Introduction to Chemical Physics: Designed for the Use of Academies, High Schools, and Colleges. Illus. with Numerous Engravings, and Containing Copious Lists of Experiments with Directions for Preparing Them

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D. Van Nostrand, 1873 - Physics - 550 pages
 

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Contents

Chemistry is connected with many processes in the Arts
10
Chemistry explains Respiration
11
Chemistry explains the extraction of Metals
12
Importance of Chemistry
13
Chemistry depends upon the Balance
14
Apparatus required in Chemistry
15
Simple and Coinpound substances distinguished
16
The number of the Elements
17
Chemical Affinity defined
18
The active Agents of Chemistry
19
The Chemical AgentsHeat Light Electricity why called
20
The study of Chemistry begins with the Chemical Agents
21
CHAPTER II
22
Heat present in all bodies
23
Heat the repulsive principle of Matter
24
Three modes in which Heat secks an Equilibrium
25
First mode Conduction
26
Density favorable to Conduction
27
Porous bodies bad conductors
28
Illustrations of Conduction
30
Applications in the Arts
31
Animals and Plants protected by nonconducting coverings
32
Liquids poor conductors
33
The Gases poor conductors
34
The conducting power of different Gases different
35
PAR PAGв 58 The second mode of diffusionConvection
37
Convection in Gases
38
What makes heated Water and Air ascend
40
The ascension of heated Liquids and Gases illustrated
41
The third mode of diffusionRadiation
42
Radiant Heat follows the same laws as Radiant Light
43
Oiher circumstances affecting the rate of Radiation
45
Radiation takes place from points beneath the surface
46
The radiation of the Earth
47
The theory of Radiation
48
Concave Mirrors
49
Experiments with two Concave Mirrors
50
The different reflecting powers of different substances
52
The apparent radiation and reflection of Cold
53
Practical applications
54
The reflection of Heat by Fireplaces
55
The absorption of Radiant Heat
56
The aborption of Hat affected by Color
57
Transmission of Heat depends upon the source from which it proceeds
58
Transmission of Heat from different sources of equal intensity different for the same substance
59
Transmission of Radiant Heat from the same source different for diferent substancesDiathermancy
61
Diathermancy not proportioned to Transparency
62
The diathermancy of Liquids
64
The diathermancy of Gases
65
Diathermancy explained on the supposition that there are differ ent kinds of Heat
66
The different kinds of Heat separated from each other
69
Different kinds of Ileat emitted by different sources of Heat
70
Unequal diathermancy of Heat from different sources due to the different kinds of Heat emitted
72
The refrangibility of rays of heat may be altered by re radia tionCalorescence
74
The double refraction and polarization of Heat
75
The different processes through which Heat may pass in seeking an Equilibrium
76
Expansion produced by Heat
79
Expansion of Solids proved
80
The expansion of Metals
82
Illustrations of Expansion
83
Applications in the Arts
85
Injurious effects of Expansion
86
Fracture produced by sudden cooling
87
Metallic instruments injured by Expansion
88
Other Compensation Pendulums
89
The Compensation Balance
90
The expansion of Liquids
91
The expansion of the Liquids produced by the condensation of the Gases
92
The expansion of Air
93
Exception to the general law of expansion by heat Water at certain temperatures contracts from Ileat and expands from Cold
95
Important effects of this exception
96
This peculiar constitution of water proved by experiment
97
PAR Page 124 Water expands in freezing
98
Illustrations of this Force in Nature
99
Other substances also expand in Solidifying
100
The Air Thermometer
101
The Differential Thermometer
102
The Mercurial Thermomie er
103
Construction of the Thermometer
104
Fahrenheits Scale
105
Other Thermometric Scales
106
Different forms of the Thermometer
108
Metallic Thermometers
109
Pyrometer s
110
Effects of HeatLiquefaction 138 Heat of Composition
112
Liquefaction produced by Heatmelting point
113
The amount of Heat absorbed during the melting of Ice
114
The amount of Heat thus absorbed shown by experiment
115
Solids cannot be heated above their point of fusion until the whole of the solid is melted
116
The Heat absorbed in Liquefaction is given out in solidification
117
Liquefaction always produces a reduction of Temperature
118
Freezing Mixtures
119
Salts and Acids dissolved in Water lower the freezing point
120
Two substances mixed often melt at a lower temperature than either separatelyFluxes
121
Facility of Liquefaction proportioned to the quantity of Latent Heat required
122
The beneficial effects of this Constitution
124
Vaporization
126
The physical properties of Vajors
127
Absorption of Heat in Ebullition
128
The heat absorbed in Vaporization given out again in Condensa tion
129
The amount of Heat absorbed not the same for all Vapors
130
The Boiling point variableinfluenced by atmospheric pressure
131
Wollastons Hypsometer
133
Air dissolved in Water favors Ebullition
134
Elevation of the boiling point indicates increase of pressure
135
The culinary paradoxWater made to boil by the application of Cold
137
The amount of expansion of Liquids in Vaporization especially Water in producing Steam
138
The Condensation of Steam by decrease of Temperature
139
Wollastons Steam Bulb
140
The two forms of the Steam Engine
142
The Steam Engine in its most complete form
143
Latent Heat of the Condensing Engine
145
The Boiler
146
The Boiler is an apparatus for forming and compressing Steam
147
Law of the propagation of pressure through Fluids
149
Mode in which pressure is transmitied from the Boiler to the Cylinder
150
Explosion of Boilers
151
The Boilers of Locomotives
152
The alternating movement of the Piston how produced The Valves
153
Steam may be used expansively
155
PAR PAGE 187 No economy of fuel in boiling Water at a low Temperature
156
No economy in using Liquids which boil at a lower Temperature than Water
158
Papins Digester
159
The Spheroidal state
160
The Spheroidal state explains the explosions of Boilers
162
Distillation
164
Uses of Distillation
166
EXPERIMENTS EFFECTS OF HEATEBULLITION167 168
167
Effects of HeatEvaporation 196 Evaporation
169
The amount of Vapor formed and its elasticity proportioned to Temperature
170
These trutis illustrated by Experiment
171
The rapidity of Evaporation varies with the pressure In a vacuum it is instantancous
172
The amount of Evaporation of different Liquids in a vacuum at the same Temperature is unequal
173
The elastic force of Vapor in a confined space does not vary with pressure but with Temperature
174
The elastic force of Vapor in two connecting vessels cannot rise above the elastic force proper to the colder vessel
177
The rate of Evaporation of different Liquids in Air is unequal
179
The presence of Vapor in Air affects its bulk and density
180
The circumstances which influence Evaporation
181
Removal of Atmospheric Pressure hastens Evaporation and in creascs Cold
183
Cause of the Cold produced by Evaporation 18+ 210 The Cryophorus
184
The Pulse Glass
186
Effect of Evaporation on Climate
187
The amcnnt of watery Vapor contained in the Air
188
Effect of reducing the temperature of the Air upon the amount of watery Vapor contained in it
191
Constitution of Gasesdifference between Vapors and Gases
194
The amount of pressure varies with the Gas
195
Thiloriers process for solidifying Carbonic acid
196
Solid Carbonic acid 226 Solidification of other gases 198
198
226 Natterers process for liquefying gases improved by Ritchie
200
227 Evaporation of liquefied gases applied to the manufacture of ice
202
Specific Heat determined by the amount of Ice melted
214
Specific Heat determined by the rise of Temperature produced in equal weights of Water
215
The Specific Heat of Water
216
The Specific Heat of Gases
217
Regnaults determination of the Specific Heat of Gases
219
The Specific Heat of a body may be changed by altering its density
220
The Specific Heat of a body changed by altering its physical state
221
The distribution of temperature in the atmosphere explained
226
The Sources of Heat
232
The mechanical theory of Heat 238
240
THE SECOND CHEMICAL AGENT LIGHT THE NATURE OF LIGHT SOURCES REFLECTION REFRACTION SOLAR SPECTRUM SPECTRU...
246
The sources of LightSolar Light
247
Electricity a source of Light
248
Exposure to the Suns rays and to Electricity a source of Light
249
The reflection of Light
250
The refraction of Light
251
The double refraction and polarization of Light
252
The compound nature of Solar Light The illuminating rays 233
256
The Chemical rays of the Solar beam
258
The range of the Chemical rays in the Solar SpectrumFluor escence
259
The triple character of Solar Light
260
The spectra produced by Artificial light and colored flames
262
The Solar Spectrum not continuous but crossed by fixed dark linesFraunhofers Lines
263
Spectra produced by the light of the Nebulć and by Artificial light crossed by bright instead of dark lines
265
Spectrum Analysis
266
The Spectroscope 28
268
The new metals discovered by Spectrum Analysis
269
The dark lines of the Solar Spectrum exactly coincident with the bright lines of spectra produced by the metals
271
PAR PAGE
272
The effects of Solar Light on Chemical compounds
279
Practical importance of distinguishing between the Illuminating
285
The sources of Electricity
291
The intervention of solid matter no obstacle to Induction
297
Mode of charging the Leyden Jar
304
EXPERIMENTS ON STATICAL ELECTRICITY296
311
Proof that Chemical decomposition is the source of Galvanic
317
Proof that a state of electrical Tension exists in the plates before
323
The Galvanic Battery
329
PAR PAGE 341 Batteries of Intensity and Batteries of Quantity
330
Improved Batteries 831
331
The Sulphate of Copper Battery
332
Daniells Battery
333
Groves Battery
335
Bunsens Battery 336
336
Sinces Battery
337
De Lucs Pilethe dry Pile
339
Proof of the similarity of the electricity of the Battery and that of the Electrical Machine
340
The difference between Galvanic and Statical Electricity 311
341
Heating effects of the Galvanic current
343
Luminous effects
344
Duboscqs Electric Lamp
346
The properties and intensity of the Electric Light
347
Heating effects are best produced by batteries of Quantity
348
The decomposition of Water by the Battery
349
The decomposition of Water is effected by the polarization and transfer of its component elements
350
The decomposition of other compound Liquids
352
The decomposition of Metallic Salts in solution
353
The Glass Cup with porous diaphragm
354
Secondary decomposition
355
The experiment of three cups connected by Syphons
357
Sir H Davys experiment in which the Acids and Alkalies under the influence of the current seem to lose their ordinary affinity
358
The successive action of the same current on different vessels of Water
359
PAR PAGE 376 The successive action of the same current on re sels containing different compound Liquids
361
The amount of Zinc dissolved from the generating plate is pro portioned to the amount of Chemical decomposition produced and rice versa
362
Electroplating and gilding
363
Electrotyping
364
The protection of the Copper sheathing of ships
366
ElectroMagnetism 385 Magnetic effects of the current
367
What is a Magnet ?
369
The directive action of the Earth upon the Magnet
370
The Astatic Needle
371
The induction of Magnetism
372
The diamagnetism of Gases
373
Oxigen a magnetic substance
374
Magnetic and Diamagnetic bodies
375
The Galvanic current produces magnetismElectromagnets
376
Molecular movements during the magnetization of bars
378
The Astatic Galvanometer
379
The Liquid part of the Voltaic circuit acts upon the magnetic needle
380
The Laws of Electromagnetism
381
The magnetic effect of the wire carrying the current accounted for by Amperes theory
383
The most powerful form of Electromagnetsthe Horse Shoe Magnet
386
The Magnetic Telegraph
387
Morses Electromagnetic Indicator
390
PAR PAGE 408 The Telegraphic manipulator and Morses alphabet
391
The Relay 409 M ssages sent by breaking the circuit 393
393
The transmission of messages
395
Telegraphic Batteries
396
Caillauds Battery
397
The Sand Battery
398
The velocity of the telegraphic current
401
The Atlantic Te egrijh Cable
403
neter
405
The actual arrangement of the Cabic
406
The Rate of transinizsion
407
History of the Atlantic Telegraph
408
Application of Electromagnetism to the production of Motion
409
The Electromotor of M Froment
410
The Electromotor of M Jacoby
412
Stewarts Electromotor
414
Electro magnetic Clocks
415
The Electric Firealarm
417
Electric Gaslighting
420
Progress of discovery in Electro magnetism
421
Galvanic Induced Electricity 433 Voltaelectric Induction
423
25
425
The inductive effect of the Primary current often takes place through a considerable distance
427
Induction of a momentary Secondary current by the approach and removal of the primary current
429
The conditions of Induction and properties of induced currents
431
Induction of a Secondary current in the primary wire itself
433
Induced Tertiary currents Henrys Coils
436
History of the discovery of Voltaelectric Induction
438
Magneto electric Induction
439
Electricity induced by induced magnetism
440
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAR PAGE 444 History of the discovery of Magnetoelectricity
442
Volta Magnetoelectric Induction
443
History of the discovery of the Induction of Electricity by Elec tromagnetism
444
Aragos Rotations
446
The magnetism of the Earth induces secondary currents of Elec tricity in metallic bodies in motion
448
Magnetoelectric Induction confirms Amperes Theory
449
Pages Separable helices
450
The Circuitbreaker
452
Ruhmkorffs Coil for inducing secondary electrical currents
454
153 The Condenser 454 Ruhmkorffs Coil complete 456
456
Ritchies improved Ruhmkorffs Coil
459
The management of Ruhmkorffs Coil
462
The mechanical effects of Ruhmkorffs Coil
464
The Luminous effects
466
The Light intermittent and affected by the Magnet
470
Application of Geisslers Tubes to medical purposes and to the illumination of Mines
472
Application of Ruhmkorffs Coil to Spectrum Analysis
473
Chemical effects
474
PAR PAGL
475
Conversion of Carbon into the Diamond by the long continued action of the Coil
477
Saxtons Magnetoelectric Machine
480
Pages Magnetoelectric Machine
483
Magneto electricity used in the Arts in place of Voltaic electric
485
Holmes Magnetoelectric Machine for illuminating Light
488
9 495
495
470 Siemens and Wheatstones Machines 471 Ladds first Machine 472 Ladds second Machine 497
497
Difference between the electricity of the machine and battery
500
Points of resemblance between the electricity of the Machine and the secondary electrical currents induced by the primary
502
The action of electricity and magnetism on Light
504
SVL ThermoElectricity
510
Animal Electricity
517
The relations subsisting between the three Chemical Forces
523
Heat and Electricity the chief agents used by the Chemist in
529
EXPERIMENTS ON GALVANIC ELECTRICITY ELECTROMAGNETISM
543
Chemistry exhibits striking proofs of Design 13
13

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