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persons she employed; which is a good rule to go by.
2. If it were an embassy of gratulation or ceremony, which must not be neglected, choice was made of some noble person eminent in place and able in purse; and he would take it as a mark of favour, and discharge it without any great burden to the queen's coffers, for his own honour's sake.
3. But if it were an embassy of weight, concerning affairs of state, choice was made of some sad person of known judgment, wisdom, and experience; and not of a young man not weighed in state matters; nor of a mere formal man, whatsoever his title or outside were.
4. Yet in company of such, some young towardly noblemen or gentlemen were usually sent also, as assistants or attendants, according to the quality of the persons; who might be thereby prepared and fitted for the like employment, by this means, at another turn.
5. In their company were always sent some grave and sad men, skilful in the civil laws, and some in the languages, and some who had been formerly conversant in the courts of those princes, and knew their ways: these were assistants in private, but not trusted to manage the affairs in public; that would detract from the honour of the principal ambassador.
6. If the negotiations were about merchants' affairs, then were the persons employed for the most part doctors of the civil law, assisted with some other discreet men; and in such, the charge was ordinarily defrayed by the company or society of merchants whom the negotiation concerned.
7. If lieger ambassadors or agents were sent to remain in or near the courts of those princes or states, as it was ever held fit, to observe the motions, and to hold correspondence with them, upon all occasions, such were made choice of as were presumed to be vigilant, industrious, and discreet men, and had the language of the place whither they were sent; and with these were sent such as were hopeful to be worthy of the like employment at another time.
8. Their care was, to give true and timely intelligence of all occurrences, either to the queen herself, or to the secretaries of state, unto whom they had their immediate relation.
9. Their charge was always borne by the queen, duly paid out of the exchequer, in such proportion, as, according to their qualities and places, might give them an honourable subsistence there: but for the reward of their service, they were to expect it upon their return, by some such preferment as might be worthy of them, and yet be little burden to the queen's coffers or revenues.
10. At their going forth they had their general instructions in writing, which might be communicated to the ministers of that state whither they were sent; and they had also private instructions upon particular occasions: and at their returnt they did always render an account of some things to the queen herself, of some things to the body of the council, and of some others to the secretaries of state;
who made use of them, or communicated them, as there was cause.
11. In those days there was a constant course held, that by the advice of the secretaries, or some principal counsellors, there were always sent forth into several parts beyond the seas some young men, of whom good hopes were conceived of their towardliness, to be trained up, and made fit for such public employments, and to learn the languages. This was at the charge of the queen, which was not much; for they travelled but as private gentlemen; and as by their industry their deserts did appear, so were they farther employed or rewarded. This course I shall recommend unto you, to breed up a nursery of such public plants.
V. For peace and war, and those things which appertain to either; I in my own disposition and profession am wholly for peace, if please God to bless this kingdom therewith, as for many years past he hath done: and,
1. I presume I shall not need to persuade you to the advancing of it; nor shall you need to persuade the king your master therein, for that he hath hitherto been another Solomon in this our Israel, and the motto which he hath chosen, "Beati pacifici," shows his own judgment: but he must use the means to preserve it, else such a jewel may be lost.
2. God is the God of peace; it is one of his attributes, therefore by him alone we must pray, nnd hope to continue it: there is the foundation.
3. And the king must not neglect the just ways for it; justice is the best protector of it at home, and providence for war is the best prevention of it from abroad.
4. Wars are either foreign or civil; for the foreign war by the king upon some neighbour nation, I hope we are secure; the king in his pious and just disposition is not inclinable thereunto: his empire is long enough, bounded with the ocean, as if the very situation thereof had taught the king and'people to set up their rests, and say, " Ne plus ultra."
5. And for a war of invasion from abroad; only we must not be over-secure: that is the way to invite it.
6. But if we be always prepared to receive an enemy, if the ambition or malice of any should incite him, we may be very confident we shall long live in peace and quietness, without any attempts upon us.
7. To make the preparations hereunto the more assured: in the first place, I will recommend unto you the care of our out-works, the navy royal and shipping of our kingdom, which are the walls thereof: and every great ship is an impregnable fort; and our many safe and commodious ports and havens, in every of these kingdoms, are as the redoubts to secure them.
8. For the body of the ships, no nation of the world doth equal England for the oaken timber wherewith to build them ; and we need not borrow of any other iron for spikes, or nails to fasten them together; but there must be a great deal of providence used, that our ship timber be not unnecessarily wasted.
9. But for tackling, as sails and cordage, we are beholden to our neighbours for them, and do buy them for our money; that must be foreseen and laid up in store against a time of need, and not sought for when we are to use them: but we are much to blame that we make them not at home; only pitch and tar we have not of our own.
10. For the true art of building of ships, for burden and service both, no nation in the world exceeds us; ship-wrights, and all other artisans belonging to that trade, must be cherished and encouraged.
11. Powder and ammunition of all sorls we can have at home, and in exchange for other home commodities we may be plentifully supplied from our neighbours, which must not be neglected.
12. With mariners and stamen this kingdom is plentifully furnished: the constant trade of merchandising will furnish us at a need; and navigable rivers will repair the store, both to the navy royal and to the merchants, if they be set on work, and well paid for their labour.
13. Sea captains and commanders and other officers must be encouraged, and rise by degrees, as their fidelity and industry deserve it.
[Let brave spirits that have fitted themselves for command, either by sea or land, not be laid by, as persons unnecessary for the time : let arms and ammunition of all sorts be provided and stored up, as .igainst a day of battle; let the ports and forts be fitted so, as if by the next wind we should hear of an alarm: such a known providence is the surest protection. But of all wars, let both prince and people pray against a war in our own bowels: the king by his wisdom, justice, and moderation, must foresee and stop such a storm, and if it fall must allay it; and the people by their obedience must decline it. And for a foreign war intended by an invasion to enlarge the bounds of our empire, which are large enough, and are naturally bounded with the ocean, I have no opinion either of the justness or fitness of it; and it were a very hard matter to attempt it with hope of success, seeing the subjects of this kingdom believe it is not legal for them to be enforced to go beyond the seas, without their own consent, upon hope of an unwarranted conquest; but to resist an invading enemy, or to suppress rebels, the subject may and must be commanded out of the counties where they inhabit. The whole kingdom is but one entire body; else it will necessarily be verified, which elsewhere was asserted, " Dum singuli pugnamus, omnes vincimur."]
14. Our strict league of amity and alliance with our near neighbours the Hollanders is a mutual strength to both; the shipping of both, in conjuncture, being so powerful, by God's blessing, as no foreigners will venture upon; this league and friendship mu»t inviolably be observed.
15. From Scotland we have had in former times some alarms and inroads into the northern parts of this kingdom: but that happy union of both kingdoms under one sovereign, our gracious king, I hope, hath taken away all occasions of breach between the two nations. Let not the cause arise from
England, and I hope the Scots will not adventure it; or if they do, I hope they will find, that although to our king they were his first-born subjects, yet to England belongs the birthright: but this should not be any cause to offer any injury to then, nor to suffer any from them.
16. There remains then no danger, by the blessing of God, but a civil war, from which God of his mercy defend us, as that which is most desperate of all others. The king's wisdom and justice must prevent it, if it may be; or if it should happen, quod absit, he must quench that wild-fire with all the diligence that possibly can be.
17. Competition to the crown there is none, nor can be, therefore it must be a fire within the bowels, or nothing; the cures whereof are these, remedium praeveniens, which is the best physic, either to a natural body, or to a state, by just and equal government to take away the occasion; and remedium puniens, if the other prevail not: the service and vigilancy of the deputy lieutenants in every county, and of the high sheriff, will contribute much herein to our security.
18. But if that should not prevail, by a wise and timous inquisition, the peccant humours and humorists must be discovered, and purged, or cut off; mercy, in such a case, in a king is true cruelty.
19. Yet if the heads of the tribes can be taken off, and the misled multitude will see their error, and return to their obedience, such an extent of mercy is both honourable and profitable.
20. A king, against a storm, must foresee to have a convenient stock of treasure; and neither be without money, which is the sinews of war, nor to depend upon the courtesy of others, which may fail at a pinch.
21. He must also have a magazine of all sorts, which must be had from foreign parts, or provided at home, and to commit them to several places, under the custody of trusty and faithful ministers and officers, if it be possible.
22. He must make choice of expert and able commanders to conduct and manage the war, either against a foreign invasion, or a home rebellion; which must not be young and giddy, which dare, not only to fight, but to swear, and drink, and curse, neither fit to govern others, nor able to govern themselves. ,
23. Let not such be discouraged, if they deserve well, by misinformation, or for the satisfying the humours or ambition of others, perhaps out of envy, perhaps out of treachery or other sinister ends. A steady hand in governing of military affairs is more requisite than in times of peace, because an error committed in war may, perhaps, prove irremediable.
24. If God shall bless these endeavours, and the king return to his own house in peace, when a civil war shall be at an end, those who have been found faithful in the land must be regarded, yea, and rewarded also; the traitorous, or treacherous, who have misled others, severely punished; and the neutrals and false-hearted friends and followers, who have started aside like a broken bow, be noted carbone nigro. And so I shall leave them, and this part of the work.
VI. I come to the sixth part, which is trade; and that is either at home or abroad. And I begin with that which is at home, which enableth the subjects of the kingdom to live, and layeth a foundation to a foreign trade by traffic with others, which enableth them to live plentifully and happily.
1. For the home trade, I first commend unto your consideration the encouragement of tillage, which will enable the kingdom for com for the natives, and to spare for exportation: and I myself have known, more than once, when, in times of dearth, in queen Elizabeth's days, it drained much coin of the kingdom, to furnish us with corn from foreign parts.
2. Good husbands will find the means, by good husbandry, to improve their lands, by lime, chalk, marl, or sea-sand, where it can be had: but it will not be amiss, that they be put in mind thereof, and encouraged in their industries.
3. Planting of orchards, in a soil and air fit for them, is very profitable, as well as pleasurable; cider and perry are notable beverages in sea voyages.
4. Gardens are also very profitable, if planted with artichokes, roots, and such other things as are fit for food; whence they be called kitchen gardens, and that very properly.
5. The planting of hop-yards, sowing of woad and rape seed, are found very profitable for the planters, in places apt for them, and consequently profitable for the kingdom, which for divers years was furnished with them from beyond the seas.
6. The planting and preserving of woods, especially of timber, is not only profitable, but commendable, therewith to furnish posterity, both for building and shipping.
7- The kingdom would be much improved by draining of drowned lands, and gaining that in from the overflowing of salt waters and the sea, and from fresh waters also.
8. And many of those grounds would be exceeding fit for dairies, which, being well housewived, are exceeding commodious.
9. Much good land might be gained from forests and chases, more remote from the king's access, and from other commonable places, so as always there be a due care taken, that the poor commoners have no injury by such improvement.
10. The making of navigable rivers would be very profitable; they would be as so many indraughts of wealth, by conveying of commodities with ease from place to place.
11. The planting of hemp and flax would be an unknown advantage to the kingdom, many places therein being as apt for it, as any foreign parts.
12. But add thereunto, that if it be converted into linen-cloth or cordage, the commodity thereof will be multiplied.
13. So it is of the wools and leather of the kingdom, .if they be converted into manufactures.
14. Our English dames are much given to the wearing of costly laces; and, if they be brought
from Italy, or France, or Flanders, they are in great esteem; whereas, if the like laces were made by the English, so much thread as would make a yard of lace, being put into that manufacture, would be five times, or, perhaps, ten or twenty times the value.
15. The breeding of cattle is of much profit, especially the breed of horses, in many places, not only for travel, but for the great saddle; the English horse, for strength, and courage, and swiftness together, not being inferior to the horses of any other kingdom.
16. The minerals of the kingdom, of lead, iron, copper, and tin, especially, are of great value, and set many able-bodied subjects on work; it were great pity they should not be industriously followed.
17. But of all minerals, there is none like to that of fishing, upon the coasts of these kingdoms, and the seas belonging to them: our neighbours within half a day's sail of us, with a good wind, can show us the use and value thereof; and, doubtless, there is sea-room enough for both nations without offending one another; and it would exceedingly support the navy.
18. This realm is much enriched, of late years, by the trade of merchandise which the English drive in foreign parts; and, if it be wisely managed, it must of necessity very much increase the wealth thereof: care being taken, that the exportation exceed in value the importation: for then the balance of trade must of necessity bereturnedin coin or bullion.
19. This would easily be effected, if the merchants were persuaded or compelled to make their returns in solid commodities, and not too much thereof in vanity, tending to excess.
20. But especially care must be taken, that monopolies, which are the cankers of all trading, be not admitted under specious colours of public good.
21. To put all these into a regulation, if a constant commission to men of honesty and understanding were granted, and well pursued, to give order for the managing of these things, both at home and abroad, to the best advantage; and that this commission were subordinate to the council-board; it is conceived it would produce notable effects.
VII. The next thing is that of colonies and foreign plantations, which are very necessary, as outlets, to a populous nation, and may be profitable also if they be managed in a discreet way.
1. First, in the choice of the place, which requireth many circumstances; as, the situation, near the sea, for the commodiousness of an intercourse with England; the temper of the air and climate, as may best agree with the bodies of the English, rather inclining to cold than heat; that it be stored with woods, mines, and fruits, which are naturally in the place; that the soil be such as will probably be fruitful for corn, and other conveniencies, and for breeding of cattle; that it hath rivers, both for passage between place and place, and for fishing also, if it may be; that the natives be not so many, but that there may be elbow-room enough for them, and for the adventives also; all which are likely to be found in the West Indies.
2. It should be also such as is not already planted by the subjects of any christian prince or state, nor over-nearly neighbouring to their plantation. And it would be more convenient, to be chosen by some of those gentlemen or merchants which move first in the work, than to be designed unto them from the king: for it must proceed from the option of the people, else it sounds like an exile; so the colonies must be raised by the leave of the king, and not by his command.
3. After the place is made choice of, the first step must be, to make choice of a fit governor; who although he have not the name, yet he must have the power of a viceroy: and if the person who principally moved in the work be not fit for that trust, yet he must not be excluded from command; but then his defect in the governing part must be supplied by such assistants as shall be joined with him, or as he shall very well approve of.
4. As at their setting out they must have their commission or letters patents from the king, that so they may acknowledge their dependency upon the crown of England, and under his protection; so they must receive some general instructions, how to dispose of themselves, when they come there, which must be in nature of laws unto them.
5. But the general law by which they must be guided and governed, must be the common law of England; and to that end, it will be fit that some man reasonably studied in the law, and otherwise qualified for such a purpose, be persuaded, if not thereunto inclined of himself, which were the best, to go thither as chancellor amongst them, at first; and when the plantation were more settled, then to have courts of justice there as in England.
6. At the first planting, or as soon after as they can, they must make themselves defensible both against the natives and against strangers; and to that purpose they must have the assistance of some able military man, and convenient arms and ammunition for their defence.
7. For the discipline of the church in those parts, it will be necessary, that it agree with that which is settled in England, else it will make a schism and a rent in Christ's coat, which must be seamless; and, to that purpose, it will be fit, that by the king's supreme power in causes ecclesiastical, within all his dominions, they be subordinate under some bishop and bishopric of this realm.
8. For the better defence against a common enemy, I think it would be best, that foreign plantations should be placed in one continent, and near together; whereas, if they be too remote, the one from the other, they will be disunited, and so the weaker.
9. They must provide themselves of houses, such as for the present they can, and, at more leisure, such as may be better; and they first must plant for corn and cattle, &c. for food and necessary sustenance; and after, they may enlarge themselves for those things which may be for profit and pleasure, and to traffic withal also.
10. Woods for shipping, in the first place, maydoubtless be there had, and minerals there found, perhaps, of the richest; howsoever, the mines out
of the fruits of the earth, and seas and waters adjoining, may be found in abundance.
11. In a short time they may build vessels and ships also, for traffic with the parts near adjoining, and with England also, from whence they may be furnished with such things as they may want, and, in exchange or barter, send from thence other things, with which quickly, either by nature or art, they may abound.
12. But these things would by all means be prevented; that no known bankrupt, for shelter; nor known murderer or other wicked person, to avoid the law; nor known heretic or schismatic, be suffered to go into those countries; or, if they do creep in there, not to be harboured or continued; else, the place would receive them naught, and return them into England, upon all occasions, worse.
13. That no merchant, under colour of driving a trade thither or from thence, be suffered to work upon their necessities.
14. And that to regulate all these inconveniences, which will insensibly grow upon them, that the king be pleased to erect a subordinate council in England, whose care and charge shall be, to advise, and put in execution, all things which shall be found fit for the good of those new plantations: who, upon all occasions, shall give an account of their proceedings to the king, or to the council-board, and from them receive such directions as may best agree with the government of that place.
15. That the king's reasonable profit be not neglected, partly upon reservation of moderate rents and services; and partly upon customs; and partly upon importation and exportation of merchandise; which for a convenient time after the plantation begin, would be very easy, to encourage the work; but, after it is well settled, may be raised to a considerable proportion, worthy the acceptation.
[Yet these cautions are to be observed in these undertakings.
1. That no man be compelled to such an employment; for that were a banishment, and not a service fit for a free man.
2. That if any transplant themselves into plantations abroad, who are known schismatics, outlaws, or criminal persons, that they be sent for back upon the first notice; such persons are not fit to lay the foundation of a new colony.
3. To make no extirpation of the natives under pretence of planting religion: God surely will no way be pleased with such sacrifices.
4. That the people sent thither be governed according to the laws of this realm, whereof they are, and still must be subjects.
5. To establish there the same purity of religion, and the same discipline for church government, without any mixture of popery or anabaptism, lest they should be drawn into factions and schisms, and that place receive them there bad, and send them back worse.
6. To employ them in profitable trades and manufactures, such as the clime will best fit, and such as may be useful to this kingdom, and return to them an exchange of things necessary.
7. That they be furnished and instructed for the military part, as they may defend themselves; lest, on a sudden, they be exposed as a prey to some other nation, when they have fitted the colony for them.
8. To order a trade thither, and thence, in such a manner as some few merchants and tradesmen, under colour of furnishing the colony with necessaries, may not grind them, so as shall always keep them in poverty.
9. To place over them such governors as may be qualified in such manner as may govern the place, and lay the foundation of a new kingdom.
10. That care be taken, that when the industry of one man hatli settled the work, a new man, by insinuation or misinformation, may not supplant him without a just cause, which is the discouragement of all faithful endeavours.
11. That the king will appoint commissioners in the nature of a council, who may superintend the works of this nature, and regulate what concerns the colonies, and give an account thereof to the king, or to his council of state.
Again, For matter of trade, 1 confess it is out of my profession; yet in that I shall make a conjecture also, and propound some things to you, whereby, if I am not much mistaken, you may advance the good of your country and profit of your master.
1. Let the foundation of a profitable trade be thus laid, that the exportation of home commodities be more in value than the importation of foreign; so we shall be sure that the stocks of the kingdom shall yearly increase, for then the balance of trade must be returned in money or bullion.
2. In the importation of foreign commodities, let not the merchant return toys and vanities, as sometimes it was elsewhere apes and peacocks, but solid merchandise, first for necessity, next for pleasure, but not for luxury.
3. Let the vanity of the times be restrained, which the neighbourhood of other nations have induced; and we strive apace to exceed our pattern: let vanity in apparel, and, which is more vain, that of the fashion, be avoided. I have heard that in Spain, a grave nation, whom in this I wish we might imitate, they do allow the players and courtesans the vanity of rich and costly clothes; but to sober men and matrons they permit it not upon pain of infamy; a severer punishment upon ingenuous natures than a pecuniary mulct.
4. The excess of diet in costly meats and drinks fetched from beyond the seas would be avoided; wise men will do it without a law, I would there might be a law to restrain fools. The excess of wine costs the kingdom much, and returns nothing but surfeits and diseases; were we as wise as easily we might be, within a year or two at the most, if we would needs be drunk with wines, we might be drunk with half the cost.
5. If we must be vain and superfluous in laces and embroideries, which are more costly than either warm or comely, let the curiosity be the manufacture of the natives; then it should not be verified of us " materiam superabat opus."
6. But instead of crying up all things, which are either brought from beyond sea, or wrought here by the hands of strangers, let us advance the native commodities of our own kingdom, and employ our countrymen before strangers; let us turn the wools of the land into clothes and stuffs of our own growth, and the hemp and flax growing here into linen cloth and cordage: it would set many thousand hands on work, and thereby one shilling worth of the materials would by industry be multiplied to five, ten, and many times to twenty times more in the value being wrought.
7. And of nil sorts of thrift for the public good, I would above all others commend to your care the encouragement to be given to husbandry, and the improving of lat ds for tillage; there is no such usury as this. The king cannot enlarge the bounds of these islands, which make up his empire, the ocean being the unremovable wall which encloseth them; but he may enlarge and multiply the revenue thereof by this honest and harmless way of good husbandry.
8. A very great help unto trade are navigable rivers; they are so many indraughts to attain wealth; wherefore by art and industry let them be made; but let them not be turned to private profit.
9. In the last place, I beseech you, take into your serious consideration that Indian wealth, which this island and the seas thereof excel in, the hidden and rich treasure of fishing. Do we want an example to follow P I may truly say to the English, "Go to the pismire, thou sluggard." I need not expound the text: half a day's sail with a good wind, will show the mineral and the miners.
10. To regulate all these it will be worthy the care of a subordinate council, to whom the ordering of these things may be committed, and they give an account thereof to the state.]
VIII. I come to the last of those things which I propounded, which is, the curiality.
The other did properly concern the king, in his royal capacity, as pater patriae; this more properly as pater-familias: and herein,
1. I shall in a word, and but in a word only, put you in mind, that the king in his own person, both in respect of his household or court, and in respect of his whole kingdom, for a little kingdom is but as a great household, and a great household as a little kingdom, must be exemplary, " Regis ad exemplum," etc. But for this God be praised, our charge is easy; for our gracious master, for his learning and piety, justice and bounty, may be, and is, not only fair precedent to his own subjects, but to foreign princes also; yet he is still but a man, and seasonable mementos may be useful; and, being discreetly used, cannot but take well with him.
2. But your greatest care must be, that the great men of his court, for you must give me leave to be plain with you, for so is your injunction laid upon me, yourself in the first place, who are first in the eye of all men, give no just cause of scandal; either by light, or vain, or by oppressive carriage.
3. The great officers of the king's household had