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The praefecti militum, who before the Social War had held the same office among the Socii as the tribuni among the Romans, were now nominated by the commander-in-chief, and were deputed to command auxiliary troops and perform other services. 5 Like the tribuni, they were of equestrian rank.

The sixty centurions of the legion were selected by the commander-in-chief. Originally their rank varied according as they belonged to the Triarii, Principes, or Hastati, and to the first or second century so of the maniple. The old titles were retained in the cohort formation when the division into Hastati, Principes, and Triarii had practically disappeared. Each of the three lines of the legion had, according to p. xx, 10 maniples and 20 centuries, also 20 cen- 1; turions, i.e. 10 priores and 10 mosteriores. Thus the last centurion in the legio vas decimus hastatus posterior, and so on, e.g.: GO, 59 ... 51 decimus, nonus primus hastat. post. 50,

41 decimus, nonus ... primus hastat. prior. 20
31 decimus, nonus primus princeps post.
21 decimus, nonus primus princ. prior.
11 decimus, nonus ... primus pilus post.
2 decimus, nonus secundus pilus prior.



49 40, 39 30, 29

20, 19...


The first centurion of the whole legion was 25 called primus pilus, primipilus, or primi pili centurio, the prior being omitted. Pilus is substituted for triarius, and is occasionally used as equivalent to ordo in the case of Triarii, e.g. primum pilum ducere, B. G. V. 35. Centurions wore a distinguishing 30 badge on their helmet, and carried a vine wand (vitis) as a staff of office.

Soldiers who had been discharged after serving their time might be again called to service by a




special summons of the commander-in-chief. They were then named evocati. They were exempted from pioneer and sentinel duty, and were sometimes allowed to use horses on the march. They enjoyed the same rank and sometimes the same pay as

centurions. LJUC The fabri or engineers formed a separate corps,

under the praefectus fabrům. The engines of war were entrusted to their charge.

Legionaries when sent out to pick up intelligence, if single, were termed speculatores; if in parties, exploratores.

The clothing of a Roman soldier was very simple. Instead of the cumbrous toga, he wore the sagum or 15 sagulum, a short cloak reaching only to the knee. It

left the right side of the body open, and was fastened at the shoulder by buckle. Under this was the tunica, which was kepl. in place by the cingulum, which sometimes supported the sword. The caligae were half-boots reaching to the middle of the leg. The soles were studded with great nails.

Light though this clothing was, the Roman soldier had always enough to carry. When on the march, he was little better than a beast of burden. He carried his armour and everything that he used. The weight of his pack alone (sarcinae) was sixty Roman librae, or about forty-five English pounds. It consisted of provisions for half a month, several

stakes (valli), a saw, basket, spade, hatchet, and a 30 vessel for cooking. These vasa and cibaria were

generally carried on one of the valli over the left shoulder, while the left arm supported the shield. The right hand grasped the two pila, and the helmet

hung on the breast or back. In the event of battle 35 the sarcinae were thrown together and entrụsted to




the charge of a guard (praesidium). Without sarcinae the soldier is said to be expeditus ; with them, impeditus. By impedimenta, on the other hand, was meant such baggage as tents, handmills, and military engines. The wagons and beasts of burden were s included in the term. On the first signal for march the tents were struck and the baggage packed (vasa conclamare, colligere); on the second, everything was got ready; and on the third, the whole army was set in motion.

The standards of the legion were numerous. Originally each maniple had its own standard. In fact it was from the wisp of hay which formed its first : rude ensign that the manipulus was named. It was in Marius' time that the eagle (aquila) became 15 the principal standard of the legion. The bird was represented with wings outspread, perched on a wooden pole. The centurions took care to select one of the strongest and bravest legionaries as standardbearer (aquilifer). Over his helmet the head and 20 skin of some wild beast was so worn that the face appeared between its jaws. He was attached to the first cohort and was under the eye of the first centurion of the legion. Thus the eagle was always in the van. In the same way the standard of each sub- 25 division of the legion was placed in front of that division, and by this fact many phrases are explained :-Signa inferre is to attack : signa proferre, promovere, to advance: signa convertere, to wheel: signa referre, to retreat: signa conferre, to engage 30 or to concentrate : signa convellere, efferre, tollere, to break up: a signis discedere, to desert: manipulos ad signa continere, to keep the men together. In camp the eagle was placed beside the general's quarters in a little chapel which had the privileges 35



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of sanctuary; and on the field it was defended with a devotion as loyal as that which an English regiment shows for its colours.

The vexillum differed from other signa in being 5 more of a banner. It was a square piece of coloured cloth extended on a frame. The cavalry used it; and legionaries when told off for some special duty were combined under a vexillum, the signa remain

ing with the legion. The signal for battle was 10 given by hanging out a red banner (ve cillum) from the general's quarters.

A Roman army never halted for the night without entrenching itself. Towards the end of the

day's march a detachment was sent on in front to 15 select a spot for encampment. A favourite site was

the slope of a hill, especially if wood, water, and grass were abundant in its neighbourhood. The lines were marked out with such accuracy that on

the arrival of the troops not only might they begin 20 the entrenchments without delay, but each man

knew exactly where he was quartered for the night. The sketch on the next page will make the main lines of the camp easily intelligible.

The camp lay four square, and each side was 25 pierced by a gateway. From the Porta Praetoria

to the Porta Decumana there ran a road fifty feet broad, dividing the camp lengthwise into two equal parts. The gates on the right and left of the camp

were joined by another and broader road, called Via 30 Principalis, which divided the camp into two unequal

parts, one-third and two-thirds respectively. The larger part was assigned to the legionaries, and was itself cut in two by the Via Quintana. The

other contained the Praetorium or general's quarters, 35 and the quarters of the legati, quaestores, and tric

buni. The picked troops were also stationed here. As a rule this was the side nearest the enemy, the Porta Decumana being furthest removed and on the highest ground. Between the rampart and the

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tents a space of 200 feet was always left unoccupied s (intervallum). By this means the enemy was prevented from firing the tents, and room was left for the deploying of the troops. The rampart was called

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