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vallum or agger, and was formed by the earth flung out of the trench (fossa). The stakes (valli) carried by the soldiers were used to form a sort of breast
work or chevaux de frise on the top. The trench s was ordinarily twelve feet broad by nine feet deep. The tents (tentoria) were made of skins-hence such phrases as sub pellibus esse, sub pellibus habere milites --and held ten men, who formed a mess (contuber
nium, contubernales). In a winter camp the tents 10 were replaced by neat huts (hibernacula), thatched
with straw (casae stramentariae). Great precautions were taken against a surprise. One or two cohorts were thrown forward in front of the gates in statione,
and a turma of horse acted as patrols. The general 15 namo for pickets is excubitores ; vigiliae are night
guards. The night, from sunset to sunrise, was divided into four equal spaces called vigiliae, and the outposts (vigiliae) were shifted at the end of
each. Vigiliae were small outposts of four men or 20 So, while stationes were whole detachments. Custo
diae or custodes were sentinels intended to guard some particular point. The watchword or countersign (tessera) was passed round in writing.
We have seen that the impedimenta of a Roman 25 army contained the elements of a siege train, but
much was left to the ingenuity and labour of the soldiers. Occasionally a weakly-fortified town was taken by a coup de main. The trench was filled with
earth (agger) and fascines (crates), the gates broken 30 in, and the walls undermined. Strong positions,
badly provisioned, were generally invested and reduced by hunger. Besides these two methods, there was the third of a regular siege, employed against
well-provisioned and strongly-fortified towns. The as agger formed a prominent feature in such a siege.
This was a mound begun at some distance from the wall, and gradually pushed forward, rising in height all the time, so that when completed it might form an inclined plane to the top of the wall. Moveable towers (turres ambulatoriae) were rolled forward on its slope, and from them archers and javelinthrowers rained down missiles on the defenders. When it was found impossible to construct an agger, the ground was simply levelled by shooting rubbish (agger) into the hollows, and the towers were moved forward over the prepared ground. The lower stories (tabulata) served to protect the men who worked the battering-rams, and the higher shelterech troops, while bridges (sambucae) were thrown across to the wall. The defenders tried to destroy them by fire or by masses of wood or stone discharged from engines.
To protect the besiegers in their operations, several kinds of sheds were employed. Of these plutei were simply moveable coverts, behind which the soldiers 20 crouched. The vinea, testudo, and musculus were true sheds or mantlets, covered with raw hides, as a protection from fire, and pushed forward to shelter working parties. The ram (arics) was a strong beam from 60 to 180 feet long, ending in an iron 25 head. It was suspended from a horizontal beam raised on two upright timbers, and was set in motion from behind.
We must not confuse testudo, a mantlet, with another use of the word, common enough in describing 30 sieges. A scaling party would protect itself in the advance over the open by forming a roof with shields. Each man held his shield firmly over his head, making it rise slightly towards the front. The front rank stood erect, and the rows behind 33 stooped more and more till the last. As the shields were locked, the whole formed a compact covering like the shell of a tortoise.
Other contrivances were the falces murales or s strong sickles affixed to long poles, and used to tear
down stones and stockades; the tolleno or crane, by which men were lifted on to the walls; the terebra or borer, used to bore into the walls; and tormenta or
missile engines. Tormenta included engines for dis10 charging darts (catapultae), and those which hurled masses of stone (ballistae).
The mine (cuniculus) also played an important fart in sieges, the defenders undermining the agger hy its means, and the besiegers using it to effect a 15 breach in the walls.
atque fortitudinis angustos se finis habere arbitrabantur, qui in longitudinem milia passuum ccxl., in latitudinem clxxx, patebant. 3. His rebus adducti 3 et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti constituerunt ea, quae ad proficiscendum pertinerent, comparare, iumentorum et carrorum quam maximum numerum coëmere, sementes quam maximas facere, ut in itinere copia frumenti suppeteret, cum proximis civitatibus
et amicitiam confirmare. Ad eas a res conficiendas biennium sibi satis esse duxerunt: in tertium annum profectionem lege confirmant. Ad eas res conficiendas. Orgetorix deligitur. Is sibi 3 legationem ad civitates suscepit. In eo itinere 4 persuadet Castico, Catamantaloedis filio, Sequano; cuius pater regnum in Sequanis multos annos tinuerat et a senatu populi Romani amicus appellatus erat, ut regnum in civitate sua occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat; itemque Dumnorigi Aeduo, 5 fratri Divitiaci, qui eo tempore principatum in civitate obtinebat ac maxime plebi acceptus erat, ut idem conaretur, persuadet eique filiam suam in matrimonium dat. Perfacile factu esse illis probat 6 conata perficere, propterea quod ipse suae civitatis imperium obtenturus esset: non esse dubium, quin totius Galliae plurimum Helvetii possent; se suis 1 copiis suoque exercitu illis regna conciliaturum confirmat. Hac oratione adducti inter se fidem et ius-s iurandum dant et regno occupato per tres potentissimos ac firmissimos populos totius Galliae seso potiri
posse sperant. Ea res est Helvetiis per indicium 4 enuntiata. 4. Moribus suis Orgetorigem ex vinclis
causam dicere coëgerunt; damnatum poenam sequi oportebat, ut igni cremaretur. Die constituta causae dictionis Orgetorix ad iudicium omnem suam familiam, ad hominum milia decem, undique coëgit et omnes clientes obaeratosque suos, quorum magnum numerum habebat, eodem conduxit; per eos, ne 3 causam diceret, se eripuit. Cum civitas ob eam rem incitata armis ius suum exsequi conaretur, multitudinemque hominum ex agris magistratus coge4 rent, Orgetorix mortuus est ; neque abest suspicio, ut Helvetii arbitrantur, quin ipse sibi mortem con
sciverit. 5 5. Post eius mortem nihilo minus Helvetii id,
The Helvetit quod constituerant, facere conantur, ut e e do not aban- finibus suis exeant. Ubi iam se ad eam
rem paratos esse arbitrati sunt, oppida sua preparations
omnia, numero ad duodecim, vicos ad qua
dringentos, reliqua privata aedificia incen3 dunt, frumentum omne, praeterquam quod secum portaturi erant, comburunt, ut domum reditionis spe sublata paratiores ad omnia pericula subeunda essent, trium mensum molita cibaria sibi quemque 4 domo efferre iubent. Persuadent Rauricis et Tulingis et Latovicis finitimis, uti eodem usi consilio oppidis suis vicisque exustis una cum iis proficiscantur, Boiosque, qui trans Rhenum incoluerant et in agrum Noricum transierant Noreiamque oppugnarant, re
don their plan; their
for the exodus.