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University Members' Prizeman for Latin Prose, and
Sometime Scholar of Queens' College, Cambridge.



By the same Author. Crown 8vo., 35. 6d. AN INTRODUCTION TO LATIN PROSE COM

POSITION, comprising a series of Exercises on the Compound Sentence arranged so as to suit the classification adopted in the Public School Latin Grammar. The various Substantival, Adjectival, and Adverbial Subordinate Clauses, Oblique Enunciation, Petition, Interrogation, and Narration, Consecution of Tenses, Reflexive Pronouns and Participial Construction, with the uses of all Conjunctions influencing mood, are explained by these Exercises, which are specially adapted to the use of Students who have not yet attempted to render consecutive passages into Latin. The latter part of the work illustrates the Order of words in Sentences, their Connexion by means of Particles, Unity and Lucidity of Expression in Latin writing, and ihe leading characteristics of Periodic Style, which branch of the Subject has been comparatively neglected.

Fifth Edition. Crown 8vo., 25. 6d. SELECTIONS FOR LATIN PROSE, TAKEN

FROM THE VARIOUS COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION PAPERS AND OTHER SOURCES, AND SUITABLE FOR ARMY, Civil Service, AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS. --This Edition is considerably modified. Each Selection, with its Notes, forms one distinct page. This alteration has been made at the suggestion of heads of schools, and is intended to prevent the pupil's attention from becoming distracted. The Notes to the “Selections” are copious, explaining most of the difficulties met with in rendering them into Latin, and are constructed so as to illustrate the difference between the English and Latin arrangement of sentences.

Fourth Edition. Foolscap 8vo., 25. LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION AND TRANS

LATION FOR JUNIOR UNIVERSITY Local STUDENTS, with Grammatical and Critical Papers, and Tables with Exercises on the Consecution of Tenses on the various forms of Oratio and Narratio Obliqua, on Reflexive Pronouns in Compound Sentences on Participial Construction, and on Unity and Lucidity of Expression.


This volume is compiled to supply an acknowledged

want felt by a very numerous class of Tutors and

Pupils, i.e., the want of a collection of passages for rendering into Latin, and for Translating at sight into English, with occasional Papers on Grammatical and Critical Scholarship, suitable for University Local Students and others studying for the less difficult Examinations. It contains, by permission of the Syndicate and Delegates, the actual passages set for rendering into Latin for Senior Students in the Oxford and Cambridge Local Examinations from the year of commencement (1858) up to the present time, with the Latin Translation and Grammatical Papers from 1878 to 1882 inclusive, and the Passages set for rendering into Elegiac verse. The Notes and Hints have been carefully modelled and so framed as to enable the Student to learn by suggestion and paraphrase the difference between the structure of English and Latin sentences. Each Exercise with its Notes forms one distinct page to prevent the attention of the pupil from becoming diffused or lost. There are also appended chapters on the Connexion of sentences by means of the Relative and most other Particles, on Unity and Lucidity of Expression, on the Order of words in sentences, and on the Latin Period.

It is generally allowed that the study of Latin Composition may be a valuable mental training. Much, however, depends upon the method of instruction. It is not by perfunctory renderings of so much English into Latin that real benefit will be derived, but by careful study of the leading principles of construction and by attentive consideration of the differences between the structure of English and Latin sentences. The student's attention should be constantly drawn to these differences when he is translating Latin into English as well as when he is rendering English into Latin, so that the study of the one language may be ancillary to the study of the other. It is generally noticed by those engaged in tuition that pupils who have obtained a fair knowledge of construction still give the Latin idiom in their English translation and the English idiom in their Latin rendering. This fault arises partly from the student's attempt to render words rather than thoughts, and partly from the fact that some Tutors seem satisfied with what is curiously termed a literal translation.

Another difficulty arises from the fact that English is a more colloquial language and delights in a change of Subject, and in the frequent use of Epithets and Co-ordinate clauses, whereas Latin avoids the introduction of independent Subjects, uses few Epithets, and prefers Subordinate clauses. Hence, when two or three sentences have the same Subject the Latins almost always form them into a Period. Another difficulty is caused by the limited scientific and special information possessed by the ancients, by the lack of subtle analysis and playfulness of expression in Latin, by its inability to convey the meaning through innuendo or suggestion, and by the comparative absence of abstract ideas and terms, making the language, characterised as it is by directness and simplicity of expression, often unable to render without periphrasis or verbal combination, a meaning expressed easily enough in English by a single substantive. Thus, emotions, geography, enthusiasm, seamanship, are rendered in Latin as follows : animi motus, regionum terrestrium et maritimarum scientia, animi incitatio, nauticarum rerum scientia. The same want of abstract words and terms, together with a reluctance to employ periphrasis or to add to the existing vocabulary unless compelled, led the Romans to express, by means of single nouns, ideas which in the more analytical English are expressed by two nouns connected with a preposition. Thus religio is used for scruples of conscience, reverence for the gods; verecundia for sense of shame; and studium for application to learning. Hence, too, arose the very extensive use of such words as res and ratio in a variety of meanings depending greatly on the general sense of the passage; hence the employment of parts of the verb sum, where, in English, a more expressive verb would be used, and hence the fact that many words not indispensable to the general meaning are supplied by the pronouns id and illud, or even by the unaided context. Again the directness of the Latin language led to a personality of expression, much less frequently met with in the more abstract English. This is not only evident from the frequent citation of the names of eminent Romans to imply the virtues or characteristics for which they were famous, but is also conspicuous in such sentences as the following, frequently met with in Latin: In Graeciâ musici florueruntthe study of music flourished in Greece :Ne Livius quidem ipse Asinio Pollioni placuitnot even Livy's style found full favour with Asinius Pollio :-Oratorem celeriter complexi sumuswe speedily esteemed eloquence.

The student of Latin prose should translate, and at the same time carefully observe the construction and style in the Pro Murenâ, Pro Milone and Pro Archiâ Poetâ; the first speech of Catiline and the second Philippic; the De Senectute and De Amicitiâ; and the De Officiis. Livy should be read for historical narrative and description of ordinary events, and Cæsar, whose style as an unaffected historian is pure in phraseology, should be studied especially for the

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