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gary 40,000 dollars, besides the charge of the presents and his ambassadors, amounting to more than the tribute; in all 100,000 dollars.

The ordinary garrisons in Hungary are to the number of but evil paid at this time.

The revenues and subsidies of Hungary do not pass 100,000 florins. The last emperor affirmed solemnly that the charge of Hungary amounted to one million and a half.

The revenues of Bohemia, ordinary and extraordinary, amount to 50,000 dollars.

In the absence of the emperor, the baron of Rosemberg is governor of Bohemia, who possesseth almost a fourth part of that country, and is a papist; neither he nor his brother have children: he beareth the emperor in hand to make him his heir.

Of Silesia and Moravia, the emperor yearly mayhave 200,000 florins.

Out of Austriche of subsidy rind tribute 100,000 florins, for his domains are all sold away and engaged.

Thus all his revenues make half a million of florins.

To his brothers Maximilian and Ernest he alloweth yearly, by agreement made between them, 45,000 florins apiece, as well for Austriche, as that might hereafter fall unto them by the decease of the archduke Ferdinand in Tyrol, the which shall come to the emperor.

The emperor altogether dependeth on Spain, as well in respect of his house, as the education he received there, and the rule his mother hath over him with the chief of his council. He is utter enemy to religion, having well declared the same in banishing the ministers out of Vienna, and divers other towns, where he goeth about to plant Jesuits.

Of his subjects greatly misliked, as his house is hateful to all Germany.

The archduke Charles holdeth Styria and Carinthia; his chief abode is at Gratz; his wife is sister to the duke of Bavyre, by whom he hath children.

The archduke Ferdinand hath Tyrol, andremaineth the most part at Ilsburg. For his eldest son he hath bought in Germany a pretty state, not far from Ulms j the second is a cardinal. Now he is a widower, and said that he shall marry a daughter of the duke of Mantua.

These are uncles to the emperor: besides Maximilian and Ernest, he hath two brothers, the archduke Matthias, that hath a pension of the estates of the Low Country, and a cardinal archbishop of Toledo.

In Germany there are divers princes 'diversely affected. The elector pala

tine Ludovic, a Lutheran; his chief abode is at Heidelberg.

His brother, John Casimir, Calvinist, at Keiserslautem, or Nieustadt.

Richard their uncle at Symyers.

During the life of the last elector, Ludovic dwelt at Amberg in the higher Palatinate.

Philip Ludovic dwelt at Norbourg on the Danow, and is commonly called duke of.

John dwelleth at Rypont, or Sweybourgh, or in

Bergesaber; the other three brethren have no certain dwelling-place. George John, son of Rupert, count Palatine, dwelleth at Lysselsteyn.

Augustus, duke and elector of Princes of Saxony, remaineth the most part at Germauy. Dresden on the Elbe ; sometimes at Torge on Elbe, a goodly castle fortified by John Frederick. This elector is Lutheran, and great enemy to our profession; of sixty years of age, half frantic, severe, governed much by his wife, greater exactor than the German princes are wont to be, and retaineth in his service divers Italians; his eldest son married of late the daughter of the dnke of Brandebourg.

The sons of John Frederick, captive and yet in prison, remain at Coburge in East Franconia, near the forest of Turinge.

The sons of John "William abide at Vinaria in Turingia.

Joachim Frederick, son of John George, elector of Brandebourg, at Hala in Saxony on the river of Sala, us administrator of the archbishopric of Magdebourg.

George Frederick, son of George, dwelleth at Orsbuche in East Franconia, or at Blassenbourge, the which was the mansion of Iiis uncle Albert the warrior.

The elector of Brandenbourg, John George, remaineth at Berlin on the river of Sprea: his uncle John dwelleth at Castryne beyond Odera, very strong both by the situation, and fortified.

William duke of Bavyre, a papist, at Munich in Bavary, married the daughter of the duke of Lorrain.

His second brother Ferdinand remaineth most at Landshutt.

The third, Ernest, is bishop of Frisinghen and Hildesheim, and late of Liege.

Julius duke of Brunswick, at the strong castle of Wolfenbuttel on Oker.

Ericke of Brunswick, son to Magnus, uncle to Julius, remaineth at Mynda, or where the rivers of Werra and Fulda do join, making the river of Visurgis navigable.

William duke of Luneburg hath his being at Cella, on the river Albera.

Henry his brother at Grysorn, where, before, their uncle Francis was wont to dwell.

Otho their cousin, duke of Luneburg, inhabiteth Harbourg, on this side the Elbe, over-right against Hamburgh.

The dukes of Pomerania, John Frederick dwelleth at Stetin.

Bugeslaus, at Campena, some time an abbey in the county of Bardruse.

Ernest Ludovick at Wolgast, on the river of Panis that runneth into the Baltick sea.

Barmin at Ragenwald in Further Pomerania, on the borders of Poland and Prussia.

Casimire at Camyn, which bishoprick he holdeth, either as administrator, or in his own possession and right.

Ulricke duke of Meckelbourg, remaineth most atGustrowj his brother John Albert dwelleth at Swerin, whose two sons are in the court of the duke of Saxon.

Adolph duke of Hoist and Dytmarch; his chief seat is at Gottorp in the duchy of Sleswick.

John his elder brother, unmarried, hath his abode at Hadersberge: John, son to Christiern king of Denmark, and brother to the duke of Hoist, and to Frederick now king of Denmark, bishop of Oeselya and Courland in Livonia.

William duke of Juliers, Cleve, and Bergen, hath his court at Dusseldorp in the dukedom of Bergense.

William Landgrave of Hesse dwelleth at Cassel on Fulda.

Ludovick at Marpurge.

Philip at Brubache on the Rhine.

George at Darmstadt.

Ludovick duke of Wirtenburge, his chief house at Stutgard.

Frederick at Montbelgard.

The marquises of Bathe: the elder Ernest, the second Jacob, the third brother yet younger; their chief dwelling-place is at Forshcim, or at Durlach.

The sons of Philip at the Bath called Baden.

Ernest Joachim, prince of Anhalt, at Zerbest, in the midway between Magdebourg and Wittemberg; his other mansion is at Dessau on Mylda, where he was born, new built and fortified by his grandfather Ernest: he hath besides the castle of Cathenen, the which was the habitation of Wolfgang prince of Anhalt his great uncle; Ernest favoureth religion.

George Ernest, prince and earl of Henneberg, at Schlewsing, by the forest called Turing.

George duke of Silesia and Brieke, of the family of the kings of Poland, dwelleth at Brieke; his eldest son Joachim Frederick hath married the daughter of the prince of Anhalt; his second son, John George.

Henry duke of Silesia and Lignitz, son to the brother of George, dwelleth at Lignitz; he hath no children alive.

Frederick, brother to Henry, unmarried.

Charles duke of Munsterberg and Olsse, his wife the countess of Sternberg in Bohemia, where he mnketh his abode.

Henry, brother to Charles, remaineth at Olsse.

John Frederick, duke of Teschen.

Charles, duke of Lorrain, his chief court at Nancy.

His eldest son Henry of man's estate.

Charles cardinal archbishop of Mets.

A daughter in the French court.

Besides, there are in Germany three electors bishops, and divers bishops of great livings.

The free towns of greatest importance are Noremberg, Auspurg, Ulmes, and Strasburg: then the cantons of the Swisses, the Grisons, and Valois.

The greatest trouble in Germany at this time is about the concordate, farthered by the duke of Saxon, and the count Palatine.

There is at this present no prince in Germany greatly toward or redoubted.

The duke Casimir's credit is greatly impaired, and his ability small.

The dyet imperial shortly should be held, where the concordate shall be urged, collection for Hungary made, and a king of Romans named.

The French king, Henry the third, „

/• K i r ranee,

of thirty years of age, of a very weak

constitution, and full of infirmities; yet extremely given over to his wanton pleasures, having only delight in dancing, feasting, and entertaining ladies, and chamber-pleasures: no great wit, yet a comely behaviour and goodly personage, very poor through exacting inordinately by all devices of his subjects greatly repining that revenge and hungry government, abhorring wars and all action, yet daily worketh the ruin of those he hateth, as all of the religion and the house of Bourbon; doting fondly on some he chooseth to favour extremely, without any virtue or cause of desert in them, to whom he giveth prodigally. His chief favourites now about him are the duke Joyeuse, la Valette, and monsieur D'Au. The queen-mother ruleth him rather by policy and fear he hath of her, than by his good will; yet he always doth show great reverence towards her. The Guise is in as great favour with him as ever he was; the house is now the greatest of all France, being allied to Ferrara, Savoy, Lorrain, Scotland, and favoured of all the papists; the French king having his kinswoman to wife, and divers great personages in that realm of his house.

The chiefest at this present in credit in court, whose counsel he useth, are Villeroy, Villaquier, Bellievre, the chancellor and lord keeper, Birague and Chiverny.

He greatly entertaineth no amity with any prince, other than for form; neither is his friendship otherwise respected of others, save in respect of the reputation of so great a kingdom.

The pope beareth a great sway, and the king of Spain, by means of his pensions; and of the queenmother with the Guise; she for her two daughters, he for other regard, can do what he list there, or hinder what he would not have doue.

The division in his country for matters of religion and state, through miscontentment of the nobility to see strangers advanced to the greatest charges of the realm, the offices of justice sold, the treasury wasted, the people polled, the country destroyed, hath bred great trouble, and like to see more. The faction between the house of Guise against that of Montmorancy, hath gotten great advantage.

At this present the king is about to restore Don Antonio king of Portugal, whereto are great levies and preparation.

Francis duke of Anjou and of Bra- Duke of bant, for his calling and quality greatly Brabant, to be considered as any prince this day living, being second person to the king his brother, and in likelihood to succeed him. There is noted in the disposition of this prince a quiet mildness, giving satisfaction to all men; facility of access and natural courtesy; understanding and speech great and eloquent; secrecy more than commonly is in the French; from his youth always desirous of action, the which thing hath made him always followed and respected. And though hitherto he hath brought to pass no great purpose, having suffered great wants, and resistance both at home and abroad, yet by the intermeddling is grown to good experience, readiness and judgment, the better thereby able to guide and govern his affairs, both in practice, in treaty, and action. Moreover, the diseased estate of the world doth so concur with this his active forwardness, as it giveth him matter to work upon: and he is the only man to be seen of all them in distress, or desirous of alteration. A matter of special furtherance to all such as have achieved great things, when they have found matter disposed to receive form.

And there is to be found no other prince in this part of the world so towards and forward as the duke, towards whom they in distress may turn their eyes. We do plainly see in the most countries of Christendom so unsound and shaken an estate, as desireth the help of some great person, to set together and join again the pieces asunder and out of joint. Wherefore the presumption is great, that if this prince continue this his course, he is likely to become a mighty potentate: for, one enterprise failing, other will be offered, and still men evil at ease, and desirous of a head and captain, will run to him that is fittest to receive them. Besides, the French, desirous to shake off the civil wars, must needs attempt somewhat abroad. This duke first had intelligence with the count Ludovic in king Charles's days, and an enterprise to escape from the court, and in this king's time joined with them of the religion and malcontents: after was carried against them; seeketh the marriage with her Majesty, so mighty a princess, as it were to marry might with his activity.

He hath had practice in Germany to be created king- of Romans, made n sudden voyage with great expedition into the Low Countries, now is there again with better success than so soon was looked for.

The king of Spain, Philip, son to Charles the fifth, about sixty years of age, a prince of great understanding, subtle and aspiring, diligent and cruel. This king especially hath made his benefit of the time, where his last attempt on Portugal deserveth exact consideration, thereby as by the workmanship to know the master.

The first success he had was at St. Qnintin, where he got a notable hand of the French: he sought to reduce the Low Countries to an absolute subjection.

He hath kept France in continual broil, where, "J his pensions and the favour of the house of Guise, by means of the queen-mother in contemplation of her nieces, he beareth great sway. With the pope he is so linked, as he may do what him list, and dispose of that authority to serve his purposes: as he has gotten great authority in pretending to protect the church and religion.

He possesseth the one half of Italy, comprehending Sicily and Sardinia, with Naples and Milan; the which estates do yield him little other profit, save the maintenance of so many Spaniards as he keepeth there always.

The duke of Florence relieth greatly upon him, 48 well in respect of the state of Siena, as of the ports he holdeth, and of his greatness. Lucca is under his protection. Genoa, the one faction at his devotion, with their galleys: at his pension is most of the greatest (here. »ot i. 2 B


Besides the Low Countries, he holdeth the French Comte, the best used of all his subjects, and Luxembourg: the West Indies furnish him gold and silver, the which he consumeth in the wars of the Low Countries, and in pensions, and is greatly indebted, while he worketh on the foundation his father laid, to erect a monarchy, the which if he succeed in the conquest of Portugal, he is likely to achieve, unless death do cut him off.

He hath one son of the years of»five by his last wife, two daughters by the French king's sister, two base sons.

He hath gTeatly sought the marriage of the queen's daughter of France, sister to his last wife, and cousin german removed.

His revenues are reckoned to amount Tne Turk s

revenues are

to sixteen millions. thought to be

The chief in credit with him of mar- $TM with

tial men and for counsel are

He maketh account to have in continual pay

50,000 soldiers.

He maintaineth galleys to the number of 140,

whereof there are sixty in Portugal, the rest are at

Naples, and other places. Now is on league with

the Turk.

D. Antonio, elect king of Portugal, Portugal, thrust out by the king of Spain, of fortyfive years of age, a mild spirit, sober and discreet: he is now in France, where he hath levied soldiers, whereof part are embarked, hoping by the favour of that king, and the good-will the Portugals do bear him, to be restored again. He holdeth the Torges, and the East-Indians yet remain well affected to him, a case of itself deserving the considering and relief of all other princes. Besides in his person, his election to be noted with the title he claimeth very singular, and seldom the like seen, being chosen of all the people; the great dangers he hath escaped likewise at sundry times.

The king of Poland, Stephen Ba- poland toaye, a baron of Hungary, by the favour of the Turk chosen king of the Pollacks, after the escape made by the French king; a prince of the greatest value and courage of any at this day, of competent years, sufficient wisdom, the which he hath showed in the siege of Danske, and the wars with the Muscovite.

The Hungarians could be content to exchange the emperor for him. The Bohemians likewise wish him in the stead of the other. He were like to attain to the empire, were not that mortal enmity between those two nations as could not agree in one subjection.

Straight upon his election he married the Infant of Poland, somewhat in years and crooked, only to content the Pollacks, hut never companied with her. He doth tolerate there all religions, himself heareth the mass, but is not thought to be a papist: he had a great part of his education in Turkey, after served the last emperor.

Frederick the second, of forty-eight Dcnmark years, king of Denmark and Norway; his wife Sophia, daughter to Llricke duke of Mechelebourg, by whom he hath six children, four daughters and two sons, Christianus and Ulricus, the eldest of five years of age.

The chiefest about him, Nicolas Cose his chancellor, in whose counsel he doth much repose.

He hath always 800 horse about his court, to whom he giveth ten dollars the month.

His father deceased in the year 1559, after which he had wars ten years space with the Swede, which gave him occasion to arm by sea. His navy is six great ships of* 1500 ton, and fifteen smaller, ten galleys which sail to pass the Straits.

His revenues grow chiefly in customs, and such living as were in the hands of the abbeys, and bishops, whereby he is greatly enriched: his chief haven is Copenhagen, where always his navy lieth.

His brother John, duke of Hoist in Jutland, married to the daughter of the duke of Inferior Saxony.

Magnus, his other brother, bishop of Courland, married the daughter of the Muscovite's brother.

The chiefest wars that the king of Denmark hath is with Sweden, with whom now he hath peace. The duke of Hoist is uncle to the king now reigning; they make often alliances with Scotland.

John, kine of Sweden, son of Gustavus.

This Gustavus had four sons, Erick, John, Magnus, Charles.

Erick married a soldier's daughter, by whom he had divers children, and died in prison.

John, now king, married the sister of Sigismond late king of Poland.

Magnus bestraught of his wits.

Charles married a daughter of the Palsgrave.

Five daughters of Gustavus.

Katherine married to the earl of East-Friseland.

Anne to one of the Palsgraves.

Cicilia to the marquis of Baden.

Sophia to the duke of Inferior Saxony.

Elizabeth to the duke of Mecleburg.

This prince is of no great force nor wealth, but of late hath increased his navigation by reason of the wars between him and the Dane, the which, the wars ceasing, they hardly maintain.

The Muscovite emperor of Russia, Muscow John Basil, of threescore years of age, in league and amity with no prince j always at wars with the Tartarians, and now with the Pollake.

He is advised by no council, but governeth altogether like a tyrant. He hath one son of thirty years of age. Not long sithence this prince deposed himself, and set in his place a Tartar, whom he removed again. Of late sent an ambassador to Rome, giving some hope to submit himself to that see. Their religion is nearest the Greek church, full of superstition and idolatry.




No praise of magnanimity, nor of love, nor of knowledge, can intercept her praise, that planteth and nourisheth magnanimity by her example, love by her person, and knowledge by the peace and serenity of her times. And if these rich pieces be so fair unset, what are they set, and set in all perfection? Magnanimity no doubt consisteth in contempt of peril, in contempt of profit, and in meriting of the times wherein one liveth. For contempt of peril, see a lady that cometh to a crown after the experience of some adverse fortune, which for the most part extenuateth the mind, and maketh it apprehensive of fears. No sooner she taketh the sceptre into her sacred hands, but she putteth on a resolution to make the greatest, the most important, the most dangerous that can be in a state, the alteration of religion. This she doth, not after a sovereignty established and continued by sundry years, when custom might have bred in her people a more absolute obedience; when trial of her servants might have made her more assured whom to employ j when the reputation of her policy and virtue might have made her government rcdpubted:

but at the very entrance of her reign, when she was green in authority, her servants scant known unto her, the adverse part not weakened, her own part not confirmed. Neither doth she reduce or reunite her realm to the religion of the states about her, that the evil inclination of the subject might be countervailed by the good correspondence in foreign parts: but contrariwise, she introduceth n religion exterminated and persecuted both at home and abroad. Her proceeding herein is not by degrees and by stealth, but absolute and at once. Was she encouraged thereto by the strength she found in leagues and alliances with great and potent confederates? No, but she found her realm in wars with her nearest and mightiest neighbours. She stood single and alone, and in league only with one, that after the people of her nation had made his wars, left her to make her own peace: one that could never be by any solicitation moved to renew the treaties; and one that since hath proceeded from doubtful terms of amity to the highest acts of hostility. Yet. notwithstanding the opposition so great, the support so weak, the season so improper; yet, I say, because it was a religion wherein she was nourished and brought up; a religion that freed her subjects from pretence of foreign powers, and indeed the true religion j she brought to pass this great work with success worthy so noble a resolution. See a queen that, when a deep and secret conspiracy was plotted against her sacred person, practised by subtile instruments, embraced by violent and desperate humours, strengthened and bound by vows and sacraments, and the same was revealed unto her, (and yet the nature of the affairs required farther ripening before the apprehension of any of the parties,) was content to put herself into the guard of the Divine Providence, and her own prudence, to have some of the conspirators in her eyes, to suffer them to approach to her person, to take a petition of the hand that was conjured for her death; and that with such majesty of countenance, such mildness and serenity of gesture, such art and impression of words, as had been sufficient to have represt and bound the hand of a conspirator, if he had not been discovered- Lastly, see a queen, that when her realm was to have been invaded by an army, the preparation whereof was like the travel of an elephant, the provisions were infinite, the setting forth whereof was the terror and wonder of Europe; it was not seen that her chear, her fashion, her ordinary manner was any thing altered: not a cloud of that storm did appear in that countenance wherein peace doth ever shine; but with excellent assurance, and advised security, she inspired her council, animated her nobility, redoubled the courage of her people, still having this noble apprehension, not only that she would communicate her fortune with them, but that it was she that would protect them, and not they her: which she testified by no less demonstration than her presence in camp. Therefore, that magnanimity that neither feareth greatness of alteration, nor the views of conspirators, nor the power of enemy, is more than heroical.

For contempt of profit, consider her offers, consider her purchases. She hath reigned in a most populous and wealthy peace, her people greatly multiplied, wealthily appointed, and singularly devoted. She wanted not the example of the power of her arms in the memorable voyages and invasions prosperously made and achieved by sundry her noble progenitors. She had not wanted pretences, as well of claim and right, as of quarrel and revenge. ■She hath reigned during the minority of some of her neighbour princes, and during the factions and divisions of their people upon deep and irreconcilable quarrels, and during the embracing greatness of some one that hath made himself so weak through too much burthen, as others are through decay of strength; and yet see her sitting as it were within 'he compass of her sands. Scotland, that doth as it were eclipse her island; the United Provinces of the Low Countries, which for wealth, commodity of traffic, affection to our nation, were most meet to be annexed to this crown; she left the possessions of the one, and refused the sovereignty of the other: so that notwithstanding the greatness of her means, the justness of her pretences, and the rareness of her opportunity; she hath continued her first mind,

she hath made the possessions which she received the limits of her dominions, and the world the limits of her name, by a peace that hath stained all victories.

For her merits, who doth not acknowledge, that she hath been as a star of most fortunate influence upon the age wherein she hath shined? Shall we speak of merit of clemency? or merit of beneficence? Where shall a man take the most proper and natural trial of her royal clemency? Will it best appear in the injuries that were done unto her before she attained the crown? or after she is seated in her throne? or that the commonwealth is incorporated in her person? Then clemency is drawn in question, as a dangerous encounter of justice and policy. And therefore, who did'ever note that she did relent after that she was established in her kingdom, of the wrongs done unto her former estate? Who doth not remember how she did revenge the rigour and rudeness of her jailer by a word, and that no bitter but salt, and such as showed rather the excellency of her wit than any impression of her wrong? Yea, and farther, is it not so manifest, that since her reign, notwithstanding the principle that princes should not neglect, " That the commonwealth's wrong is included in themselves;" yet when it is question of drawing the sword, there is ever a conflict between the justice of her place, joined with the necessity of her state and her royal clemency, which as a sovereign and precious balm, continually distilleth from her fair hands, and falleth into the wounds of many that have incurred the offence of her law.

Now, for her beneficence, what kind of persons have breathed during her most happy reign, but have had the benefit of her virtues conveyed unto them? Take a view, and consider, whether they have not extended to subjects, to neighbours, to remote strangers, yea, to her greatest enemies. For her subjects, where shall we begin in such a maze of benefits as presenteth itself to remembrance? Shall we speak of the purging away of the dross of religion, the heavenly treasure; or that of money, the earthly treasure? The greater was touched before, and the latter deserveth not to be forgotten. For who believeth not, that knoweth any thing in matter of estate, of the great absurdities and frauds that arise of divorcing the legal estimation of moneys from the general, and, as I may term it, natural estimation of metals, and again of the uncertainty and wavering values of coins, a very labyrinth of cozenages and abuse, yet such as great princes have made their profit of towards their own people. Pass on from the mint to the revenue and receipts: there shall you find, no raising of rents, notwithstanding the alteration of prices and the usage of times; but the over value, besides a reasonable fine left for the relief of tenants and reward of servants; no raising of customs, notwithstanding her continual charges of setting to the sea; no extremity taken of forfeiture and penal laws, means used by some kings for the gathering of great treasures. A few forfeitures, indeed, not taken to her own purse, but set over to some others for the trial only, whether gain could bring those laws to be well executed, which the ministers of justice did neglect. But after it was found, that only compas

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