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Present. Past. Participle past. Melt melted molten Mow mowed mown. Pass passed - past Put put putten Read read or reddeo read or redde Rend rent rent Ride rode ridden Rid ridded rid Rive rived riven Run ran run. Saw sawed SaWn Say said said See SaW. Seen Seethe seethed sodden Seek sought sought [soughten?] Sell sold sold Send Sent Sent Set Set Set Shake shook shaken Shape shaped shapen Shave shaved shaven Shed shed shed Shear shore or sheared shorn Shoe shod shodden Shoot shot shotten Show showed shown Shrink shrank shrunken Shut shut shutten Sink sunk sunken Sing sang sung Sit Sat sitten Slay slew slain Sleep slept slept Slide slid slidden Slink slunk slunken

* The latter mode of spelling, having been adopted by such writers as Bishop Horsley and Lord Byron, has a claim to notice here. As it clears an ambiguity, their example has been followed by some other authors also.

Present.

Sling
Slit
Smite
Sow
Speak
Speed
Spell
Spend
Spill
Spin
Spit
Split
Spread
Spring
Stand
Steal
Stick
Stink
Sting
Stride
Strike
String
Strive
Strew
Swear
Sweep
Swell
Swim
Swing
Take
Teach
Tear
Tell
Think

Thrive
Throw
Thrust
Tread
Wake

Past.
slung or slang
slit
Smote
sowed
spoke
sped
spelt
spent
spilt
span
spat
split
spread
Sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stank
stung
strode
struck
strung
StroWe
strewed
SW Ore
swept
swelled
SWarn.
Swang
took
taught
tore
told
thought

throve
threw
thrust
trod
woke

Participle past. slung slitten smitten SOWn spoken sped spelt spent spilt spun spitten splitten spread sprung stood stolen stuck stunk stung stridden stricken strung striven Strown or strewn SWOrn swept swollen SWuml swung taken taught torn told thought or thoughten thriven thrown thrusten trodden waked

Present. Past. Participle past. Wax waxed or woxe waxen Wear WOre WOrn Weave Wove WOWen Weep wept wept Win WOn W. On Wind wound wound Work wrought or wrought or worked worked Wring wrung wrung Write Wrote written WI. ADVERB.

The Anglo-Saxons recognized the resemblance in office between the adjective and the adverb; for as they termed the first Namer gepena, the noun's companion, so they termed the adverb pop ber gepena, the verb's companion, and a better definition of it could hardly be given.

Adverbs are divided by grammarians into those of

. Number: as once, &c.
. Order: as first, &c.
. Place: as here, there, &c.
Time: as now, hereafter, &c.
Quantity: as enough, &c.
. Quality: as wisely, charitably, &c.
. Doubt: as perhaps, &c.
. Affirmation: as yes, &c.
. Negation: as no, not, &c.
10. Interrogation: as how, why, &c.
11. Comparison: as almost, alike, &c.

Some adjectives are occasionally used as adverbs; as, This is BETTER done than the last.

Many adverbs are compared like adjectives, as soon, sooner, soonest—far, farther, farthest—very, verier, veriest. Those ending in ly are usually compared by means of the words more and most ; which are the comparative and superlative of much.

VII.
PREPOSITION.
In English these are
Above Behind From Over
About Below In Through
After Beneath Into TO
Against Beside Like Under
Amidst Between Near With
Among Beyond Of Within
At By Off Without.
Before For On

Except, from its government of a case, would perhaps have some claim to rank as a preposition, but it appears more properly a contraction of the active participle of a verb transitive; for ExcEPTING him is identical in sense with Except him.

Prepositions are often used in compounding verbs, in order to modify the sense; and, not unfrequently, Latin prepositions, even though the verb may not be derived from the Latin, as interweave, interchange; and these are inseparable under any circumstances: but in some cases when the preposition is English, it is movable, as in the German, although not quite to the same extent, as

“Come, Camillo,
I will respect thee as a father, if
Thou bearst my life off hence *:
“I can no other answer make, but, thanks
And thanks, and ever thanks; and oft good terms
Are shuffled off with such uncurrent pay.

“Where such things here, as we do speak about?”
(c. I
Have uttered truth, which if you seek to prove,
I dare not stand by:—”

Of the same kind are run after, call in, and many more which will readily occur to every one's recollection. Some verbs have a different sense even, when given with the same preposition, according as it is separable or not— thus, to overshoot and to shoot over, have a very different signification, and the same may be observed of understand and stand under; overlook and look over ; outrun and run out, &c. A few verbs, compounded thus with prepositions, follow the rule of the German exactly; namely, the preposition is joined to the beginning of the participle, but is separated and placed after in the tenses. Thus, I MENTIONED the circumstance BEFoRE—becomes in the participle the BEFORE MENTIONED circumstance.

VIII.

CoNJUNCTION. Conjunctions are divided into

1. CoPULATIVE, which connect and carry on the meaning through the limbs of a sentence, as I could not go BECAUSE I was unwell, AND THEREFoRE he promised to come to 7776.

2. DISJUNCTIVE, which express some degree of opposition between the parts they connect; as I would have gone Though I was unwell, BUT he was not at home.

It must be observed with regard to these last parts of speech, that many words according to their meaning will be adverbs, prepositions, or conjunctions: thus, for, when put transitively, is a preposition; as, it is not for him, i.e., it is not to be his property, but, I went For he called me, signifies, because he called me, and for is then a conjunction. In the phrase, I am then to conclude that you are determined; then is a conjunction, but in the following passage it becomes an adverb of time: “Margaret had been to him a purely ideal object during the years of his youth; death had again rendered her such. Imagination had beautified and idolized her then ; faith sanctified and glorified her now.”

* Southey.

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