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communicated the following resolution Square, providing, that each individual proof the Committee of Proprietors,” prietor shall at all times have an effectua) (Here was engrossed the resolution veto, against the said door being opened, on last quoted.) « The Naval Committee any condition, without his consent and ap

edo probation, excepting when the same shal were of opinion, that having already

my be necessary for the purpose of repairs. agreed that every thing connected with 2d. “ That immediately upon these signaaccess to the pillar should be subject tures being obtained, the Committee of Proto the rules and regulations of the prietors be empowered, and directed to Proprietors, what is now proposed, communicate these resolutions to the Naval sanctioned by the Proprietors at large, Committee ; and to obtain from that Comought not to be objected to by them; mittee, the necessary obligation or writing, and as the point as to the gas is for vesting the property of, and control now yielded, the Committee consider ove

ed monsider over the Pillar, in the Proprietors of the

Square ; for finishing the same, in or bethat all matters may now be consider

fore the month of May, 1821, and for preed as adjusted betwixt them and viding a fund for keeping the same in rethe Proprietors, though the Naval pair, in all time coming Committee will not proceed with their "Mr " (the Secretary of the operations until the Committee of Pro- Naval Committee), “ moved, and aprietors shall have had an opportunity dopted the following motion, which was of consulting with their constituents." seconded by Mr - that the door 6th, The matter being thus appa shall not be opened on any condition, with

out the consent and approbation of a majorently closed, a general meeting of the

rity of the Proprietors of the Square, and Proprietors of the Square was held on

that the concession of the site requested, the 29th March 1819, when one of shall not either directly or indirectly, confer the gentlemen, who is stated as an ob- any right either of property or of servitude, jector, moved, that the transaction so in or over the Square, in terms of their cirentered into should be approved of, cular, of the 9th December, 1818. and that measures should be taken for “ This motion was withdrawn, and rendering the veto effectual. No Pro- (the same gentleman) moved to approve of prietor of the Square stated any obr the report, excepting as to the veto, and to

i remit to a Committee, to consider the most jection, but the secretary to the Naval T

expedient arrangement relative to the mode Committee, who had always been per

of access to the Pillar." mitted to attend the Square meetings, 6th. Though the veto had been and a member of the Naval Committee, agreed to by the Naval Committee, vet who held a proxy from the Royal seeing that it was objected to by their Bank, as proprietors of two houses in representatives in our meeting, the the Square, moved that the veto should

gentleman who had proposed it, not be agreed to. That there may be

said, that to bring the matter to a close, no suspicion of misrepresentation in he was willing to put his motion in the fol. this statement, I insert the motions lowing manner : “ That the meeting precisely as they were made.

do approve of the report of the Commit " Moved, That the meeting do ap- tee now read; that the proposed pillar prove of the report of the Committee, now be erected in the centre of the Square, and read, that the proposed Pillar beerected in the that the entrance to the same be by a door centre of the Square, and that the entrance secured by lock and key; that there shall be to the same be by a door, secured by a lock affixed to the pillar, as soon as it is conand key : That there shall be affixed to the structed, a rod-conductor, to prevent risk *Pillar, so soon as it is constructed, a rod from lightning." conductor, to prevent risk from lightning. This motion then proceeded to state as That it is reasonable and proper, that the before, that it was reasonable and proper to Proprietors of the Square, having thus con- secure the privacy of the Square ; and, insented to every thing proposed by the Naval stead of proposing that the minute for that Committee, should, at the same time, take purpose should enact an absolute veto in such measures as may be necessary, to se each proprietor, it bore “ that a minute to cure the same exclusive use of the Square, be signed by all the Proprietors be immeto themselves and their families, that they diately engrossed in the sederunt book of have hitherto and do at present enjoy: That the Square, providing that the said door this can only be secured, by providing ef. shall never be opened on any condition, fectually, for keeping the door of the Pillar without the consent and approbation of shut at all times, excepting in cases of ne. three fourths of the resident Proprietors, cessity : And therefore, that a minute to be excepting when the same shall be necessary signed by all the Proprietors, be immediate for the purpose of repairs." ly engrossed in the sederunt book of the Then followed a repetition of the in

structions to the Committee to commu. men, who wished to approve of the nicate with the Naval Committee, upon suggestion of the Naval Committee, which

(the same member of the were, Naval Committee who had adopted the

Imo, “ That the gentlemen of the Naval first amendment) again moved to approve Committee shall satisfy the Committee of of the report, excepting as to the veto, and Proprietors, herein after named, that the to retnit to a Committee to consider the

proposed Pillar be completed on or before most expedient arrangement relative to the the 21st day of May, 1821. mode of access to the pillar."

2do, That the Stones and Mortar of the ** The meeting resolved, before approving Pillar shall be completely prepared out of the of the report, to remit to a Committee of area of the Square, according to the proposProprietors to consider the most expedient al of the Naval Committee. arrangements relative to the access of the

3tio, That the rights of the Proprietors to pillar, with power to communicate to the

the inclosed area, shall not be altered in any Naval Committee

respect, by giving their consent to the build7th, The Naval Committee, at their ing of the Pillar. Dext meeting, sanctioned the opposi 4to, That in no event shall indiscriminate tion which had been so made by their access to the public be allowed : And that Secretary and member. Their min a set of rules respecting the access shall be utes of 31st March 1819, bear,

made out, and approved of by a meeting of

the Proprietors of the Square, to be specially * The minute of last meeting having been

called for this purpose, who shall name a read, it was resolved, on the motion of

Committee of resident proprietors, to give seconded by

and unanimous

effect to the rules so laid down. ly adopted, That Saint Andrew's-Square

5to, That a Committee of Proprietors be should be the site of the Pillar, provided

appointed for adjusting every detail respect. that the Proprietors of the Square agreeing the completion of the work, and the sea to such terms, relative to the access, as

curing the necessary means of keeping it in the Naval Committee can approve of, and repair.” provided the funds are found to be suffici. ent for the purpose of erecting, and after. On the part of those who wished to wards maintaining the Pillar. It was more

illar. It was more have the management previously fixed over, the opinion of the Committee, that a on a definitive basis, Mr – majority of the Proprietors of the square proposed the following amendment to ought to regulate every matter relative to the 4th resolution : the access, so soon as the Pillar is complet « That the key of the Pillar shall never be

That the key of the pillars ed. And in the event of this resolution not

entrusted to the custody of the square-keepbeing agreed to, the Committee are of opi.

er, or any other servant of the square : That nion, that the site of St. Andrew's-square

no person shall have access to the Pillar at should be given up.”

any time, without the consent in writing of 8th, The Committee of Proprietors a majority of a Committee of seven resident of St Andrew's Square agreed to this proprietors, appointed for the purpose, being new proposal, by a majority, at a meet- specially obtained thereto, and that a minute ing held on 5th April 1819. two of be entered in the sederunt-book, and signed their number,who dissented,signifying,

by all the proprietors, or their proxies duly

authorised; binding the proprietors to each verbally, that though, for the sake of

other : That every individual proprietor unanimity, they would give up the

shall, at all times, have a valid and effectual veto, they still meant to insist that, veto against any other, or more, or indiscri. whatever the regulations to be adopted minate access, being allowed to the Pillar, with regard to the door of the pillar than is herein provided, excepting for the might be, they should be settled be- purpose of repairs." fore it was erected, so as to have the This amendment was negatived by a force of a condition, instead of being majority of 10 to 9; whereupon the postponed till afterwards, which would mover of it inserted a protest in the have rendered them mere rules, altera- minutes, in precisely the same words, ble at all times at pleasure.

and “intimated that he would take all 9th, A meeting of the proprietors such measures as he might deem neof the Square was held, at which even cessary, to prevent its being erected on the resolution, with regard to three any other condition.” fourths, was dropped, and no other Other matters were talked of during security for the privacy of the Square the course of the discussions, but as required, than that four resident gen- they dont appear in the minutes, and ilemen should give their consent, in were, besides, of a nature which would writing, before any person was admit- tempt me to break my resolution not ted into the inside of the pillar. The to argue, I shall say nothing about resolutions proposed by those gentle them here.

I trust you will now be able to judge their own favour which were offered of whether the negotiation was broken off that condition. And I have only farbecause one party proposed new or fri- ther to add, that it was not till after all volous conditions, or, as “ one of the this, that another proprietor, wearied Committee" expresses it, “ made illi- out and disgusted with the number of beral opposition," and stated “ futile meetings and disputes which there had objections," or because the other party been with regard to it, and especially departed from a condition which they with this refusal to abide by the terms had at one time agreed to by an entry which had been at one time distinctly in their own minutes, officially com- agreed to, gave in a protest against the municated to the Proprietors of the erection of the Monument in the Square, and did not choose to accept square. of the very important modifications in A PROPRIETOR OFSTANDREW'S-SQUARE.


In this volume is contained an ab- on the same subject, the following re. stract of Professor Brown's System re- marks upon the nature of conscious. lative to the Physiology of the Mind, ness will show, It was meant to serve as a text-book “ Consciousness has been generally con. for those attending his Lectures, and sidered as a peculiar power of the mind, of therefore the successive parts of the which all our various feelings when present, subject are discussed with a good deal are to be distinguished as objects, in the of brevity, but, at the same time, with

same sense as light is not vision, but the ob

ject of vision, or fragrant particles not smell, so much clearness, as to render the

but the object of smell. book by itself an agrecable and satis

“ This view, which appears to me very factory vehicle of the author's leading

manifestly erroneous, seems to be a part of doctrines, and to make the reader re that general error with respect to the mind, gret to find that it is broken off abrupt, which, after endowing it with many Powers, ly at a very interesting part; Dr Brown that are truly nothing more than certain having been unable to finish what is relations of uniform antecedence of states of set forth in the table of contents. For mind to other states of mind or to bodily the sake of our readers, we shall en.

movements,-learns to consider these Powers deavour to give an account of some of

almost as separate entities, and assigns to

each a sort of empire over phenomena, of these new and remarkable speculations,

which it is itself merely a name, expressive of which till now there was no print of a certain uniformity in the order of their ed publication, to diffuse them beyond succession. the limits of his class-room, and which “ Consciousness, in its widest sense, is truly cannot fail to be read with admiration nothing more than such a general name, exfor those penetrating talents, from which

pressive of the whole variety of our feelings. science must no longer hope to receive

In this sense, to feel is to be conscious, and

not to be conscious is not to feel farther benefits. The language through

“ The series of states in which the mind out is remarkable for precision, and for

exists, from moment to moment, is all that the dexterity and elegance with which

can be known of the mind ; and it cannot, it is used for the purposes of reason at the same moment, exist in two different ing. It is well known, that Dr Brown states, one of consciousness, and one of some was in the habit of introducing, in his other feeling wholly distinguishable from it. Lectures, many illustrations beautiful Whatever its momentary feeling may be, as conceptions or pictures; but in the simple or complex, sensation, a thought, present publication these are almost

an emotion-this feeling or momentary state entirely withheld, so that the reader

of the mind, which is said to be only the finds few pauses or relaxations from

object of consciousness, as if consciousness

were something different from a state in abstract reasoning.

which the mind exists, is truly all the con. In what manner Dr Brown's ideas, sciousness of the moment. at the outset, differ as to one importo “I am conscious of a particular feeling, ant point, from those of former writers means only I feel in a particular manner.

Sketch of a System of the Philosophy of the Human Mind ; Part I. comprehending the Physiology of the Mind; by Thomas Brown, M. D. Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. Edinburgh ; Bell and Bradfute, &c. 1820.

As far as regards the present merely, it ex- derived series, of which each succes. presses the existence of a particular feeling, sive phenomenon is generated from but nothing more.

the last, or from external perceptions * We may, indeed, look back on a particu.

-the whole being so many different lar feeling of the moment preceding, as we

states of one sentient principle, and look back on some more distant event of years that are past: and from the belief of each state being uncompounded and identity which arises intuitively in such a simple, and including the whole escase, we may give the name of Consciousness sence of the mind so long as it lasts. to this brief retrospect and identification, as But even this mode of viewing the ve give the name of Memory or Remem. phenomena is not inconsistent with brence to the longer retrospect. But the the notion of the mind having pardifference is a difference of name only. The ticular faculties for particular purrunnernbrance is in kind the same, whether

poses. A faculty means only the the interval of recognition be long or short. The whole complex state of mind, in such

power of existing in a particular state

? a case, is in strictness of language one pre-. in re

in relation to external objects ; for every sent feeling, one state of the mind and no thought or feeling is a relation of some thing more; and even of this virtual com. kind to external objects. Cut off the plesity, we find, on analysis, no other ele. mind's communication with the outments than these a certain feeling of some ward world, and take away the conkind, the remembrance of some former ception of things formerly perceived, feeling, and the belief of the identity of arid all thoughts and feelings would that which feels and has felt. If we take in

immediately cease. Now, it is not in away the memory of every former feeling,

consequence of any one quality that we take away the very notion of self or identity, and with it every thing that dis

that dis the mind is capable of existing in so inguishes the complex feeling which is many different relations to external termed Consciousness, from the simpler objects, or (what is the same thing) feeling of which we are said to be conscious. to conceptions and, if it be in conse

- It is but in a very small number of our quence of different qualities, these feelings, as they succeed each other in end- qualities may without impropriety las variety, that any such retrospects and be called powers or faculties. identifications of past and present feeling, in

If the antecedent temporary state one self or continued subject of both, take place. The pleasure or pain begins and or affection of the mind were the Basses away, and is immediately succeeded sole cause of that which follows, then by other pleasures or pains, or thoughts or it would be unsuitable to speak of the emotions. In such a case, when there is no mind's having permanent qualities; retrospect beyond the moment, and no no- but the consequent state results not tion, therefore, of self, as the continued merely from the antecedent temporsubject of various feelings, the consciousness

ary state, but also from the permanent of the mind is either the brief simple pre

nature and constitution of the mind. sent feeling itself, whatever that may be, or

If, on the other hand, it be said, that it is nothing; and when it is mingled with

each successive state includes the per& retrospective feeling, there is no occasion to have recourse to a peculiar Faculty, to be manent nature and capacities of the distinguisbed from the ordinary cases of re- mind, and that, therefore, the antemembrance, in which there is, in like manner, cedent state is the sole cause of what a retrospect of some former feeling of the follows; it will be somewhat difficult mind, together with that belief of identity to reconcile this notion with the perwhich is common to memory in all its forms. fect simplicity and unity which Dr We do not suppose, that when at one time we Brown attributes to each mental look back on some event of our boyhood, at another time on some event of the preceding

state. In speaking of mental identity, hour, and, in both cases, identify the sube he makes the following observations : ject of the past feeling with that which is “I can imagine, for example, the followthe subject of a present sensation, we exer

ing objection to be put. cise, in the recognition at the longer and " The changeful appearances of external shorter interval, a power of the mind that is

things, it may be said, are easily conceive specifically different in the two cases; and

able, because a mass of matter admits of there is surely as little reason to suppose addition, or subtraction, or at least of mich a specific difference, when, in an in

change of place of the atoms that compose terval still shorter, the recognition of a com, it. But if mind be, as is asserted, abso, mon subject of two feelings has regard to lutely simple and indivisible, the same a present sensation, and to one so recent in

at every moment, without addition, or its freshness as almost to seem present still.

subtraction, or possible change of parts, From this extract it will be seen -that which is by its very nature so that Dr Brown views the thoughts completely incapable of essential alteraand feelings of the mind as a mutually tion, cannot admit of any difference whate

ever. If strictly identical, it must be the sufficient to show what is meant by that same in every respect. Now we know, compatibility of sameness and diversity in that what is called the Mind, far from things without, to which the internal phebeing at every moment the same in every nomena of mind, in their similar union of respect, scarcely presents for two successive diversity and sameness, present an analogy moments the same phenomena. It is by so striking, as to justify the assertion of the its changes, indeed, indirectly, as sentient compatibility as a general law of nature. or percipient, and only by its changes, that “ , body at rest, we believe, would remain all other changes become known to us ; and for ever at rest, but for the application of independently of those varying perceptions, some foreign force : when impelled by some by which it reveals to us the phenomena of other body, it moves, and, as we believe, the material world, it is susceptible of in- would for ever in free space continue to numerable modifications of feeling that have move onward, in the line of impulse, with a no direct relation to them. Without taking certain velocity proportioned to that impulse. into account, therefore, such lasting changes Let us take, then, any series of moments, of character, as the mind often exhibits, in a, b, c, in the continued quiescence, and different circumstances of fortune, or at any series of moments x, y, z, in the condifferent periods of life, are not even its tinued uniform motion. At the moment a, inore rapid changes, when the feeling of one every atom of the body is in such a state, moment has no resemblance whatever to that, in consequence of this state, it does the feeling of the preceding moment, suffi- not exhibit any tendency to motion in the cient to disprove its absolute identity ? moment b; at the moment x every atom of There is unquestionably in these changes a it is in such a state, that in the subsequent difference of some sort, and often a differ moment y, though an impelling body be no ence as striking, as can be supposed in the longer present, it has a tendency to pass feelings of any two minds at the same mo. from one point of space to another; and ment. How, then, can that which is so thus progressively, through the series a, b, c, different be absolutely identical?

and the series x, y, z, the difference of ten“ Absolute identity, in the strictest sense dency at each moment is indicative of a of that term, and difference of any sort, difference of state at each moment. Every seem, I own, when we first consider them, atom of the body, at the moment y is, how. to be incompatible: and yet, if such a com- ever, exactly the same atom which it was at patibility be found to be true, not of mind the moment b. Nothing is added to the only, but of matter itself, the objection that mass ; nothing is taken away from the is founded on the analogy of matter, in the mass : yet how different are the phenomena supposed necessity of some integral altera exhibited, and consequently how different tion in its changing phenomena, will lose the tendencies, or physical character, of the the force which that analogy had seemed to identical atoms, at these two moments ! give to it. If every material atom be un- Nay, more, as the varieties of velocity are ceasingly changing its state, so as often to infinite, increasing or diminishing with the exhibit tendencies the most opposite, and force of the primary impulse or other cause yet, in all its changes of physical character, of motion, and as, in the continual probe, without all question, the same substance gressive motion, the cause of the particular which it was before ; it may be allowed, in velocity of that motion at the moment y is like manner, that the mind also, with cor. the peculiar state of the atoms at the moment responding diversities of character, may ex- x, with any difference of which the velocity ist in various, and often in opposite states, also would be different, there is in the vaat different times, and yet be in all these rieties even of such simple rectilinear changes of state, whether the diversity be motion, without taking into account any more or less brief or lasting, the same iden. other varieties arising from any other foreign tical substance.

causes, an infinite number of states of every “ The examination of this compatibility of atom of every mass, with the same continued diversity with sameness in external things, identity of the whole : and it is truly not may involve a more subtile analysis of the more wonderful, therefore, that the subgeneral phenomena of matter, than has stance to which we give the name of Mind commonly been employed by philosophers. should, without the slightest loss of identity, But it is a discussion that is interesting in be affected in succession with joy, sorrow, itself, and that is particularly interesting in love, hate, or any other feelings or tendenthe present question, as obviating an objec. cies the most opposite, than that a substance tion, the force of which, but for such a to which we give the name of Matter, withproof of exact analogy in the phenomena out the slightest loss of identity, should have of the material world, will be felt most tendencies so opposite as those by which at strongly by those who are best qualified to one time it remains, moment after moment, judge of such questions

in the same relative point of space, and "In the narrow limits of the present out. afterwards flies through space with a velolines, it is impossible to state the argument city of which the varieties are infinite. in its minuter physical bearings. A single However paradoxical, then, the statement illustration, however, from one of the most fa- may appear, it may yet safely be admitted, miliar of the phenomena of matter, may be as a law both of mind and of matter, that

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