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steel over the shoulders and round the waist. Tho greaves (ocreae) reached to the knee or above it, and were commonly of bronze. It soon became customary to wear only one, the left leg being seldom exposed by a swordsman covered with a shield.
The offensive armour consisted of two weapons. One was the short, straight, two-edged Spanish
sword (gladius Hispanus), adapted for stabbing 10 rather than for cutting. It hung by a leather belt
(balteus) over the shoulder, or from a girdle (cingulum). Private soldiers wore the sword on the right side, in order that the shield, which was carried on the
left arm, might not prevent its being easily drawn. 15 Officers, who carried no shields, carried the sword,
as is now done, on the left side. Each of the Triarii carried the long pike (hasta), which had originally been confined to the Hastati. The Hastati and the
Principes carried the pilum. The pilum was only 20 used as a missile, and consisted of a wooden shaft
about one and a half inch thick and four and a half feet long. The iron part of the weapon was as long as the wood, but since it came down over the shaft
the whole measured about six and three-quarter feet 25 in length. Soft iron was used in its construction,
that by bending in the shield or other armour of the enemy it might hamper his movements, and when pulled out become unserviceable.
The cavalry wore an iron cuirass, a helmet, and 30 leather leggings. They carried a serviceable shield, a heavy lance, and a long sword.
Such were the formation and equipment of the Roman Army till the time of Marius, about 100 B.C.
Even before that date some considerable changes as had been made. The manipuli had been massed
into larger bodies, called cohortes, each cohort containing six centuries or three maniples maniple of Hastati, one of Principes, and one of Triarii. Moreover, the hasta was transferred from the Hastati to the Triarii; and at one time the s Triarii must have carried the pilum when the other two lines were armed with the hasta. For the two first lines are occasionally designated antepilani ; and the first centurion of the legion, who was also the first of the Triarii, was called primipilus, or primi 10 pili centurio, a name which he always retained.
The military period into which Caesar's campaigns fall began with the reforms of Marius. The lower classes of the Roman populace, who had hitherto been excluded from service, were now made eligible, is and even freedmen (libertini) were admitted to the legions. The division into Hastati, Principes, and Triarii entirely disappeared. The pilum became the common weapon of all legionaries. The cohort displaced the maniple as the
basis of the military 20 formation. As a result of the Social War (91-89 B.C.) the Socii Italici became Roman citizens, and from that date the distinction between legiones and Socii was dropped. A Roman Army now consisted of Romans and auxiliary troops. There were Velites. All legionary soldiers were milites gravis armaturae. In Caesar's army all light troops (milites levis armaturae) are auxiliaries. Such were the slingers (funditores), who shot stones (lapides) or lead bullets (glandes), and the archers (sagittarii). 30 They came principally from Crete and the Balearic islands. The cavalry consisted wholly of foreign troops-Gauls, Germans, Spaniards.
Some were attached to the legions in the old fashion. The rest formed an arm distinct from the legion. Hence 35
such phrases as legionarii equites. They were commanded by a Roman, and subdivided into alae, which were commanded by praefecti equitum, gencrally Romans, sometimes men of the same race as s their troop. The alae were split up into turmae and decuriae.
Though the full strength of a legion was from 4500 to 5000 infantry, it usually fell far short of
these numbers. One of Caesar's legions on active 10 service would rarely number more than 3000 or
3600 men. Such a legion contained 10 cohorts of 300 to 360 men, each cohort 3 maniples of 100 to 120 men, each maniple 2 centuries of 50 to 60 men.
The men stood ten deep. For centuria, which does 15 not occur often, ordo is sometimes used. Thus, ducere ordinem means to be a centurion."
On the field of battle the cohorts were commonly drawn up in a triple formation. Of the ten cohorts
four formed the first line, three the second, and 20 three the third. A space equal to the length of
the front of a cohort separated the cohorts of each of the first two lines from one another, and each line from that behind.
This is the triplex acies, so often mentioned by Caesar. The best troops of the legion were assigned to the first cohort.
Other formations were (1) the straight line;
(2) the wedge, cuneus ; (3) the orbis, a solid or hollow square, adopted in cases when the enemy was much superior in numbers.
The order in which troops on the march were arranged varied with the circumstances. When no s danger was apprehended, the army marched in single column, each legion followed by its own baggage, and the cavalry riding either on the flanks or rear. In an enemy's country the great length of such a column would have invited an attack, and it 10 was abandoned. The baggage trains of the separate legions were now thrown together, and, having been increased by the packs of the men, were placed in the centre. The troops. marched ready for fight.
By marching in battle array we understand the 15 acies triplex retained. The four cohorts of the first line formed the first column; the 5th, 6th, 7th, the second column; and the 8th, 9th, 10th, the third column. In case of attack, each column had only to deploy right and left in order to present the 20 customary order of battle.
The agmen quadratum was a hollow square, corresponding to the orbis on the field of battle. used in the neighbourhood of the enemy, especially if cavalry or light troops were hovering round. The 25 baggage was placed in the middle.
Officers of a Roman Army.—The commander-inchief before proceeding on a campaign received by a lex curiata, or law of the old Patrician assembly, the ratification of his imperium militare. He then took the vows in the Capitol, and assumed the paludamentum or cloak of scarlet wool embroidered with gold—the exclusive badge of his office. He was dux belli, but the number of his troops was settled by the Senate, which also reserved to itself the 35
power of recalling him, of making peace, and settling other important questions. But in Gaul Caesar was autocratic, and could increase his forces at pleasure; make war or conclude peace without consulting the 3 Senate.
The legati were adjutants of the Imperator. They were commonly appointed by the Senate, and were generally three in number. Caesar had ten in Gaul.
They belonged to the order of Senators. They were 10 required to yield unquestioning obedience to the
Imperator, and were responsible to him. Hence they were chary of beginning enterprises of which the success was not assured.
Their successes ascribed to their commander, as he was answerable 15 for the failure of his adjutants. They commanded
divisions in the field, and occasionally held independent commands.
The Quaestors (quaestores) had charge of the military chest, and were expected to value and dispose 20 of the booty. Thus it was the quaestors who sold
prisoners of war to the dealers (mangones) who folIowed the army. They were occasionally entrusted with a command.
Of the legionary officers the tribuni militares, or 25 militum, held the highest rank. There were six to
each legion. Some were chosen by the people; the rest were selected by the commander-in-chief. Caesar's tribuni were probably all chosen by himself. They
were of knightly rank, and in their election family 30 influence and personal friendship had more weight
than military ability and experience. Of Caesar's tribuni C. Volusenus Quadratus is the only one who is mentioned with commendation. We read of them
sometimes as the leaders of small detachments, some35 times as entrusted with administrative duties.