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sideration how to make some additaments to the coarser materials, to raise them to the whiteness and crystalline splendour of the finest.
For the second, we see pebbles, and some other stones, will cut as fine as crystal, which if they will melt, may be a mixture for glass, and may make it more tough and more crystalline. Besides, we see metals will vitrify; and perhaps some portion of the glass of metal vitrified, mixed in the pot of ordinary glass metal, will make the whole mass more tough.
For the third, it were good to have of coloured window-glass, such as is coloured in the pot, and not by colours
It is to be known of what stuff galletyle is made, and how the colours in it are varied; and thereupon to consider how to make the mixture of glass-metal and them, whereof I have seen the example.
Inquire what be the stones that do easiliest melt. Of them take half a pound, and of iron a pound and half, and an ounce of brimstone, and see whether they will incorporate, being whole, with a strong fire. If not, try the same quantity calcined: and if they will incorporate, make a plate of them, and burnish it as they do iron.
Take a pound and a half of brass, and half a pound of iron; two ounces of the calaminar stone,
an ounce and a half of brimstone, an ounce of lead; calcine them, and see what body they make; and if they incorporate, make a plate of it burnished.
Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an ounce, and melt them together, and make a plate of them burnished.
Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an ounce, of glass-metal half an ounce; stir them well in the boiling, and if they incorporate, make a plate of them burnished.
Take of copper a pound and a half, tin four ounces, brass two ounces; make a plate of them burnished.
Take of silver two ounces, tin half an ounce; make a little say-cup of it, and burnish it.
To inquire of the materials of every of the kind of glasses, coarser and finer, and of the proportions.
Take an equal quantity of glass-metal, of stone calcined, and bring a pattern.
Take an ounce of vitrified metal, and a pound of ordinary glass-metal, and see whether they will incorporate, and bring a pattern.
Bring examples of all coloured glasses, and learn the ingredients whereby they are coloured.
Inquire of the substance of galletyle
ARTICLES OF QUESTIONS
THE LORD BACON'S QUESTIONS, WITH DR. MEVEREL'S SOLUTIONS.
Concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union of metals or minerals. Which subject is the first letter of his Lordship's Alphabet.
With what metals gold will incorporate by simple colliquefaction, and with what not? And in what quantity it will incorporate; and what kind of body the compound makes?
Gold with silver, which was the ancient electrum: gold with quicksilver: gold with lead: gold with copper: gold with brass: gold with iron: gold with tin.
So likewise of silver: silver with quicksilver: silver with lead: silver with copper: silver with brass: silver with iron: Plinius secund. lib. xxxiii. 9. "Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum," silver with tin.
So likewise of quicksilver: quicksilver with lead: quicksilver with copper: quicksilver with brass: quicksilver with iron: quicksilver with tin.
So of lead: lead with copper: lead with brass: lead with iron: lead with tin. Plin. xxxiv. 9.
So of copper: copper with brass: copper with iron: copper with tin.
So of brass: brass with iron: brass with tin.
So of iron: iron with tin.
What be the compound metals that are common and known? And what are the proportions of their mixtures? As,
Latten of brass, and the calaminar stone.
Pewter of tin and lead.
Bell-metal of, &c. and the counterfeit plate, which they call alchemy.
The decomposites of three metals or more, are too long to inquire of, except there be some compositions of them already observed.
It is also to be observed, whether any two metals, which will not mingle of themselves, will mingle with the help of another; and what.
What compounds will be made of metal with stone and other fossils; as lattcn is made with brass ;ind the calaminar stone; as all the metals incorporate with vitriol; all with iron powdered; all wi th flint, &c.
Some few of these would be inquired of, to disclose the nature of the rest.
Whether metals or other fossils will incorporate with molten glass, and what body it makes?
The quantity in the mixture would be well considered; for some small quantity perhaps will incorporate, as in the allays of gold and silver coin.
Upon the compound body, three things are chiefly to be observed: the colour; the fragility or pliantness; the volatility or fixation, compared with the simple bodies.
For present use or profit, this is the rule: consider the price of tbe two simple bodies; consider again the dignity of the one above the other in use; then see if you can make a compound, that will save more in price, than it will lose in dignity of the use.
As for example; consider the price of brass ordnance; consider again the price of iron ordnance, and then consider wherein the brass ordnance doth excel the iron ordnance in use; then if you can make a compound of brass and iron that will be near as good in use, and much cheaper in price, then there is profit both to the private and the commonwealth. So of gold and silver, the price is double of twelve: the dignity of gold above silver is not much, the splendour is alike, and more pleasing to some eyes, as in cloth of silver, silvered rapiers, &c. The main dignity is, that gold bears the fire, which silver doth not: but that is an excellency in nature, hut it is nothing at all in use; for any dignity in use I know none, but that silvering will sully and canker more than gilding; which if it might be corrected with a little mixture of gold, there is profit: and I do somewhat marvel that the latter ages have lost the ancient electrum, which was a mixture of silver with gold: whereof I conceive there may be much use, both in coin, plate, and gilding.
It is to be noted, that there is in the version of metals impossibility, or at least great difficulty, as in making of gold, silver, copper. On the other side, in the adulterating or counterfeiting of metals, there is deceit and villany. But it should seem there is a middle way, and that is by new compounds, if the ways of incorporating were well known.
What incorporation or imbibition metals will receive from vegetables, without being dissolved in their substance: as when the armourers make their steel more tough and pliant, by aspersion of water or juice of herbs; when gold being grown somewhat churlish by recovering, is made more pliant by throwing jn shreds of tanned leather, or by leather oiled.
Note, that in these and like shows of imbibition, it were good to try by the weights, whether the weight be increased, or no; for if it be not, it is to be doubted that there is no imbibition of substance, but only that the application of that other body doth dispose and invite the metal to another posture of parts, than of itself it would have taken.
After the incorporation of metals by simple colliquefaction, for the better discovery of the nature and consents and dissents of metals, it would be like
wise tried by incorporating of their dissolutions. What metals being dissolved in strong waters will incorporate well together, and what not? Which is to be inquired particularly, as it was in colliquefactions.
There is to be observed in those dissolutions which will not easily incorporate, what the effects are: as the bullition; the precipitation to the bottom; the ejaculation towards the top; the suspension in the midst: and the like.
Note, that the dissents of the menstrual or strong waters may hinder the incorporation, as well as the dissents of the metals themselves; therefore where the menstrua are the same, and yet the incorporation followeth not, you may conclude the dissent is in the metals; but where the menstrua are several, not so certain.
Dr. MevereFs answer to the foregoing questions, concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union of metals and minerals.
Gold will incorporate with silver in any proportion. Plin. lib. xxxiii. cap. 4.—"Omni auro inest argentum vario pondere; alibi dena, alibi nona, alibi octava parte—Ubicunque quinta argenti portio invenitur, electrum vocatur." The body remains fixt, solid, and coloured, according to the proportion of the two metals.
Gold with quicksilver easily mixeth, but the product is imperfectly fixed; and so are all other metals incorporate with mercury.
Gold incorporates with lead in,any proportion.
Gold incorporates with copper in any proportion, the common allay.
Gold incorporates with brass in any proportion. And what is said of copper is true of brass, in the union of other metals.
Gold will not incorporate with iron.
Gold incorporates with tin, the ancient allay, Isa. i. 25.
What was said of gold and quicksilver, may be said of quicksilver and the rest of metals.
Silver with lead in any proportion.
Silver incorporates with copper. Pliny mentions such a mixture for triumphales statute, lib. xxxiii. 9. "Miscentur argento, tertia pars reris Cyprii tenuissimi, quod coronarium vocant, et sulphuris vivi quantum argenti." The same is true of brass.
Silver incorporates not with iron. Wherefore I wonder at that which Pliny hath, lib. xxxiii. 9. "Miscuit denario triumvir Antonins ferrum." And what is said of this is true of the rest; for iron incorporated with none of them.
Silver mixes with tin.
Lead incorporates with copper. Such a mixture was the pot metal whereof Pliny speaks, lib. xxxiv. 9. "Ternis ant qnaternis libris plumbi argentarii in centenas sris additis."
Lead incorporates with tin. The mixture of these two in equal proportions, is that which was anciently called " plumbum argentarium," Plin. lib. xxxiv. 17.
Copper incorporates with tin. Of such a mixture were the mirrors of the Romans. Plin. " Atque ut omnia de speculis peragantur hoc loco, optima apud majores erant Brundusina, slanno et a?re mistis." Lib. xxxiii. 9.
Compound metals now in use.
t. Fine tin. The mixture is thus: pure tin a thousand pounds, temper fifty pounds, glass of tin three pounds.
2. Coarse pewter is made of fine tin and lead. Temper is thus made: the dross of pure tin, four pounds and a half; copper, half a pound.
3. Brass is made of copper and calaminaris.
4. Bell-metal. Copper, a thousand pounds; tin from three hundred to two hundred pounds j brass, a hundred and fifty pounds.
5. Pot-metal, copper and lead.
6. White alchemy is made of pan-brass one pound, and arsenicum three ounces.
7. Red alchemy is made of copper and auripigment
There be divers imperfect minerals, which will incorporate with the metals: being indeed metals inwardly, but clothed with earths and stones: as pyritis, calaminaris, misy, chalcitis, sory, vitriolum.
Metals incorporate not with glass, except they be brought into the form of glass.
Metals dissolved. The dissolution of gold and silver disagree, so that in their mixture there is great ebullition, darkness, and in the end a precipitation of black powder.
The mixture of gold and mercury agree.
Gold agrees wilh iron. In a word, the dissolution of mercury and iron agree with all the rest.
Silver and copper disagree, and so do silver and lead. Silver and tin agree.
The second letter of the cross-row, touching the separation of metals and minerals.
Separation is of three sorts; the first is, the separating of the pure metal from the ore or dross, which we call refining. The second is, the drawing one metal or mineral out of another, which we call extracting. The third is, the separating of any metal into its original or materia prima, or element, or call them what you will; which work w-e will call principiation.
I. For refining, we are to inquire of it according to the several metals j as gold, silver, &c. Incidentally we are to inquire of the first stone, or ore, or spar, or marcasite of metals severally, and what kind of bodies they are, and of the degrees of richness. Also we are to inquire of the means of separating, whether by fire, parting waters, or otherwise. Also for the manner of refining, you are to see how you can multiply the heat, or hasten the opening, and so save the charge in the fining.
The means of this in three manners; that is to say, in the blast of the fire; in the manner of the furnace, to multiply heat by union and reflexion; and by some additament, or medicines which will help the bodies to open them the soone .
Note, the quickening of the blast, and the multiplying of the heat in the furnace, may be the same for all metals; but the additaments must be several,
according to the nature of the metals. Note again, that if you think that multiplying of the additaments in the same proportion that you multiply the ore, the work will follow, you may be deceived: for quantity in the passive will add more resistance, than the same quantity in the active will add force.
2. For extracting, you are to inquire what metals contain others, and likewise what not; as lead, silver; copper, silver, &c.
Note, although the charge of extraction should exceed the worth, yet that is not the matter: for at least it will discover nature and possibility, the other may be thought on afterwards.
We are likewise to inquire, what the differences are of those metals which contain more or less other metals, and how that agrees with the poorness or richness of the metals or ore in themselves. As the lead that contains most silver is accounted to be more brittle, and yet otherwise poorer in itself.
3. For principiation, I cannot affirm whether there be any such thing or not; and I think the chemists make too much ado about it: but howsoever it be, be it solution or extraction, or a kind of conversion by the fire; it is diligently to be inquired, what salts, sulphur, vitriol, mercury, or the like simple bodies are to be found in the several metals, and in what quantity.
Dr. MeverePs answers to the foregoing questions, touching the separations of metals and minerals.
1. For the means of separating. After that the ore is washed, or cleansed from the earth, there is nothing simply necessary, save only a wind furnace well framed, narrow above and at the hearth, in shape oval, sufficiently fed with charcoal and ore, in convenient proportions.
For additions in this first separation, I have observed none; the dross the mineral brings being sufficient. The refiners of iron observe, that that iron-stone is hardest to melt which is fullest of metal, and that easiest which hath most dross. But in lead and tin the contrary is noted. Yet in melting of metals, when they have been calcined formerly by fire, or strong waters, there is good use of additaments, as of borax, tartar, armoniac, and salt-petre.
2. In extracting of metals. Note, that lead and tin contain silver. Lead and silver contain gold. Iron contains brass. Silver is best separated from lead by the test. So gold from silver. Yet the best way for that is aqua regia.
3. For principiation. I can truly and boldly affirm, that there are no such principals as sal, sulphur, and mercury, which can be separated from any perfect metals. For every part so separated, may easily be reduced into perfect metal without substitution of that, or those principles which chemists imagine to be wanting. As suppose you take the salt of lead; this salt, or as some name it, sulphur, may be turned into perfect lead, by melting it with the like quantity of lead which contains principles only for itself.
I acknowledge that there is quicksilver and brimstone found in the imperfect minerals: but those ire nature's remote materials, and not the chemist's principles. As if you dissolve antimony by aqua regis, there will be real brimstone swimming upon the water: as appears by the colour of the fire when it is burnt, and by the smell.
The third teller of the cross-row, touching the variation of metals into several shapes, bodies, or natures, the particulars whereof follow.
Tincture: turning to rust: calcination: sublimation: precipitation : amalgamating, or turning into a soft body : vitrification : opening or dissolving into liquor: sproutings, or branchings, or arborescents: induration and mollification: making tough or brittle: volatility and fixation: transmutation, or version.
For tincture: it is to be inquired how metal may be tinged through and through, and with what, and into what colours; as tinging silver yellow, tinging copper white, and tinging red, green, blue; especially with keeping the lustre.
Item, tincture of glasses.
Item, tincture of marble, flint, or other stone.
For turning into rust, two things are chiefly to be inquired; by what corrosives it is done, and into what colours it turns; as lead into white, which they call ceruss; iron into yellow, which they call crocus martis; quicksilver into vermilion; brass into green, which they call verdigrease.
For calcination j how every metal is calcined, and into what kind of body, and what is the exquisitest way of calcination.
For sublimation; to inquire the manner of subliming, and what metals endure subliming, and what body the sublimate makes.
For precipitation likewise; by what strong water every metal will precipitate, and with what additamtnis, and in what time, and into what body.
So for amalgama; what metals will endure it, what are the means to do it, and what is the manner of the body.
For vitrification likewise; what metals will endure it, what are the means to do it, into what colour it turns; and farther, where the whole metal is turned into glass, and where the metal doth but hang in the glassy parts; also what weight the vitrified body bears, compared with the crude body; also because vitrification is accounted a kind of death of metals, what vitrification will admit of turning back again, and what not.
For dissolution into liquor, we are to inquire what is the proper menstruum to dissolve any metal, and in the negative, what will touch upon the one and not upon the other, and what several menstrua will dissolve any metal, and which most exactly. Item, the process or motion of the dissolution, the manner of rising, boiling, vapouring more violent, or more gentle, causing much heat or less. Item, the quantity or charge that the strong water will bear, and then give over. Item, the colour into which the liquor will turn. Above all, it is to be inquired, whether there be any menstruum to dissolve any metal that is not fretting, or corroding; and openeth the body by sympathy, and not by mordacity or violent penetration.
For sprouting or branching, though it be a thing but transitory, and a kind of toy or pleasure, yet there is a more serious use of it: for that it discovered the delicate motions of spirits, when they put forth and cannot get forth, like unto that which is in vegetables.
For induration, or mollification j it is to be inquired what will make metals harder and harder, and what will make them softer and softer. And this inquiry tendeth to two ends: first, for use; as to make iron soft by the fire makes it malleable. Secondly, because induration is a degree towards fixation, and mollification towards volatility; and therefore the inquiry of them will give light towards the other.
For tough and brittle, they are much of the same kind, but yet worthy of an inquiry apart, especially to join hardness with toughness, as making glass malleable, &c. and making blades strong to resist and pierce, and yet not easy to break.
For volatility and fixation. It is a principal branch to be inquired: the utmost degree of fixation is that whereon no fire will work, nor strong water joined with fire, if there be any such fixation possible. The next is when fire simply will not work without strong waters. The next is by the test. The next is when it will endure fire not blown, or such a strength of fire. The next is when it will not endure, but yet is malleable. The next is when it is not malleable, but yet is not fluent, but stupified. So of volatility, the utmost degree is when it will fly away without returning. The next is when it will fly up, but with ease return. The next is when it will fly upwards over the helm by a kind of exsufflation without vapouring. The next is when it will melt though not rise. The next is when it will soften though not melt. Of all these diligent inquiry is to be made in several metals, especially of the more extreme degrees.
For transmutation or version. If it be real and true, it is the farthest part of art, and would be well distinguished from extraction, from restitution, and from adulteration. I hear much of turning iron into copper; I hear also of the growth of lead in weight, which cannot be without a conversion of some body into lead: but whatsoever is of this kind, and well expressed, is diligently to be inquired and set down.
Dr. Meverel's answers to the foregoing questions, concerning the variation of metals and minerals.
1. For tinctures, there are none that I know, but that rich variety which springs from mixture of metals with metals, or imperfect minerals.
2. The imperfect metals arc subject to rust, all of them except mercury, which is made into vermilion by solution, or calcination. The rest are rusted by any salt, sour, or acid water. Lead into a white body called cerussa. Iron into a pale red called ferrugo. Copper is turned into green, named asrugo, nes viride. Tin into white: but this is not in use, neither hath it obtained a name.
The Scriptures mention the ru6t of gold, but that is in regard of the allay.
3. Calcination. AH metals- may be calcined by strong waters, or by admixtion of salt, sulphur, and mercury. The imperfect metals may be calcined by continuance of simple fire; iron thus calcined is called crocus martis.
And this is their best way. Gold and silver are best calcined by mercury. Their colour is grey. Lead calcined is very red. Copper dusky red.
4. Metals are sublimed by joining them with mercury or salts. As silver with mercury, gold with sal armoniac, mercury with vitriol.
5. Precipitation is, when any metal being dissolved into a strong water, is beaten down into a powder by salt water. The chiefest in this kind is oil of tartar.
6. Amalgamation is the joining or mixing of mercury with any other of the metals. The manner is this in gold, the rest are answerable: take six parts of mercury, make them hot in a crucible, and pour them to one part of gold made red hot in another crucible, stir these well together that they may incorporate; which done, cast the mass into cold water and wash it. This is called the amalgama of gold.
7. For vitrification. All the imperfect metals may be turned by strong fire into glass, except mercury; iron into green; lead into yellow; brass into blue; tin into pale yellow. For gold and silver I have not known them vitrified, except joined with antimony. These glassy bodies may be reduced into the form of mineral bodies.
8. Dissolution. All metals without exception may be dissolved.
(1.) Iron may be dissolved by any tart, salt, or vitriolated water; yea, by common water, if it be first calcined with sulphur. It dissolves in aqua fortis with great ebullition and heat, into a red liquor, so red as blood.
(2.) Lead is fittest dissolved in vinegar, into a pale yellow, making the vinegar very sweet.
(3.) Tin is best dissolved with distilled salt water. It retains the colour of the menstruum.
(4.) Copper dissolves as iron doth, in the same liquor, into a blue.
(5.) Silver hath its proper menstruum, which is aqua fortis. The colour is green, with great heat and ebullition.
(6.) Gold is dissolved with aqua regia, intoayellow liquor, with little heat or ebullition.
(7.) Mercury is- dissolved with much heat and boiling, into the same liquors which gold and silver are. It alters not the colour of the menstruum.
Note. Strong waters may be charged with half their weight of fixed metals, and equal of mercury; if the workman be skilful.
9. Sprouting. This is an accident of dissolution. For if the menstruum be overcharged, then within short time the metals will shoot into certain crystals.
10. For induration, or mollification, they depend upon the quantity of fixed mercury and sulphur. I have observed little of them, neither of toughness nor briltleness.
11. The degrees of fixation and volatility I ac
knowledge except the two utmost, which never were observed.
12. The question of transmutation is very doubtful. Wherefore I refer your honour to the fourth tome of " Theatrum Chymicum:" and there, to that tract which is entitled " Disquisitio Heliana;" where you shall find full satisfaction.
The fourth letter of the cross-row, touching
First, therefore, it is to be inquired in the negative, what bodies will never return, either by their extreme fixings, as in some vitrifications, or by extreme volatility.
It is also to be inquired of the two means of reduction; and first by the fire, which is but by congregation of homogeneal parts.
The second is, by drawing them down by some body that hath consent with them. As iron draweth down copper in water; gold draweth quicksilver in vapour; whatsoever is of this kind, is very diligently to be inquired.
Also it is to be inquired what time, or age, will reduce without help of fire or body.
Also it is to be inquired what gives impediment to union or restitution, which is sometimes called mortification; as when quicksilver is mortified with turpentine, spittle, or butter.
Lastly, it is to be inquired, how the metal restored, diflereth in any thing from the metal rare: as whether it become not more churlish, altered in colour, or the like.
Dr. Meverel's answers touching the restitutions of metals and minerals.
Reduction is chiefly effected by fire, wherein if they stand and nele, the imperfect metals vapour away, and so do all manner of salts which separated them in minimas partes before.
Reduction is singularly holpen, by joining store of metal of the same nature with it in the melting.
Metals reduced are somewhat churlish, but not altered in colour.
THE LORD VERULAM'S INQUISITION
Concerning the versions, transmutations, mulliplica lions, and effections of bodies.
Earth by fire is turned into brick, which is of the nature of a stone, and serveth for building, as stone doth; and the like of tile. Qu. the manner.
Naphtha, which was the bituminous mortar used in the walls of Babylon, grows to an entire and very hard matter like a stone.
In clay countries, where there is pebble and gravel, you shall find great stones, where you may see the pebbles or gravel, and between them a substance of stone us hard or harder than the pebble itself.
There are some springs of water, wherein if you put wood, it will turn into the nature of stone: so as that within the water shall be stone, and that above the water continue wood.
The slime about the reins and bladder in man's body turn into stone: and stone is likewise found