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eth himself without observation, or without hold to be taken, what he is; the second

dissimulation in the negative, when a man

lets fall signs and arguments, that he is not that he is; and the third, simulation in the affirmative, when a man industriously and expressly feigns and pretends to be that he is not. For the first of these, secresy, it is indeed the virtue of a confessor; and assuredly the secret man heareth many confessions, for who will open himself to a blab or a babbler ? But if a man be thought secret, it inviteth discovery, as the more close air sucketh in the more open; and, as in confessing, the revealing is not for worldly use, but for the ease of a man's heart, so secret men come to the knowledge of many things in that kind; while men rather discharge their minds than impart their minds. In few words, mysteries are due to secresy. Besides (to say truth) nakedness is uncomely, as well in mind as in body; and it addeth no small reverence to men's manners and actions, if they be not altogether open. As for talkers, and futile persons, they are commonly vain and credulous withal: for he that talketh what he knoweth, will also talk what he knoweth not; therefore set it down,

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that a habit of secresy is both politic and
moral: and in this part it is good, that a
man's face give his tongue leave to speak;
for the discovery of a man's self, by the
tracts of his countenance, is a great weak-
ness, and betraying, by how much it is many
times more marked and believed than a
man’s words.
For the second, which is dissimulation, it
followeth many times upon secresy by a ne-
cessity; so that he that will be secret, must be
a dissembler in some degree: for men are too
cunning to suffer a man to keep an indiffe-
rent carriage between both, and to be secret,
without swaying the balance on either side.
They will so beset a man with questions,
and draw him on, and pick it out of him,
that, without an absurd silence, he must
shew an inclination one way; or if he do not,
they will gather as much by his silence as
by his speech. As for equivocations, or
oraculous speeches, they cannot hold out
long. So that no man can be secret, except
he give himself a little scope of dissimula-
tion, which is, as it were, but the skirts, or
train of secresy.
But for the third degree, which is simula-
tion and false profession, that I hold more
culpable, and less politic, except it be in

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great and rare matters: and, therefore, a general custom of simulation (which is this last degree), is a vice rising either of a natural falseness, or fearfulness, or of a mind that hath some main faults; which, because a man must needs disguise, it maketh him practise simulation in other things, lest his hand should be out of use. The advantages of simulation and dissimulation are three: first, to lay asleep opposition, and to surprise; for where a man's intentions are published, it is an alarm to call up all that are against them: the second is, to reserve to a man's self a fair, retreat; for if a man engage himself by a manifest declaration, he must go through, or take a fall: the third is, the better to discover the mind of another; for to him that opens himself men will hardly shew themselves averse; but will (fair) let him go on, and turn their freedom of speech to freedom of thought; and therefore it is a good shrewd proverb of the Spaniard, “Tell a lie and find a truth;” as if there were no way of discovery but by simulation. There be also three disadvanges to set it even; the first, that simulation and dissimulation commonly carry with them a shew of fearfulness, which, in any business, doth spoil the feathers of round flying up to the z

mark; the second, that it puzzleth and perplexeth the conceits of many, that, perhaps, would otherwise co-operate with him, and makes a man walk almost alone to his own ends; the third, and greatest, is, that it depriveth a man of one of the most principal instruments for action, which is trust and belief. The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and opinion; secresy in habit; dissimulation in seasonable use; and a power to feign, if there be no remedy.

VII. OF PARENTS AND CHILDREN a

The joys of parents are secret, and so are their griefs and fears; they cannot utter the one, nor they will not utter the other. Children sweeten labours, but they make misfortunes more bitter; they increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the remembrance of death. The perpetuity by generation is common to beasts; but memory, merit, and noble works, are proper to men: and surely a man shall see the noblest works and foundations have proceeded from childless men, which have sought to express the images of their minds, where those of their bodies have failed; so the care of posterity is most in them that have no posterity. They that are the first raisers of their houses are most indulgent towards their children, beholding them as the continuance, not only of their kind, but of their work; and so both children and creatures. The difference in affection of parents towards their several children, is many times unequal, and sometimes unworthy, especially in the mother; as Solomon saith, “A wise son rejoiceth the father, but an ungracious son shames the mother.” A man shall see, where there is a house full of children, one or two of the eldest respected, and the youngest made wantons; but in the midst some that are as it were forgotten, who, many times, nevertheless, prove the best. The illiberality of parents, in allowance towards their children, is an harmful error, and makes them base; acquaints them with shifts; makes them sort with mean company; and makes them surfeit more when they come to plenty, and therefore the proof is best when men keep their authority towards their children, but not their purse. Men have a foolish manner (both parents, and schoolmasters, and servants), in creating and breeding an emulation be: tween brothers during childhood, which >

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