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Principal

axes.

By (c) we see that (1, j, v) is the direction of the normal through the point P, (, n, ŝ) of the surface represented by the equation

1.............. a* - K 5 - K c* - K

.......... (e), which is obviously a surface of the second degree confocal with the ellipsoid

1... ao 62 ca

+

+

and passing through P in virtue of (d), which determines K accordingly. The three roots of this cubic are clearly all real; one of them is less than the least of a', b, c, and positive or negative according as P is within or without the ellipsoid (f). And if a>b>c, the two others are between c and b', and between b* and a', respectively. The addition of f? to each gives the square of the radius of gyration round the corresponding principal axis. Hence

Binet's
Theorem.

Central ellipsoid.

Kinetic symmetry round & point;

284. The principal axes for any point of a rigid body are normals to the three surfaces of the second order through that point, confocal with the ellipsoid, which has its centre at the centre of inertia, and its three principal diameters co-incident with the three principal axes for that point, and equal respectively to the doubles of the radii of gyration round them. This ellipsoid is called the Central Ellipsoid.

285. A rigid body is said to be kinetically symmetrical about its centre of inertia when its moments of inertia about three principal axes through that point are equal; and therefore necessarily the moments of inertia about all axes through that point equal, 8 281, and all these axes principal axes. About it uniform spheres, cubes, and in general any complete crystalline solid of the first system (see chapter on Properties of Matter), are kinetically symmetrical.

A rigid body is kinetically symmetrical about an axis when this axis is one of the principal axes through the centre of inertia, and the moments of inertia about the other two, and therefore about any line in their plane, are equal. A spheroid, a square or equilateral triangular prism or plate, a circular ring, disc, or cylinder, or any complete crystal of the second or fourth system, is kinetically symmetrical about itş axis.

round an

axis.

286. The only actions and reactions between the parts of a Energy in system, not belonging palpably to the conservative class, which dynamics. we shall consider in abstract dynamics, are those of friction between solids sliding on solids, except in a few instances in which we shall consider the general character and ultimate results of effects produced by viscosity of fluids, imperfect elasticity of solids, imperfect electric conduction, or imperfect magnetic retentiveness. We shall also, in abstract dynamics, consider forces as applied to parts of a limited system arbitrarily from without. These we shall call, for brevity, the applied forces.

287. The law of energy may then, in abstract dynamics, be expressed as follows:

The whole work done in any time, on any limited material system, by applied forces, is equal to the whole effect in the forms of potential and kinetic energy produced in the system, together with the work lost in friction.

288. This principle may be regarded as comprehending the whole of abstract dynamics, because, as we now proceed to show, the conditions of equilibrium and of motion, in every possible case, may be immediately derived from it.

289. A material system, whose relative motions are unre- Equilisisted by friction, is in equilibrium in any particular configuration if, and is not in equilibrium unless, the work done by the applied forces is equal to the potential energy gained, in any possible infinitely small displacement from that configuration. This is the celebrated principle of “virtual velocities” which Lagrange made the basis of his Mécanique Analytique. The illchosen name “virtual velocities” is now falling into disuse.

290. To prove it, we have first to remark that the system Principle cannot possibly move away from any particular configuration velocities. except by work being done upon it by the forces to which it is subject: it is therefore in equilibrium if the stated condition is fulfilled. To ascertain that nothing less than this condition can secure its equilibrium, let us first consider a system having only one degree of freedom to move. Whatever forces act on the whole system, we may always hold it in equilibrium by a single force applied to any one point of the system in its line

brium.

Principle of motion, opposite to the direction in which it tends to move, of virtual velocities. and of such magnitude that, in any infinitely small motion in

either direction, it shall resist, or shall do, as much work as the other forces, whether applied or internal, altogether do or resist. Now, by the principle of superposition of forces in equilibrium, we might, without altering their effect, apply to any one point of the system such a force as we have just seen would hold the system in equilibrium, and another force equal and opposite to it. All the other forces being balanced by one of these two, they and it might again, by the principle of superposition of forces in equilibrium, be removed; and therefore the whole set of given forces would produce the same effect, whether for equilibrium or for motion, as the single force which is left acting alone. This single force, since it is in a line in which the point of its application is free to move, must move the system. Hence the given forces, to which this single force has been proved equivalent, cannot possibly be in equilibrium unless their whole work for an infinitely small motion is nothing, in which case the single equivalent force is reduced to nothing. But whatever amount of freedom to move the whole system may have, we may always, by the application of frictionless constraint, limit it to one degree of freedom only; —and this may be freedom to execute any particular motion whatever, possible under the given conditions of the system. If, therefore, in any such infinitely small motion, there is variation of potential energy uncompensated by work of the applied forces, constraint limiting the freedom of the system to only this motion will bring us to the case in which we have just demonstrated there cannot be equilibrium. But the application of constraints limiting motion cannot possibly disturb equilibrium, and therefore the given system under the actual conditions cannot be in equilibrium in any particular configuration if there is more work done than resisted in any possible infinitely small motion from that configuration by all the forces to which it is subject.

Neutral equilibrium.

291. If a material system, under the influence of internal and applied forces, varying according to some definite law, is

equilibrium.

balanced by them in any position in which it may be placed, Neutral its equilibrium is said to be neutral. This is the case with

any spherical body of uniform material resting on a horizontal plane. A right cylinder or cone, bounded by plane ends perpendicular to the axis, is also in neutral equilibrium on a horizontal plane. Practically, any mass of moderate dimensions is in neutral equilibrium when its centre of inertia only is fixed, since, when its longest dimension is small in comparison with the earth's radius, gravity is, as we shall see, approximately equivalent to a single force through this point.

But if, when displaced infinitely little in any direction from Stable a particular position of equilibrium, and left to itself, it com- briun. mences and continues vibrating, without ever experiencing more than infinitely small deviation in any of its parts, from the position of equilibrium, the equilibrium in this position is said to be stable. A weight suspended by a string, a uniform sphere in a hollow bowl, a loaded sphere resting on a horizontal plane with the loaded side lowest, an oblate body resting with one end of its shortest diameter on a horizontal plane, a plank, whose thickness is small compared with its length and breadth, floating on water, etc. etc., are all cases of stable equilibrium; if we neglect the motions of rotation about a vertical axis in the second, third, and fourth cases, and horizontal motion in general, in the fifth, for all of which the equilibrium is neutral.

If, on the other hand, the system can be displaced in any Unstable way from a position of equilibrium, so that when left to itself brium. it will not vibrate within infinitely small limits about the position of equilibrium, but will move farther and farther away from it, the equilibrium in this position is said to be unstable. Thus a loaded sphere resting on a horizontal plane with its load as bigh as possible, an egg-shaped body standing on one end, a board floating edgeways in water, etc. etc., would present, if they could be realised in practice, cases of unstable equilibrium.

When, as in many cases, the nature of the equilibrium varies with the direction of displacement, if unstable for any possible displacement it is practically unstable on the whole. Thus a coin standing on its edge, thongh in neutral equilibrium for displacements in its plane, yet being in unstable equilibrium

Unstable equili. brium.

for those perpendicular to its plane, is practically unstable. A sphere resting in equilibrium on a saddle presents a case in which there is stable, neutral, or unstable equilibrium, according to the direction in which it may be displaced by rolling, but, practically, it would be unstable.

Test of the nature of equilibrium.

292. The theory of energy shows a very clear and simple test for discriminating these characters, or determining whether the equilibrium is neutral, stable, or unstable, in any case. If there is just as much work resisted as performed by the applied and internal forces in any possible displacement the equilibrium is neutral, but not unless. If in every possible infinitely small displacement from a position of equilibrium they do less work among them than they resist, the equilibrium is thoroughly stable, and not unless. If in any or in every infinitely small displacement from a position of equilibrium they do more work than they resist, the equilibrium is unstable. It follows that if the system is influenced only by internal forces, or if the applied forces follow the law of doing always the same amount of work upon the system passing from one configuration to another by all possible paths, the whole potential energy must be constant, in all positions, for neutral equilibrium; must be a minimum for positions of thoroughly stable equilibrium; must be either an absolute maximum, or a maximum for some displacements and a minimum for others when there is unstable equilibrium.

Deduction 293. We have seen that, according to D'Alembert's prinequations, ciple, as explained above ($ 264), forces acting on the different any system. points of a material system, and their reactions against the

accelerations which they actually experience in any case of motion, are in equilibrium with one another. Hence in any actual case of motion, not only is the actual work done by the forces equal to the kinetic energy produced in any infinitely small time, in virtue of the actual accelerations; but so also is the work which would be done by the forces, in any infinitely small time, if the velocities of the points constituting the system, were at any instant changed to any possible infinitely small velocities, and the accelerations unchanged. This statement, when put in

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