme, instead of hops, thistles: multiplying and dressing artichokes.
Certain experiments of the Lord Bacon's, about the commixture of liquors only, not solids, without heat or agitation, but only by simple composition and settling.
Spirit of wine mingled with common water, although it be much lighter than oil, yet so as if the first fall be broken, by means of a sop, or otherwise, it stayeth above; and if it be once mingled, it severeth not again, as oil doth. Tried with water coloured with saffron.
Spirit of wine mingled with common water hath a kind of clouding, and motion showing no ready commixture. Tried with saffron.
A dram of gold dissolved in aqua regis, with a dram of copper in aqua fortis, commixed, gave a green colour, but no visible motion in the parts. Note, that the dissolution of the gold was, twelve parts water to one part body: and of the copper was, six parts water to one part body.
Oil of almonds commixed with spirit of wine severetb, and the spirit of wine remaineth on the top, and the oil in the bottom.
Gold dissolved, commixed with spirit of wine, a dram of each doth commix, and no other apparent alteration.
Quicksilver dissolved with gold dissolved, a dram of each, doth turn to a mouldy liquor, black, and like smith's water.
Note, the dissolution of the gold was twelve parts water, ut supra, and one part metal: that of water was two parts, and one part metal.
Spirit of wine and quicksilver commixed, a dram of each, at the first showed a white milky substance at the top, but soon after mingled.
Oil of vitriol commixed with oil of cloves, a dram of each, turneth into a red dark colour; and a substance thick almost like pitch: and upon the first motion gathereth an extreme heat, not to be endured by touch.
Dissolution of gold, and oil of vitriol commixed, a dram of each, gathereth a great heat at the first, and darkeneth the gold, and maketh a thick yellow.
Spirit of wine and oil of vitriol, a dram of each, hardly mingle; the oil of vitriol going to the bottom, and the spirit of wine lying above in a milky substance. It gathereth also a great heat, and a sweetness in the taste.
Oil of vitriol and dissolution of quicksilver, a dram of each, maketh an extreme strife, and casteth up a very gross fume, and after casteth down a white kind of curds, or sands; and on the top a slimish substance, and gathereth a great heat.
Oil of sulphur and oil of cloves commixed a dram of each, turn into a thick and red-coloured substance; but no such heat as appeared in the commixture with the oil of vitriol.
Oil of petroleum and spirit of wine, a dram of each, intermingle otherwise than by agitation, as wine and water do; and the petroleum remaineth on the top.
Oil of vitriol and petroleum, a dram of each, turn into a mouldy substance, and gathereth some warmth; there residing a black cloud in the bottom, and a monstrous thick oil on the top.
Spirit of wine and red-wine vinegar, one ounce of each, at the first fall, one of them remaineth above, but by agitation they mingle.
Oil of vitriol and oil of almonds, one ounce of each, mingle not; but the oil of almonds remaineth above.
Spirit of wine and vinegar, an ounce of each, commixed, do mingle, without any apparent separation, which might be in respect of the colour.
Dissolution of iron, and oil of vitriol, a dram of each, do first put a milky substance, into the bottom, and after incorporate into a mouldy substance.
Spirit of wine commixed with milk, a third part spirit of wine, and two parts milk, coagulateth little, but mingleth; and the spirit swims not above.
Milk and oil of almonds mingled, in equal portions, do hardly incorporate, but the oil cometh above, the milk being poured in last; and the milk appeareth in some drops or bubbles.
Milk one ounce, oil of vitriol a scruple, doth coagulate; the milk at the bottom, where the vitriol goeth.
Dissolution of gum tragacanth, and oil of sweet almonds, do not commingle, the oil remaining on the top till they be stirred, and make the mucilage somewhat more liquid.
Dissolution of gum tragacanth one ounce and a half, with half an ounce of spirit of wine, being commixed by agitation, make the mucilage more thick.
The white of an egg with spirit of wine, doth bake the egg into clots, as if it began to poch.
One ounce of blood, one ounce of milk, do easily incorporate.
Spirit of wine doth curdle the blood.
One ounce of whey unclarified, one ounce of oil of vitriol, make no apparent alteration.
One ounce of blood, one ounce of oil of almonds, incorporate not, but the oil swims above.
Three quarters of an ounce of wax being dissolved upon the fire, and one ounce of oil of almonds put together and stirred, do not so incorporate, but that when it is cold the wax gathereth and swims upon the top of the oil.
One ounce of oil of almonds cast into an ounce of sugar seething, sever presently, the sugar shooting towards the bottom.
A catalogue of bodies attractive and not attractive, together with experimental observations about attraction.
These following bodies draw: amber, jet, diamond, sapphire, carbuncle, iris, the gem opale, amethyst, bristollina, crystal, clear glass, glass of antimony, divers flowers from mines, sulphur mastic, hard sealing-wax, the harder rosin, arsenic.
These following bodies do not draw: smaragd, achates, corneolus, pearl, jaspis, chalcedonius, alabaster, porphyry, coral, marble, touchstone, haematites, or blood-stone; smyris, ivory, bones, ebon-tree, cedar, cypress, pitch, softer rosin, camphire, galbanum, ammoniac, storax, benzoin, loadstone, asphaltum.*
These bodies, gold, silver, brass, iron, draw not, though never so finely polished.
In winter, if the air be sharp and clear, sal gemmeum, roch allum, and lapis specularis, will draw.
These following bodies are apt to be drawn, if the mass of them be small: chaff, woods, leaves, stones, all metals leaved, and in the mine; earth, water, oil.
« The drawing of iron excepted.