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that we sing certain hymns unto her, used to be sung unto our Lady.

It happened that, upon some bloodshed in the church of Paul's, according to the canon law, yet with us in force, the said church was interdicted, and so the gates shut up for some few days; whereupon they published, that, because the same church is a place where people use to meet to walk and confer, the queen's Majesty, after the manner of the ancient tyrants, had forbidden all assemblies and meetings of people together, and for that reason, upon extreme jealousy, did cause Paul's gates to be shut up.

The gate of London called Ludgnte, being in decay, was pulled down, and built anew; and on the one side was set up the image of king Lud and his two sons; who, according to the name, was thought to be the first founder of that gate; and on the other side, the image of her Majesty, in whose time it was re-edified; whereupon they published that her Majesty, after all the images of the saints were long beaten down, had now at last set up her own image upon the principal gate of London, to be adored, and that all men were forced to do reverence to it as they passed by, and a watch there placed for that purpose.

Mr. Jewel, the bishop of Salisbury, who according to his life died most godly and patiently, at the point of death used the versicle of the hymn "Te Deum," "0 Lord, in thee have I trusted, let me never be confounded;" whereupon, suppressing the rest, they published, that the principal champion of the heretics in his very last words cried he was confounded.

In the act of recognition of primo, whereby the right of the crown is acknowledged by parliament to be in her Majesty, the like whereof was used in queen Mary's time, the words of limitation are, " in the queen's majesty, and the natural heirs of her body, and her lawful successors." Upon which word, natural, they do maliciously, and indeed villanously gloss, that it was the intention of the parliament, in a cloud to convey the crown to any issue of her Majesty's that were illegitimate; whereas the word heir doth with us so necessarily and pregnantly import lawfulness, as it had been indecorum, and uncivil speaking of the issues of a prince, to have expressed it.

They set forth in the year a book with tables and pictures of the persecutions against catholics, wherein they have not only stories of fifty years old to supply their pages, but also taken all the persecutions of the primitive church, under the heathen, and translated them to the practice of England; as that of worrying priests under the skins of bears, by dogs, and the like.

I conclude then, that I know not what to make of this excess in avouching untruths, save this, that they may truly chant in their quires; "Linguam nostram magnificabimus, labia nostra nobis sunt:"

* From the original in the Lambeth Library.

T From the original in the Lambeth Library.

X Who died April 6, 1590. After his death the business of secretary of state appears to be chiefly done by Mr. Robert t-ecil, who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth at Theobald's, about the beginning of June, 1591, and in August following

and that they who have long ago forsaken the truth of God, which is the touchstone, must now hold by the whetstone ; and that their ancient pillar of lying wonders being decayed, they must now hold by lying slanders, and make their libels successors to their legend.

The first copy of my discourse touching the safety of the Queen's person*

These be the principal remedies I could think of, for extirpating the principal cause of those conspiracies, by the breaking the nest of those fugitive traitors, and the filling them full of terror, despair, jealousy, and revolt. And it is true, I thought of some other remedies, which, because in mine own conceit I did not so well allow, I therefore do forbear to express. And so likewise I have thought, and thought again, of the means to stop and divert as well the attempts 6f violence, as poison, in the performance and execution. But not knowing how my travail may be accepted, being the unwarranted wishes of a private man, I leave: humbly praying her Majesty's pardon, if in the zeal of my simplicity I have roved at things above my aim.

The first fragments of a discourse, touching intelligence, and the safety of the Queen's person, t

The first remedy, in my poor opinion, is that against which, as I conceive, least exception can be taken, as a thing, without controversy, honourable and politic; and that is reputation of good intelligence. I say not only good intelligence, but the reputation and /ame thereof. For I see, that where booths are set for watching thievish places, there is no more robbing: and though no doubt the watchmen many times are asleep, or away; yet that is more than the thief knoweth; so as the empty booth is strength and safeguard enough. So likewise, if there be sown an opinion abroad, that her Majesty hath much secret intelligence, and that all is full of spies and false brethren; the fugitives will grow into such a mutual jealousy and suspicion one of another, as they will not have the confidence to conspire together, not knowing whom to trust; and thinking all practice bootless, as that which is assured to be discovered. And to this purpose, to speak reverently, as becometh me, as I do not doubt but those honourable counsellors, to whom it doth appertain, do carefully and sufficiently provide and take order that her Majesty receive good intelligence; so yet, under correction, methinks it is not done with that glory and note to the world, which was in Mr. Secretary Walsingham's J time: and in this case, as was said, " opinio veritate major."

The second remedy I deliver with less assurance, as that which is more removed from the compass of mine understanding: and that is, to treat and negotiate with the king of Spain, or archduke Ernest^ who resides in the place where these conspiracies are

sworn of the privy-counsel; but not actually appointed secretary of state till July 5, 1596. Birch.

b Ernest, archduke of Austria, son of the emperor Maximilian II. and governor of the Low Countries, upon which government he entered in June, 1591; but held it only a short time, dying February AJ. following. It was probably in purmost forged, upon the point of the law of nations, upon which kind of points princes' enemies may with honour negotiate, viz. that, contrary to the same law of nations, and the sacred dignity of kings, and the honour of arms, certain of her Majesty's

subjects, if it be not thought meet to impeach any of his ministers, refuged in his dominions, have conspired and practised assassination against her Majesty's person.









The king of Spain having found by the enterprise of 88, the difficulty of an invasion of England; and having also since that time embraced the matters of France, being a design of a more easy nature, and better prepared to his hand, hath of necessity for a time laid aside the prosecution of his attempts against this realm, by open forces, as knowing his means unable to wield both actions at once, as well that of England as that of France; and therefore, casting at the fairest, hath, in a manner, bent his whole strength upon France, making in the mean time only a defensive war upon the Low Countries. But rinding again, that the supports and aids which her Majesty hath continued to the French king, are a principal impediment and retardation to his prevailing there according to his ends, he hath, now of late, by all means, projected to trouble the waters here, and to cut us out some work at home; that by practice, without diverting and employing any great forces, he might nevertheless divert our succours from France.

According to which purpose, he first proved to move some innovation in Scotland, not so much in hope to alienate the king from the amity of her Majesty, as practising to make a party there against the king himself, whereby he should be compelled to use her Majesty's forces for his assistance. Then he solicited a subject within this realm, being a person of great nobility, to rise in arms and levy war against her Majesty; which practice was by the same nobleman loyally and prudently revealed.

suance pf the advice of Mr. Francis Bacon in this paper, that queen Elizabeth sent to the archduke in 1594, to complain of Inc designs which had been formed against her life by the Count ue Fuentes, and Don Diego de Ibarra, and other Spanish ministers concerned in governing the L(.w Countries after the death of Alexander duke of Parma in December,

And lastly, rather, as it is to be thought, by the instigation of our traitorous fugitives in foreign parts, and the corrupter sort of his counsellors and ministers, than of his own nature and inclination, either of himself, or his said counsellors and ministers using his name, have descended to a course against all honour, all society and humanity, odious to God and man, detested by the heathens themselves, which is, to take away the life of her Majesty, (which God have in his precious custody !) by violence or poison. A matter which might be proved to be not only against all Christianity and religion, but against nature, the law of nations, the honour of arms, the civil law, the rules of morality and policy; finally, to be the most condemned, barbarous, and ferine act that can be imagined; yea, supposing the quarrels and hostility between the princes to be never so declared and so mortal, yet were it not that it would be a very reproach unto the age, that the matter should be once disputed or called in question, it could never be defended. And therefore I leave it to the censure which Titus Livius giveth in the like case upon Perseus, the last king of the Macedons, afterwards overthrown, taken with his children, and led in triumph by the Romans; "Quem non justum bellum gerere rcgio animo, sed per omnia clandestina grassari scelera, latrociniorutn ac Veneficiorum, cernebant."

But to proceed: certain it is, that even about this present time there have been suborned and sent into this realm divers persons, sorrte English, some

1592, and by the English fugitives there; and to desire him to signify those facts to the king of Spain, in order that he might vindicate his own character, by punishing his ministers, and delivering up to her such fugitives as were parties in such designs.—Camdeni Annates Bits. Heginw, p. 625. Edit. Lugduni Bat. Wii>. Birch.

Irish, corrupted by money and promises, and resolved and conjured by priests in confession, to hnve executed that most wretched and horrible fact; of which number certain have been taken, and some have suffered, and some are spared because they have with great sorrow confessed these attempts, and detested their suborners. And if I should conjecture what the reason is why this cursed enterprise was at this time so hotly and with such diligence pursued, I take it to be chiefly because the matters of France were ripe, and the king of Spain made himself ready to unmask himself, and to reap that in France, which he had been long in sowing, in regard that, there being like to be a divulsion in the league by the reconciliation of some of the heads to the king, the more passionate sort, being destituted by their associates, were like to cast themselves wholly into the king of Spain's arms, and to dismember some important piece of that crown; though now upon this fresh accident of receiving the king into Paris, it is to be thought that both the worst affected of the league will submit themselves upon any tolerable conditions to their natural king, thus advanced in strength and reputation; and the king of Spain will take a second advice ere he embark himself too far in any new attempt against France. But taking the affairs as they then stood before this accident unexpected, especially of the council of Spain, during this his supposed harvest in France, his council had reason to wish that there were no disturbance from hence, where they make account that if her Majesty were removed, upon whose person God continue his extraordinary watch and providence! here would be nothing but confusion, which they do not doubt but with some no great treasure, and forces from without, may be nourished till they can more fully intend the ruin of this state, according to their ancient malice.

But howsoever that be, amongst the number of these execrable undertakers, there was none so much built and relied upon by the great ones of the other side, as was this physician Lopez; nor, indeed, none so dangerous: whether you consider the aptness of the instrument, or the subtlety and secrecy of those that practised with him, or the shift and evasion which he had provided for a colour of his doings, if they should happen to come into question. For first, whereas others were to find and encounter infinite difficulties, in the very obtaining of an opportunity to execute this horrible act; and, besides, cannot but see present and most assured death before their eyes, and therefore must be, as it were, damnable votaries if they undertake it: this man, in regard of his faculty, and of his private access to her Majesty, had both means to perpetrate, and means to conceal, whereby he might reap the fruit of his wicked treason without evident peril. And for his complices that practised with him, being Portuguese, and of the retinue of king Antonio, the king of Spain's mortal enemy, they were men thereby freed and discharged from suspicion, and might send letters and receive letters out of Spain without jealousy; as those which were thought to entertain intelligences there for the good of their master. And for the

evasion and mask that Lopez had prepared for this treason, if it had not been searched and sifted to the bottom, it was, that he did intend but to cozen the king of Spain, without ill meaning; somewhat in the nature of that stratagem which Parry, a most cunning and artificial traitor, had provided for himself.

Nevertheless this matter, by the great goodness of God falling into good hands, of those honourable and sufficient persons which dealt therein, was by their great and worthy industry so handled and followed, as this Proteus of a disguised and transformed treason did at last appear in his own likeness and colours, which were as foul and monstrous as have been known in the world. For some of her Majesty's council long since entered into consideration, that the retinue of king Antonio, I mean some of them, were not unlike to hatch these kinds of treasons, in regard they were needy strangers, entered into despair of their master's fortune, and like enough to aspire to make their peace at home, by some such wicked services as these; and therefore grew to have an extraordinary vigilant eye upon them: which prudent and discreet presumption, or conjecture, joined with some advertisements of espials abroad, and some other industry, was the first cause, next under the great benediction of God, which giveth unto princes zealous counsellors, and giveth to counsellors policy, and discerning thoughts of the revealing and discovering of these treasons, which were contrived in order and form, as hereafter is set down.

This Lopez, of nation a Portuguese, and suspected to be in sect secretly a Jew, though here he conformed himself to the rites of the christian religion, for a long time professed physic in this land, by occasion whereof, being withal a man very observant and officious, and of a pleasing and appliable behaviour; in that regard, rather than for any great learning in his faculty, he grew known and favoured in court, and was some years since sworn physician of her Majesty's household; and by her Majesty's bounty, of whom he had received divers gifts of good commodity, was grown to good estate of wealth.

This man had insinuated himself greatly, in regard he was of the same nation with the king Antonio, whose causes he pretended to solicit at the court: especially while he supposed there was any appearance of his fortune; of whom also he had obtained, as one that referred all his doings to gain, an assignation of 50,000 crowns to be levied in Portugal. But being a person wholly of a corrupt and mercenary nature, and finding his hopes cold from that part: he cast his eyes upon a more able paymaster, and secretly made offer long since of his service to the king of Spain: and accordingly gave sundry intelligences of that which passed here, and imported most for the king of Spain to know, having no small means, in regard of his continual attendance at court, nearness, and access, to learn many particulars of great weight: which intelligences he maintained witli Bernardine Mendoza, Antonio Vega, Roderigo Marquez, and divers others.

In the conveyance of which his intelligences and in the making known of his disposition to do the king of Spain service, he had, amongst others, one Manuel Andrada a Portuguese, revolted from Don Antonio to the king of Spain; one that was discovered to have practised the death of the said Don Antonio, and to have betrayed him to Bemardine Mendoza. This man, coming hither, was, for the same his practice, appearing by letters intercepted, apprehended and committed to prison. Before which time also, there had been by good diligence intercepted other letters, whereby the said Andrada advertised Mendoza, that he had won Dr. Lopez to the king's service: but Lopez having understanding thereof, and finding means to have secret conference with Andrada before his examination, persuaded with him to take the matter upon himself, as if he had invented that advertisement touching Lopez, only to procure himself credit with Mendoza; and to make him conceive well of his industry and service. And to move him hereunto, Lopez set before Andrada, that if he did excuse him, he should have credit to work his delivery: whereas, if he did impeach him, he was not like to find any other means of favour. By which subtle persuasion Andrada, when he came to be examined, answered according to the direction and lessoning which Lopez had given him. And having thus acquitted himself of this suspicion, became suitor for Andrada's delivery, craftily suggesting, that he was to do some notable service to Don Ajitonio; in which his suit he accordingly prevailed. When Lopez had thus got Andrada out of prison, he was suffered to go out of the realm into Spain; in pretence, as was said, to do some service to Don Antonio; but in truth, to continue Lopez's negotiation and intelligences with the king of Spain; which he handled so well, as at his return hither, for the comforting of the said Lopez, he brought to him from the king, besides thanks and words of encouragement, and an Abrazo, which is the complement of favour, a very good jewel garnished with sundry stones of good value. This jewel, when Lopez had excepted, he cunningly cast with himself, that if he should offer it to her Majesty first, he was assured she would not take it: next, that thereby he should lay her asleep, and make her secure of him for greater matter, according to the saying, "Fraus sibi fidem in parvis prcestruit ut in magnis opprimat;" which accordingly he did, with protestations of his fidelity: and her Majesty, as a princess of magnanimity, not apt to fear or suspicion, returned it to him with gracious words.

After Lopez had thus abused her Majesty, and had these trials of the fidelity of Andrada, they fell in conference, the matter being first moved by Andrada, as he that came freshly out of Spain, touching the empoisoning of the queen: which Lopez, who saw that matter of intelligence, without some such particular service, would draw no great reward from the king of Spain; such as a man that was not needy, but wealthy as he was, could find any taste in, assented unto. And to that purpose procured again this Andrada to be sent over, as well to ad

vertise and assure this matter to the king of Spain and his ministers, namely, to the count de Fuentex, assistant to the general of the king of Spain's forces in the Low Countries, as also to capitulate and contract with him about the certainty of his reward. Andrada having received those instructions, and being furnished with money, by Lopez's procurement, from Don Antonio, about whose service his employment was believed to be, went over to Calais, where he remained to be near unto England and Flanders, having a boy that ordinarily passed to and fro between him and Lopez: by whom he did also, the better to colour his employment, write to Lopez intelligence, as it was agreed he should between him and Lopez; who bad him send such news as he should take up in the streets. From Calais he writeth to count de Fuentes of Lopez's promise and demands. Upon the receipt of which letters, after some time taken to advertise this proposition into Spain, and to receive direction thereupon, the count de Fuentes associated with Stephano Ibarra, secretary of the council of the wars in the Low Countries, calleth to him one Manuel Louis Tinoco, a Portuguese, who had also followed king Antonio, and of whose good devotion he had had experience, in that he had conveyed unto him two several packets, wherewith he was trusted by the king Antonio for France. Of this Louis they first received a corporal oath, with solemn ceremony, taking his hands between their hands, that he should keep secret that which should be imparted to him, and never reveal the same, though he should be apprehended and questioned here. This done, they acquaint him with the letters of Andrada, with whom they charge him to confer at Calais in his way, and to pass to Lopez into England, addressing him farther to Stephano Ferrera de Gama, and signifying unto the said Lopez withal, as from the king, that he gave no great credence to Andrada, as a person too slight to be used in a cause of so great weight: and therefore marvelled much that he heard nothing from Ferrera of this matter, from whom he had in former time been advertised in generality of Lopez's good affection to do him service. This Ferrera had been sometimes a man of great livelihood and wealth in Portugal, which he did forego in adhering to Don Antonio, and appeareth to be a man of capacity and practice; but hath some years since been secretly won to the service of the king of Spain, not travelling nevertheless to and fro, but residing as his lieger in England.

Manuel Louis despatched with these instructions, and with all affectionate commendations from the count to Lopez, and with letters to Ferrera, took his journey first to Calais, where he conferred with Andrada; of whom receiving more ample information, together with a short ticket of credence to Lopez, that he was a person whom he might trust without scruple, came over into England, and first repaired to Ferrera, and acquainted him with the state of the business, who had before that time given some light unto Lopez, that he was not a stranger unto the practice between him and Andrada, wherewith, indeed, Andrada had in a sort acquainted him. And now upon this new despatch and knowledge given to Lopez of the choice of Ferrera to continue that which Andrada had begun; he, to conform himself the better to the satisfaction of the king of Spain, and his ministers abroad, was content more fully to communicate with Ferrera, with whom, from that time forward, he meant singly and apertly to deal; and therefore cunningly forbore to speak with Manuel Louis himself; but concluded that Ferrera should be his only trunk, and all his dealings should pass through his hands, thinking thereby to have gone invisible.

Whereupon he cast with himself, that it was not safe to use the mediation of Manuel Louis, who had been made privy to the matter, as some base carrier of letters; which letters also should be written in a cipher, not of alphabet, but of words; such as might, if they were opened, import no vehement suspicion. And therefore Manuel Louis was sent back with a short answer, and Lopez purveyed himself of a base fellow, a Portuguese called Gomez d'Avila, dwelling hard by Lopez's house, to convey his letters. After this messenger provided, it was agreed between Lopez and Ferrera, that letters should be sent to the count de Fuentes, and secretary Juarra, written and signed by Ferrera, for Lopez cautelously did forbear to write himself, but directed, and indeed dictated word by word by Lopez himself. The contents thereof were, that Lopez was ready to execute that service to the king, which before had been treated, but required for his recompence the sum of 50,000 crowns, and assurance for the same.

These letters were written obscurely, as was touched, in terms of merchandise; to which obscurity when Ferrera excepted, Lopez answered they knew his meaning by that which had passed before. Ferrera wrote also to Manuel Louis, but charged this Gomez to deliver the same letters unto him in the presence of Juarra; as also the letter to Juarra in the presence of Manuel Louis. And these letters were delivered to Gomez d'Avila to be carried to Brussels, and a passport procured, and his charges defrayed by Lopez. And Ferrera, the more to approve his industry, writ letters two several times, the one conveyed by Emanuel Pallacios, with the privity of Lopez, to Christophero Moro, a principal counsellor of the king of Spain, in Spain; signifying that Lopez was won to the king of Spain, and that he was ready to receive his commandment; and received a letter from the same Christophero Moro, in answer to one of these, which he showed unto Lopez. In the mean time Lopez, though a man, in semblance, of a heavy wit, yet indeed subtle of himself, as one trained in practice, and besides as wily as fear and covetousness could make him, thought to provide for himself, as was partly touched before, as many starting-holes and evasions as he could devise, if any of these matters should come to light. And first he took his time to cast forth some general words afar off to her Majesty, as asking her the question, Whether a deceiver might not be deceived? Whereof her Majesty, not imagining these words tended to such end, as to warrant him colourably in this wretched conspiracy, but other▼ol. L 2d

wise, of her own natural disposition bent to integrity and sincerity, uttered dislike and disallowance. Next, he thought he had wrought a great mystery in demanding the precise sum of 50,000 crowns, agreeing just with the sum of assignation or donation from Don Antonio; idly, and in that grossly imagining, that, if afterwards he should accept the same sum, he might excuse it, as made good by the king of Spain, in regard he desisted to follow and favour Don Antonio; whereupon the king of Spain was in honour tied not to see him a loser. Thirdly, in his conferences with Ferrera, when he was apposed upon the particular manner how he would poison her Majesty, he purposely named unto him a syrup, knowing that her Majesty never useth syrup; and therefore thinking that would prove a high point for his justification, if things should come in any question.

But all this while desirous after his prey, which he had in hope devoured, he did instantly importune Ferrera for the answering of his last despatch, finding the delay strange, and reiterating the protestations of his readiness to do the service, if he were assured of his money.

Now before the return of Gomez d'Avila into England, this Stephen Ferrera was discovered to have intelligence with the enemy; but so, as the particular of his traffic and overtures appeared not, only it seemed there was great account made of that he managed; and thereupon he was committed to prison. Soon after arrived Gomez d'Avila, and brought letters only from Manuel Louis, by the name of Francisco de Thores; because, as it seemeth, the great persons on the other side had a contrary disposition to Lopez, and liked not to write by so base a messenger, but continued their course to trust and employ Manuel Louis himself, who in likelihood was retained till they might receive a full conclusion from Spain; which was not till about two months after. This Gomez was apprehended at his landing, and about him were found the letters aforesaid, written in jargon, or verbal cipher, but yet somewhat suspicious, in these words: "This bearer will tell you the price in which your pearls are esteemed, and in what resolution we rest about a little musk and amber, which I am determined to buy." Which words the said Manuel Louis afterwards voluntarily confessed to be deciphered in this sort; That by the allowance of the pearls he meant, that the count de Fuentes, and the secretary, did gladly accept the offer of Lopez to poison the queen, signified by Ferrera's letter: and for the provision of amber and musk, it was meant, that the count looked shortly for a resolution from the king of Spain concerning a matter of importance, which was for burning of the queen's ships; and another point tending to the satisfaction of their vindictive humour.

But while the sense of this former letter rested ambiguous, and that no direct particular was confessed by Ferrera, nor sufficient light given to ground any rigorous examination of him, cometh over Manuel Louis with the resolution from Spain; who first understanding of Ferrera's restraint, and therefore doubting how far things were discovered, to shadow the matter, like a cunning companion,

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