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finibus, abl. of the place from which.

cum, '(then namely) when they are either keeping them off from their own territories, or are themselves waging war in the territories of their enemies;' lit. of them.' [cum 'since' governs a subjunctive.] $ 5. eorum, 'of those peoples' mentioned above.

PAGE 2. ab Sequanis : cp. 23. 3, a novissimo agmine; also a tergo, ' in the rear,' a latere, 'in flank, like our off' a place.

86. oriri: seldom used of place, usually metaphorically.

$ 7. spectat inter 0.: i.e. has a north-westerly aspect.' Caesar regards the whole country from the standpoint of the Province.

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CHAP. 2.-$ 1. M. Messala, M. Piso, consuls A.U. 693, B.C, 61, i.e. when Caesar was quaestor in Spain. [The conj. et is rare in this phrase : cp. 6. 4; 35. 4.]

inductus, 'persuaded.'
de does (ex would not) imply that they went not to return.

ut exirent, to go forth;' plural, civitas being a collective noun. The clause is in oblique petition: cf. L. Primer, N. S. x. 1. (2). . [qui videant, 15. 1, which Kraner compares, is not parallel, being an adverbial clause expressing purpose.]

cum omnibus copiis : i.e. with all their belongings. § 2. esse, '(he said) that it was easy, since, etc.'

praestarent, in past time, because presented from the point of view not of the speaker (Orgetorix), but of the writer (Caesar).

§ 3. hoc, ‘so much,' abl. of measure with comparatives.

continentur, are confined' (contrast 1.5) on all sides by the character of the country.'

unā ex parte: i.e., roughly speaking, the North.

flumine Rheno qui. In Caesar the relative usually agrees with the appellative, not with the proper name; so 12. 1, flumen Arar quod.

tertia ex parte.

§ 4. quã ex parte, 'in which respect;' cp. the metaphorical sense of ex omni parte, 'in every respect.'

$ 5. pro, 'considering;' 51. 1, pro hostium numero.

PAGE 3. angustos, too narrow:' cp. longum est ; Thuc. i. 50, óriyai å uúvelv, “too few to aid.'

qui patebant, ‘now these did but extend ;' a parenthetic remark of Caesar, as is shown by the mood: if it had been a continuation of the thoughts of the Helvetii, it would have been paterent. ["The Helvetii were old enemies; on them, too, the tide of migration from the North had pressed continuously. They had hitherto defended themselves successfully, but they were growing weary of these constant efforts. Their numbers were increasing, and their narrow valleys were too strait for them. They also had heard of fertile, scantily-peopled lands in other parts, of which they could possess themselves by force or treaty, and they had already shown signs of weariness.” (Froude, Caesar, p. 201.)]

CHAP. 3.- 1. pertinerent: subj. because in reported speech. comparare, coëmere, facere, confirmare. The Latin idiom gives each word a copula, or none : cp. 1. 2, lingua, institutis, legibus.

§ 2. in tertium annum, 'for the third year;' the acc. denoting that to which the mind is directed.

lege, by special enactment. The promptitude and forethought, rare among uncivilized peoples, seem to show the presence of a master mind.

§ 4. regnum, 'chieftaincy,' not implying in Gaul what it would at Rome. It was distinguished from principatus, as being a power actually conferred by the tribe, and not the result merely of wealth, birth, etc., as in the case of Dumnorix: cp. 16. 5; 17. 1; 19. 3 ; 30. 1.

obtinuerat. Beware (even in § 6; 18. 9) of translating this verb by 'obtain' (consequor): 'in which sense no good writer ever used it,' says Madvig, on Cic. de finibus, ii. 71.

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senatus populi Romani, the usual expression being senatus populusque Romanus (S.P.Q.R.).

$ 5. ut . : ; conaretur, persuadet. The historical imperfect subjunctive follows the historic present.

$ 6. perfacile factu. The supine is superfluous in English. esset,'he was,' as he said: hence the subjunctive.

otius Gallias : i.e. totius G. populorum. § 7. copiis includes the ideas of ' means' and power:' op. 2. I.

$ 8. The sentence is compressed, not to say careless; adducti applies only to Casticus and Dumnorix, whereas inter se fidem et iusiurandum dant includes Orgetorix also.

regno occupato is equivalent to a conditional clause, si regnum occupatum esset.

firmus, of physical strength, as Cic. firma manus.

potiri: here alone in Caesar with a genitive, but this is the usual construction in Cicero for acquiring political power.

PAGE 4. posse, having no future infinitive, stands in the present after verbs of promising and hoping.

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CHAP, 4.-$ 1. moribus suis : cp. meä sententiā, 'in my opinion;' ea lege, on those terms.'

ex vinclis, 'in chains;' cp. 43. 3, ex equo colloqui.

damnatum, conditional; ‘it behoved that the punishment of being burnt should befal him if condemned. poenam is the subject, Orgetorigem damnatum the object, of sequi; ut igni cremaretur, a clause explaining poenam. [Cp. 53. 7, for another example of this mode of punishment.]

§ 2. familiam = famulos.
ad: 5. 2; 29. 2; Xen. An. I. i. 10, eis glo xixlovs.

clientes obaeratique. The two classes are almost identical. Caesar uses a Roman word not in its usual sense, but as expressing more nearly than any other the state of things in a foreign country: op. regnum, 3. 4, note.

ne causam diceret, to avoid pleading his cause;' ne final [not consecutive, which would be ut non ; L. Primer, § 152] : cp. Cic. pro Sest. 8. 18, ab eis se ereptum ne de ambitu causam diceret praedicabat.

§ 3. cum conaretur. Note the tense; it was while these measures were being carried out that O. committed suicide.

armis, abl. of instr. with exsequi. $ 4. quin: Cic. pro Flacc. 27. 54, quis ignorat quin tria

genera sint.

CHAP. 5.-1. ut exeant, 'namely to go forth,' a clause explaining facere; so the inf. is used 7. 1, cum id nuntiatum esset, eos conari ; cp. 2. 1; cp. 13. 2, ut flumen transirent.

§ 2. ubi iam: in B.c. 58, three years after the scheme was first set on foot.

reliqua privata aedificia : i.e. reliqua aedificia quae privata erant.

$ 3. praeterquam, except,' occurs once again in Caesar, vii. 77. 6.

domum reditio. The verbal substantive acts as if it were itself a verb; so Cic. domum itio, and obtemperatio legibus.

mensum, older form (and the usual one in Cicero, Livy, and Ovid) for mensium, the original stem being probably mens-. For the case, cp. dierum xxii frumentum, in Caesar; cibaria eius diei, in Livy.

domo : Lat. Primer, $ 121, C. a.

§ 4. oum iis ought to be secum, as referring to the subject of the principal verb, persuadent: the usage is not infrequent in Caesar.

PAGE 5. CHAP. 6.—$ 1. itinera d. q. itineribus. Note the lawyer-like fulness of the phrase, common in Caesar and in Cicero's speeches: $ 4, diem qua die ; 40. 1, consilio ... ad id consilium.

possent: why subjunctive ? vix qua. For the somewhat inverted order, cp. 25. 4, multi ut

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praeoptarent ; 43. 3, Ariovistus ex equis ut colloquerentur . postulavit.

§ 2. nuper : two years before, B.C. 60, by the Praetor C. Pomptinus.

vado transitur, 'can be forded, but this is expressed more directly by saying that it is forded.' So Cicero, non diiudicatur amor verus et fictus. vado, instrumental abl., qualifying transitur as an adverb, and is therefore in this usage always singular.

§ 3. viderentur. Supply esse; subjunctive because in oratio obliqua.

bono animo, 'well disposed.' Lat. Primer, $ 115.

eos: cp. 5. 4, cum iis, note. suos refers to the subject of the subordinate clause, ut paterentur.

coaoturos. Supply eos from Allobrogibus.
$ 4. conveniant would be imperative in direct speech.

qua die . . . is dies. Dies is as a rule feminine of a date, masculine of a natural day. See Mr. Rutherford's 'Caesar,' 11. 6, note.

a. d. V. Kal. Apr., ante diem quintum Kalendas Apriles March 28, B.C. 58. Caesar clearly regards the lay as a kind of landmark by this precise marking, so rare in his writings. For the want of connecting particles, cp. note on 2. 1.

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CHAP. 7.-$ 1.

conari, a clause explaining id; op: 5. I, note.

ab urbe, 'from Rome;' see Introduction.

Gallia ulterior: i.e. on the further (as G. Cisalpina was on the Roman) side of the Alps. [According to Plutarch, he reached the Rhone in eight days.]

ad, in the neighbourhood of, not to,' which would be simple acc. Lat. Primer, $ 101.

$ 2. Provinciae toti (dative), only referring to Gallia ulterior.

legio una, the tenth. The asyndeton is meant to indicate the haste with which Caesar issued the orders : 20.6; 22. 3.

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