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$ 3. qui dicerent, “to say;' but 9. 2, mittunt ut impetrarent. nullum, emphatically placed last; cp. 18. 3, audeat nemo.

rogare, 'that they begged;' supply se. The accusatives me, te, se (rarely nos, vos), eum, eos, as subj. of an inf., are often omitted.

voluntate : cp. 30. 4; 35. 4.

§ 4. Liv. iii. 28, tribus hastis iugum fit, humi fixis duabus, superque eas transversa una deligata.

§ 5. temperaturos : compare its construction 33. 4. $ 6. imperaverat: indicative for same reason as patebant, 2. 4. quos, the nearer object of imperaverat, as numerum, § 2; and

BO acc.

diem, 'a certain time;' 40. 14, in longiorem diem collaturus fuisset.

ad Id. April, by the 13th of April;' cp. vi. 33, ad eundem diem revertantur. [ad is often translated about,' but it is impossible that Caesar of all men should have made such a loose allusion.)

Chap. 8.-$ 1. legione. The abl. ipstr. is often used of troops, corresponding to the Greek ‘military dative;' 15. 3, novissimo agmine ; 53. 3, equitatu.

qui in flumen R. influit: so, strangely enough, vii. 57. 4. Caesar talks of a marsh which flowed into the Seine.

decem novem, usually undeviginti. [Caesar's fortification consisted of a line of forts (connected by a trench and wall where necessary) on the south bank of the Rhone. Even Roman soldiers could not have dug a continuous trench of the dimensions mentioned and nineteen miles long in so short a time. At parts the natural banks of the Rhone formed a sufficient defence; at all events, no traces of any such continuous work have been found.]

§ 2. conarentur would be conabuntur of oratio recta.
§ 3. reverterunt acts as the perfect of deponent revertor.
ulli : rarely substantival,

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$ 4. "The Helvetii foiled of that hope, (some) having joined together ships and made several rafts, others at the fords of the Rhone, where was the least depth of water,-having attempted to break through, if they could, (at last) driven away by the strength of the works and the onset of the soldiers and their missiles, gave up this attempt. To complete the symmetry of the sentence, another alii must be added before navibus. Originally Caesar meant to mention only the boats, the fording of the river coming in as an afterthought.


erat: cp. 2. 4, patebant, note.

munitione, of natural strength artificially increased; cp. 38.4, muniebatur.

CHAP. 9.-$ 1. una, only one,' emphatic. [This pass is now the Pas de l'Ecluse.]

Sequanis invitis, 'if the S. should be unwilling;' cp. regno occupato, 3. 8, noie.

§ 2. sua sponte, 'by their own resources ;' at v. 28 = 'on their own responsibility.'

ut eo deprecatore, that with him as their advocate they might gain their end;' the object of impetrarent must be supplied from the context. Lat. Primer, $ 125 a.

$ 3. gratia, 'popularity.'

novae res, ó revolution;' cp. novae tabulae, 'cancelling of delts, and Greek vewtep'ÇELV. [For dut., cp. Lat. Primer, $ 107.)

§ 4. ne prohibeant, ut transeant: fnal clauses expressing the purpose of tie exchange of hostages.

CHAP. 10.-$ 1.

Santonum Santonorum; cp. 11. 16; Santonos. Caesar, in talking of the Teutoni and Santoni, uses the older and shorter form of the plural gen.

non longe, forty miles. There is nô reason to think that the distance is understated. absunt, est : cp. patebant, 2. 4, note.

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PAGE 8. $ 3. Italiam : i.e. Cisalpine Gaul. magnis itineribus, 'by forced marches.' duas legiones : viz. the 11th and 12th; he already had the 10th.

tres quae circum A. hiemabant : viz. the 7th, Sth, and 9th.

circum Aquileiam. Wir quarters were around and not in a town; cp. Χen. Αn. i. 2. 5, Κύρος ώρμάτο από (not έκ) Σάρδεων.

$ 4. The exact route taken by Caesar is doubtful. According to Napoleon, it was Turin, valley of the Chiasone, Usseau, Col de Mont Genèvre, Briançon, Grenoble, across the Isère to Lyon. In later times there was a more direct route over Mont Cenis.

$ 5. compluribus h. p. p., 'these having been defeated in several engagements.' his pulsis, abl. abs.; compluribus proeliis, Lat. Primer, § 113. A similar coming together of distinct ablatives occurs iii. 6. 3, copiis fusis armisque exutis, 'the forces being routed and stripped of their arms.'

ab Ocelo. The preposition is expressed because the departuro is from the neighbourhood of Ocelum ;' so vii. 59, Caesar a GerGovia discessisse audiebatur.

ulterior provincia, usually called simply the Province, distinguished from citerior provincia, i.e. Cisalpine Gaul.

CHAP. 11.-- 1. per angustias : 6. 1; 9. 1.

$ 3. The Aedui also seem to have traced their descent from Trojan blood: B.C. 121, they were styled “allies of the Roman people;' cp. 31. 7, and especially 33. 2, fratres consanguineosque ; Tac. Ann. 11. 25, soli Gallorum fraternitatis nomen cum populo Romano usurpant.

nostri: momentary lapse into oratio recta.

liberi eorum. Caesar here leaves the standpoint of the subject (viz. the envoys of the Aedui), and speaks from his own; hence not sui.

$ 4. depopulatis, ' having been laid waste,' must be regarded as from the deponent depopulor, not depopulo, which does not occur in classical prose. Many deponents have a perfect parti. ciple with a passive meaning ; so comitor, 'I accompany,' but comitatus, ' being accompanied.' See the list in Roby, Lat. Gr. book II., ch. xxix.

PAGE 9. § 5. nihil reliqui, 'nothing left.'

$ 6. dum, “until,' takes the subjunctive, because the arrival of the Helvetii was still contingent; Lat. Prim., p. 115.

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CHAP. 12.-$ 1. Flumen est Arar. Caesar often introduces thus a transition of subject; e.g. 43. 1, planicies erat magna.

quod : cp. note on flumine Rheno, qui, 2. 3.

transibant, were crossing ;' note the tense. Napoleon 1. thought this was at Châlons; Napoleon III., with You Kampen and Göler, at Trévoux; Desjardins, at Mâcon.

§ 2. de tertia vigilia, in the course of the third watch ; i.e. from midnight to 3 A.M.

o castris, between the Rhone and Saône, not far from Lyon.

§ 3. eos . . . eorum. For a similar redundancy, cp. 54. 1, quos Ubii, insecuti magnum ex eis numerum occiderunt.

impeditos, not only encumbered with their baggage, but also occupied in the crossing.

§ 4. pagus, the canton including its inhabitants : 13. 5;

37. 3.

$ 5. L. Cassium, 7. 4; 13. 2
memoria, 'in the memory :' i.e. in the time.
sub iugum, acc., because motion is implied, 7. 4.

§ 6. The order is, ea pars civitatis Helvetiae quae ... princeps poenas persolvit : pars is drawn into the relative clause.

§ 7. eius, Caesaris. Caesar had married Piso's daughter Calpurnia a year before. Plutarch wrongly attributes this defeat of the Tigurini not to Caesar, but to his lieutenant Labienus.

qua in re, and herein.' Anthony Trollope severely comments on this in his ' for English Readers.'

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PAGE 10. Chap. 13.45 1. hoc proelio facto, “after this battle.' in Arare, 'on tlic Arar.'

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§.2. ut flumen transirent, in apposition with and explanatory of quod ; cp. 5. 1, ut e finibus suis exeant.

bello Cassiano, fifty years before: for a similar way of es. pressing time when,' cp. proelio, 12. 7; tumultu, 40.5; occasu, 50. This ablative is generally found with either an adjective in attribution or a genitive: Roby, Lat. Gr. § 1180.

$ 3. constituisset = constitueris (fut. perf.), of direct speech, § 4. perseveraret, Caesar.

incommodi, disaster.' It will be seen that this is an euphemism, since it refers to the same event as insignem calamitatem, 12. 6.

$ 5. quod adortus esset, 'with regard to his having attacked.'

suae refers to Caesar, the subject of the verb tribueret; ipscs to the Helvetii.

tribueret is used absolutely: so ita didicisse, $ 6; ita respondit, 14. 1, etc.

$ 6. se ita, “this they had learnt from their fathers and ancestors, rather to contend with valour than to rely upon fraud or ambuscades. Let him not therefore cause the place where they had taken their stand to win an evil name, or hand down a record of disaster from a defeat of the Roman people and the annihilation of their army.'

committere ut, 46. 3.

CHAP. 14.-$. 1. his, legatis ; 34. 2, ei legationi respondit: (not neut., which would be ad haec, 36. 1.]

eo: cp. 2. 3, hoc, note. gravius ferre, with no acc.

quo minus merito populi R. accidissent, because they had not been deserved by the Roman people.' Livy, nullo meo in Be merito.

§ 2. qui, 'now if this,' viz. the Roman people. fuisse = fuit of or. recta ; 'it would not have been difficult.'

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PAGE 11, deceptum : supply esse. quare, 33. 2. § 3. eo invito : cp. 6. 3; 11. 3.

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