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num posse = num possum of oratio recta : the omission of se in such cases is not uncommon; cp. 7. 3, note. The infinitive is used when the question in direct speech is of the 1st or 3rd person, the subjunctive when it is of the 2nd.

Allobrogas. The Greek acc. is usual in the case of foreign names; cp. Lingonas (26. 6), Atrebatas, etc.

$ 4. se, Helvetios. The sense is, 'the fact of their so insolently exulting in their victory, and of their wonder at having so long (fifty years) gone unpunished for their wrong doings, pointed in the same direction, this direction being the coming vengrance. Ferre iniurias is rare; inferre i. frequently met with.

$ 5. doleant, velint: present, because a general maxim, § 6. sint, dentur. Note the interposition of primary tenses. ipsis, Aeduis.

CHAP. 15.—$1. ad numerum: cp. 4. 2, note,
coactum hab., stronger than coegerat.
qui videant: 2. 1, note; plural, as equitatus is collective,
§ 2. cupidius, “too eagerly.'
alienus, “unfavourable;' suus, 'favourable.'

et pauci, “and in consequence some few, the rest fled (18. 10): mods (tantum) never qualifies pauci thus used.


Page 12. $ 3. sublati, 'elated.' et joins subsistere and lacessere. novissimo agmine : cp. legione, 8. 1, note.

$ 4. in praesentia, "for the present;' either acc. plur. of praesens, or, which is less likely, abl. sing. of praesentia.

§ 5. iter fecerunt, .marched.'

uti, final (“in order that') rather than consecutive (so that'): ita is not antecedent.

quinis, senis. The distributive numerals are used to show that this was the interval kept each day. amplius rarely affects the case; cp. 23. 1, non amplius milium : 80 also plus and minus.

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Here however the ablatives quinis aut senis milibus would but for amplius be nominatives.

CHAP. 16.-. essent: subjunctive, as part of Caesar's command.

flagitare, kept asking,' historical infinitive. [Note the double acc., Lat. Prim., § 98.]

§ 2. quod G., "Gaul lying;' a parenthetic clause.

frigora, frumenta: note the plural, 40. 11. [Observe that it was now well on in the month of June.]

$ 3. averterant iter, into the Loire valley.

§ 4. in diem ex die duoere tempus (or Caesarem): diem is, as Kraner points out, an adverbial accusative and not the object of ducere; cp. Liv. xxv. 25. 4, cum is diem de die differret, =' as he kept delaying from day to day.'

conferri, “contributed' by individuals; comportari, “brought' to Caesar. adesse, was close at hand.'

$ 5. diutius, 'over long;' cp. cupidius, 15. 2. diem, quo die : cp. 6. J, note.

metiri, active. The monthly allowance to each foot-soldier was 4 bushels of corn; to the equites, 12 of corn and 42 of barley.

Divitiaco et Lisco, ablatives in apposition with principibus. magistratui, abstract.

annuus, adverbial. § 6. cum, at a time when.' tam neo. tempore, 'at so urgent a crisis.'


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PAGE 13. multo etiam gr., complains too the more seriously of being thus deserted' (on this account).

CHAP. 17.-$ 1. quod, acc. of reference, used as if it were the object of tacuerat. So aliquid and other neuter pronouns are constructed with silere, nescire.

§ 2. privatim = privali.
conferant, plural, multitudo being a collective noun,
debeant: supply conferre.

$ 3. iam

non,' no longer.' $ 4. dubitare : supply se. superaverint, perf. conj. = fut. perf. ind. sint erepturi = eripient of oratio recta. cum reliqua G. Aed.: i.e. et reliquae Galliae et Aeduis. § 5. quaeque, and especially,' eto.

8 6. quod . . . enuntiarit, “as to his having divulged se pressing a matter to Caesar,' a clause in apposition to id.


CHAP. 18.--8 1. pluribus praesentibus, 'in the presence of too many.'

iactari, “bandied about.'
§ 2. ex solo, 'from him in private.'
dicit, Liscus.
$ 3. secreto, 'apart' (from Liscus).
ipsum, implying that Caesar had thought as much.

summa audacia, “a man of the greatest audacity;' abl. of quality.

portoria, a narrower word than vectigalia.

redempta habere, 'held in contract,' stronger than redemisse would have been. [At Rome societates of publicani contractel to farm the taxes for a certain amount, subletting particular districts to various individuals, these underlings being the 'publicans' of the New Testament.]

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PAGE 14. illo licento, when he was a bidder,' from liceor: note the emphatic position of the contrasted words illo

nemo. § 4. facultates, “means.' § 6. domi, ‘in his own state,' locative.

largiter posse. Posse being absolutely used = potentem esse can be qualified by an adverb; cp. 17. 1, plus posse : large is the more regular form.

collocasse in matrimonium, or nuptum,

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$ 7. ex matre, on his mother's side.'

§ 8. cupere alicui = wish one well,' alicui being remoter object and the nearer object not expressed.

suo nomine, ‘on his own account,' a commercial metaphor.

gratiae, 'influence. The genitive is definitive; that is to say, expresses the position or condition, which was 'influence and honour.' So urbs Romae, fons Bandusiae.

$ 9. si quid accidat Romanis, 'if anything should happen to the R.' This softening down is called euphemism: familiar instances are the change of Cape of Bad Hope to Cape of Gool Hope, of the Pontos Axeinos (“inhospitable') to the Ponto 3 Euxeinos ("hospitable').

imperio, “under the rule.' Beware of translating imperium as “empire,' a meaning which it did not acquire until very late times. The ablative is a variety of the abl. of the time when' (Lat. Pr. § 120); or an abl. of attendant circumstance.

§ 10. in quaerendo, 'in the course of inquiry' = cum quaereret.

quod, relative, agreeing with proelium : the antecedent is omitted and proelium drawn into the relative clause. The full construction is in eo proelio equestri adverso, quod factum esset.

proelium equestre, forming virtually a single word, can be qualified by a second epithet adversum.

paucis diebus, abl. of the measure of time; cp. 31. 10. ante, adverb.

CHAP. 19.-$1. res, 'facts.' quod, 'namely that.' The repetition of quod is styled "anaphora.'

traduxisset, and the following verbs, are in the subjunctive because they entered into Caesar's calculations.

iniussu suo et c., 'without his (Caesar's) orders and those of the State. For the combination of a possessive pronoun and genitive, cp. Ov. (Her. 5. 45) et flesti et nostros vidisti flentis ocellos.

ipsis, se et civitate ; i.e. civibus. magistratu, Liscus.

PAGE 15. § 2. Divitiaci animum = Divitiacum: cp. § 5, cius offensione animi.

§ 3. cotidianis,' every day,'' usual.'

§ 4. ipso, Divitiaco. $ 5. eius, Divitiaci.

ipse, Caesar; “either that he should himself be allowed to try the case and decide or bid the State do so.'

CHAP. 20.—$ 1. multis cum lacrimis. This is the usual word order; cp., e.g. 10. 2, magno cum periculo.

gravius = gravius iusto. scire se, dixit.

§ 2. illa: note the way in which the Latin utilizes its neuter: here translate, 'those charges.'

domi: cp. 18. 6. per se, i.e. Divitiacum. crevisset, with propterea quod, 'had grown powerful at a time when he had been having very little power;' posset = past perfect and progressive: Morris's Primer, $ 66.

§ 3. opes ao nervi, almost synonymous, and joined to show the extent of the resources of Dumnoris.

non solum sed: note that etiam, which usually follows sed in this connection, would not be here quite in place.

§ 4. a Caesare, “if any severe treatment should have been intlicted on him by Caesar:' for the euphemism, op. 18. 9, note. Accido is regarded as a passive verb.

ipse, Divitiacus. apud eum, Caesarem,

PAGE 16. futurum uti, 'the result would be that.' $ 5. rogat faciat, begs him to make.' Lat. Primer, § 154.

tanti esse, “is of such weight;' probably originally a locative, but afterwards regarded by the Romans themselves as a genitive.

eius voluntati, in consideration of his good will:'dat. after condonet.

$ 6. intellegat = sciat. praeterita, 'the past:' cp. note on illa, $ 2. Divitiaco fratri, ' to oblige his brother D. :'cp. eius voluntati,

$ 5.

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