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had no cause of offence with regard to him;' another way of saying to offend against him,' which would, however, require in eum.

§ 5. cognoscerent, 'ascertain.'

$ 6. conclamavit, he shouted aloud;' the con intensifying, as in concido, convello, comminuo, etc.

venirent = venitis of oratio recta.

CHAP. 48.—$ 1. castra in various cases is four times repeated in this section, an illustration of Caesar's preference on occasion of distinctness to every other quality of style ; $o locus is frequently repeated in the next chapter.

Page 39.


§ 3. instructam, 'drawn up,' predicate. ut ... non,

so that . . . not,' consecutive (not in order that ... not,' which would be a final clause and demand ne].

potestas, opportunity.'

§ 4. exercitum, “the infantry,' here as often in Caesar, when expressly opposed to equitatus.

equestri proelio, asyndeton, as so often in Caesar.
$ 5. hoc, “the following.'
copia, 'troop,' number.'
§ 6. durius, 'at all untoward.'
$ 7. recipiendum, passive, recipior recipio me.
equorum depends both upon iubir and cursum.

CHAP. 49.—$ 1. locum . . . loco: cp. notes on 6. 1; 43. 1. § 3. numero, abl. of respect.

expedita, agreeing with the plural milia, is peculiar. One would have expected armatorum, as iv. 1. 4, singula milia armatorum; compare, on the other hand, ii. 4. 5, armata milia centum.

PAGE 40.

$ 4. opus, 'the fortification.'
$ 5. ibi, 'therein ;' cp. 38. 7 (note).
castra maiora: i.e. his first camp.

CHAP. 50.—$ 1. instituto suo, 'according to his resolve,' abl. of the ground; so Caesar says consuetudine sua, praeceptis Caesaris, etc.

instruxit, fecit : note the asyndeton.
§ 2. quae oppugnaret, 'to attack,' final clause.

§ 3. Solis oocasu, at sunset,' ablative of time when : 80 adventu, 'on the arrival;' disces8w, on the departure.'

$ 4. sortibus. Tacitus (Germania, c. x.) described the method of taking these lots, which consisted chiefly of runes' marked on twigs, which were scattered on a white cloth and then selected at haphazard by a priest.

ex usu: cp. 30. 2.
fas, 'the will of the gods.'


CHAP. 51.-$1. alarios, `auxiliaries.' [These Caesar stationed in front, that Ariovistus might be deceived as to his actual strength of legionaries.]

minus valebat, 'he was weak.'
ad speciem, 'to make a show,' viz. of strength.

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$ 2. generatim, 'according to their tribes.' $ 3. eo, thereon: cp. ibi, 38. 7; eo, 42. 5. passis manibus, .with outstretched hands.'

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Chap. 52.—$ 1. Caesar placed five of his legions under the command of legati, the remaining sixth under a quaestor.

eam partem : i.e. the left wing of the eneiny. dextro cornu; viz, of his own army.

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$ 3. ita acriter, .so fiercely.' itaque et ita.

pila coniciendi. Note that the gerund is not as usual changed into the gerundive.

$ 5. qui insilirent, who consented to leap upon;' Lat. Prim., § 150.

complures nostri milites, our soldie in many cases ;' so nostrae naves duae, tres suos manipularios, phrases employed elsewhere by Caesar.

§ 6. a sinistro cornu, on the left wing' of the Germans ; so dextro immediately afterwards.

$ 7. expeditior, .freer to act,' being out of the mêlée.



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priusquam pervenerunt: note the tense and contrast it with priusquam conaretur, 19. 3.

quinque milia passuum. With this reading (which is that of all the MSS.) we must in all probability suppose that by the Rhine Caesar means the Ill, which flowed into the Rhine, [Others read quinquaginta, which supposes the Germans to have taken a very roundabout route indeed, and is not probable.]

§ 3. equitatu, abl. of instr.
consecuti, 'having caught.'
§ 4. in Gallia duxerat = duxerat in matrimonium.

$ 5. trinis, 'threefold ;' more emphatic than the cardinal tribus would have been.

$ 6. quae q. r. = et ea. neque quicquam, and because .. nothing.'

calamitate, death;' euphemism. gratulatione, in a passive sense.

CHAP. 54.—$ 1. ripas: cp. 37. 3, !ote.

quos ex iis : for this fulness of phrase, which serves to render the grammatical connection more distinct, cp. 12. 3,

. eorum concidit.


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§ 2. These words of Caesar were no empty boast: little as had been his military experience, he had saved Gaul, nay Rome itself, from the utmost danger; and although it was still only September, he was able to send his army into winter-quarters.

$ 3. ad conventus agendos, for the purpose of holding the assizes,' one of the duties of the Proconsul. Caesar had a still more important reason for going towards Rome; namely, the furthering of his own political ends. See Introduction.



lead away.


a, ab, prep. W. ABL., from, ācrítěr,

sharply, by, in the direction of.

fiercely. [acer.] ab-do, děre, didi, ditum, ad, prep. W. Acc., to, towards, V. a., hide ; a, se in silvas, go up to, near; w. gerund and into the woods and hide.

gerundive, for the sake of; ad ab-düco, ère, xi, ctum, V. a., speciem, to make a show of, 51.

ad-aequo, are, avi, atum, ab-fútūrus, fut. part. of ab- V. a., make equal to, level.

ăd-ămo, are, avi, atum, v. a., abs-ens, ntis, adj., absent, like very much. distant.

ad-daco, ère, duxi, ductum, abs-tineo, ēre, tynui, tentum, V. a., lead to, bring to. v. n., abstain, refrain. [abs, ad-hibeo, ēro, ui, Ytum, V. a., teneo ]

have to, summon to. [ad, ab-sum, esse, fui, v. n., am habco.] absent, am distant, 41 ; longe ad-itus, ūs, m., approach, eis abfuturum, would arail access. [ad, ire.] them but little, 36.

ad-miror, ari, atus, v. dep., ac, coord. conj., and more- wonder at.

ad-missus, a,

um, part., ac-cēdo, ère, cessi, cessum, v. allowed ; admisso equo, at full 11.. go to draw near. [ad, cedo.] gullop. [admitto.]

ac-ceptus, a, um, adj., accept- ad-órior, iri, ortus, v. dep., alle; a. plebi, popular.

attack. ac-cido, ĕre, cidi, cāsum, adp-. See appv. n , happen. [ad, cădo.] ad-soisoo, ére, scivi, scitum,

ac-cípio, ère, cēpi, ceptum, V. a., admit, adopt. V. a , receive. [ad, capio.] ad-sum, esse, fui, v. n., be ac-curro, ere, i, sum, v. n., near, be at hand.

ădălescens, ntis, m. f., a ao-cūso, are, avi, atum, v. a., youth. [rt. OL=grow; cp. alo.] accuse, bring to trial, chide. ădălescentia, ae, f., youth. [ad, causa.]

[adulescens.] ācer, acris, ācrě, adj., sharp, ad-ventus, ūs, m., arrival. fierce. [rt. Ac.]

[advenio.] ăcies, ei, f., battle-array. ad-versus, a, um, adj., un. [rt. AC; cp. acus = needle.] successful."

over, and.

run to.

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