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ings of relation is equally true of our concep. they respectively contain. The suggestion tions, or other internal affections of the mind, or instant sequence of any one of these feel. as of our affections of sense, though, from ings of relation, after the joint perception of the greater permanence of our perceptions the two objects, seems as little mysterious as when external objects are before us, they the mere perception of the objects after the may naturally be supposed to give rise to a necessary previous organic change, or as any wider variety of such feelings of relation. other sequence of feelings whatever : and if
In conformity with our original view of nothing had ever been written on the subthe objects of physical inquiry, the variety ject, the subject itself, as far as regards the of relations may be classed as Relations of mere simple feeling of relation in any partiCo-existence or Relations of Succession ; ac. cular suggestion, would scarcely seem to cording as, in the former case, they do not stand in need of any elucidation. involve any notion of time, or as, in the lat. - The dispute concerning the nature ter case, they involve necessarily the notion of general ideas (or what is present to which is expressed, in its double reference, the mind as the subject of abstract by the words Before and After.
reasoning) is next treated of. Dr 1. The Relations of Co-existence may be reduced under the following heads ; Posi.
Brown thinks that, in reasoning contion._Resemblance or Difference, Propor. cerning a species, there is certainly tion,_Degree, Comprehensiveness, or the present to the mind a conception of relation which a whole bears to the parts those qualities in which the individuthat are contained in it. When we say of als of the species correspond. He says, a cottage, that it stands on the slope of a hill; "II. When a resemblance is felt in some
that it is very like the cottage beside it, of the obvious qualities of external sense, but very unlike one that stands in the val- as when we look on a portrait or pictured ley ; that its large sashed windows are out of landscape, and think of the person or the proportion to the size of so diminutive a scene that was meant to be represented by building ; that it is therefore less beautiful it ;-no difficulty is felt by any one, in conwith all its gaudy profusion of fowers, than sidering the relation. A portrait, or a landthe cottage in the valley, with its simple scape, involves no technical word of my. lattices, which seem to sparkle more bright stery; and the simple process of nature, therely through the honeysuckle that is allowed fore, in which feelings of resemblance arise to wreathe itself to their very edge ;-and in the mind after certain perceptions or conwhen, describing the interior of it also, we ceptions, is all of which we think. But say, that it contains only three small cham- when we are called by philosophers to con. bers,-in these few simple references, we sider the circumstances on which classifica. have illustrated the whole possible variety tion is founded ; though all that truly takes of the Relations of Co-existence ; which may place in this process as essential to it, is a be induced indeed by various objects, with feeling of resemblance of object to object, various specific differences, but which, gen less extensive indeed as to the number of erically, must always be the same with similar circumstances than in a portrait or these. Indeed, by an effort of subtlety, landscape, but still exactly of the same more violent perhaps than the phenomena kind, when considered as a mere feeling or warrant, it might be possible to reduce still mental state ; we seem immediately to see a more even this small number, and to bring, thousand difficulties, because a thousand or force, the relations of proportion and de- words of terrible sound start instantly on gree under the more comprehensive relation our conception. Yet when, on looking suce of a whole and its various parts. But at cessively at a square, an oblong, a rhombus least the number under which I have arrang. and a rhomboid, we class them all verbally ed them, as it appears to me to be in its or. as four-sided figures, we make as simple der of distribution very easily intelligible, and as intelligible an affirmation, in stating seems to me also sufficient for exhausting the similarity of these figures in one comthe whole phenomena, for which it was ne mon circumstance, as when we say of any cessary to find a place and a name.
portrait in our chamber that it is like the We look on two cottages :-we are not friend for whom it was painted. The two merely impressed with all their sensible affirmations express nothing more than a qualities, with which each separately, in feeling of resemblance in certain respects ; perception, might have affected us exactly and, if we had never heard of the controin the same manner as when we perceive versy in the Schools as to the nature of them together ; but we consider them rela Universals, we should as little have suspect. tively to each other or to other surrounding ed of the one affirmation as of the other, things. We think of them, therefore, in that it could give occasion to any fierce loconnexion with the place on which they gical warfare. Still less could we have susstand ; and we are impressed with their gen. pected, that philosophers who do not deny eral resemblance or difference, with their that we are capable of feeling the resem. various proportions, with their comparative blance of a piece of coloured canvass to the degrees of beauty or convenience or other living person whom it represents, are yet qualities, and with their comprehensiveness unwilling to allow that we feel the slightest with regard to the number of parts which general resemblance of a square, an oblong, a rhombus and a rhomboid ; and insist ac- cerning the species. But in other cordingly, that when we class these figures cases, the common quality is, perhaps, as four-sided, it is not because we have any some shifting relation, which cannot common feeling of their similarity, or any be represented by a one definite and intervening feeling or notion whatever, dis. tinct from the perception of the separate fi
permanent conception, kept steadily in gures, but because it is our arbitrary plea
view : As, for instance, when we say, sure so to give the name.
“ all numbers below seventy,” the The philosophers, to whose fundamental common quality here, is a proportion opinion on the subject of generalization I which seems to be only represented by ai present allude, are those who have been the words; and of which no perma commonly distinguished by the title of No- nent or distinct conception can be minalists : and it is indeed a very striking formed, as it is different in each case. proof of the darkening effect of a long tech. Probably, in abstract reasoning, the nical controversy, that an error which ap
· mind resorts to a great many shifts, pears to me, I confess, notwithstanding my high respect for the talents of those who
and performs its operations in a very have maintained it, a very gross one, should irregular manner. It retains a clear yet have united in its support, with the ex. conception of the common quality, so ception of a very few names, the genius of long as it can. When it is no longer the most eminent metaphysicians of our own possible to do so, it probably lays hold and other countries.
of some subordinate circumstance in The essence of this theory of generaliza
relation to it, which can be kept pertion is, that we have no general notions, or
manently in view : As, for instance, general feelings of any kind, which lead us to class certain objects with certain other
in speaking abstractly of the minor objects, that there is nothing general but
nothing general but proposition of a syllogism, we may the mere names, or other symbols, which sometimes be contented to consider it ve employ, and that in all the ascending as merely something holding an intergradation, therefore, of Species, Genus, Or. mediate place between the major and der, and Class, the arrangement is consti. the conclusion, which again may be tuted, as truly as it is defined by the mere considered as only the first and last Ford that expresses it, without any relative
propositions in the series, when we feeling of the mind as to any common cir.
have not before us any particular syl. cumstances of resemblance intermediate between the primary perception of the separate
logism, or minor proposition. And, objects, and the verbal designation that probably, our last resort is really to ranks them together.
mere nominalism ; keeping the mind He justly argues, that before are ready, however, for immediately flyranging objects into a class, or species, ing to the common quality when para we must first have had a previous feel- ticulars are presented to us. ing of their agreement in some parti As we have mentioned above, the cular, which rendered them fit to be part of the work which relates to the classed together; and that the concep- Emotions remains unpublished, a cirtion of this quality common to them, cumstance which will create disap. with the conviction, that it is to be pointment for the present, although found in each of them, is all that is the defect may perhaps be afterwards necessary to constitute our general supplied from Dr Brown's papers. idea of the class. Yet, in different The present volume, even in its unfi, cases, there are very great differences, nished state, is considerably larger with regard to the fitness of the com- than that abstract which was publishwon quality, to be conceived distinct. ed of Professor Stewart's Lectures, ly by itself.
for a similar purpose. There is noIn some cases, one definite con- thing in it left obscure for the sake of ception can represent the common brevity, (whatever might have been quality, and can be applied successive- the interest of more copious illustras ly to the whole individuals of the spe- tions) and it is not yet known whe, cies without suffering much change or ther there is an intention of publishmodification. As, for instance, when ing Dr Brown's Lectures in a more we say, ** all flowers with four white ample and perfect form. Perhaps the leaves," the conception of four white completion of the present volume leaves may continue present to the would be the best step, in the mean mind during all our reasoning con- time.
STANZAS, WRITTEN UPON ROBERT, THE SON OF CAPTAIN S. SHAW, OF THE
ROYAL ARTILLERY, NOW A RESIDENT IN THE EAST INDIES-A CHILD FIVE YEARS OF AGE.
By JAMES CROSSLEY, Esq.
And sure that forehead, white as snow,
A WITCHING child, to whom 'tis given
All hearts to challenge as thy due-
That ever Nature's pencil drew!
Pure, as if earth, and earth's despising, Composed--as if from marble cold
Thou wert but just to life arisingStill do I see thy silk-fring'd eyes
With innocence and archness dawningThy cheek, which health's rich painting dyes
With all the loveliest hues of morningThe rose, which blushes on a skin Transparent as the mind within ; Thy mouth, whose upper lip, to smother Its rival, hides its under brother, As if too jealous to reveal The prisoner of its coral seal ; Till sund'ring, when it shows beneath A lip where heav'n itself might breathe As leaves, when by the breeze untwin'd, They show the downy peach behind.
Tho' Sorrow's lot is borne by each,
And Man's sad cup on earth is care, And bold is he who Pain will teach,
To torture these, and those to spare, Yet some should sure be left Mankind, The solace of their woes behind, To gild this Lazar House with beams That emanate from Light's pure streams, On life to throw one transient ray, And give its night the blaze of day; Some, some there are, to whom their weak
ness Itself, should strong protection yield, Whom Innocence, and Angel Meekness,
Should cover as a seven-fold shield.
The rose, but op'ning, fade away,
Uptorn the lovely violet ?
Born, where the giant Ganges pours
His streams magnificent along, 'Mid sunny groves and golden bow'rs,
Which breathe aloft immortal song ; 'Mid solemn glades and thickets lorn, By Brachman's worshipp'd footsteps worn; And now a flow'r of Eastern birth Transplanted to a colder earthTorn from its parent genial stem To grace the Western diadem, Oh o'er its head, may each rough gale
Unhurting pass with arrowy fleetness The gentlest breezes of the vale,
And but the gentlest, kiss its sweetness : May o'er that flower some Sylph of Air
With more than parent's fondness hover; Hang o'er its sweets with watchful care,
And all its budding charms discover
Remorse, or heart-corroding sadness ;
Such, oh! may such be ne'er thy fate;
Thy couch may withering anguish flee : May all that decks the good and great,
Its trophies lend to honour thee,
Of joy the giver and partaker,
An angel made, and angel maker,
That sounds so sweet should stray below, Gives to the breeze his soul, as tost
Its magic whispers come and go, Lists to its notes, as sweet they play, And hears his grosser parts away.
6. 'Tis sweet to pause as on we creep,
Up Life's precipitous ascent,
And turn to view, from summit steep, And while to earth's enduring race
A new race go where once we went, This mind and mem'ry shall belong, In youth's glad days, and journeying all, In them, thy beaming charms and face As guests to some rich festival ;
Shall ever live and linger long. To watch them stray from side to side, Charms which, as some bright form, some Nor fear the bandit gang of pain,
spark And then, with minds new purified,
Of light and life our youth that met, Resume our pilgrimage again.
'Tis man's first work, and best, to mark, Yes, such a gladd’ning sense of glee
His last, and hardest to forget. Hatb oft thy presence shed on me; i Manchester, 13th March, 1820.
No. I. Hakon Jarl, a Tragedy ; by Adam Oehlenschlager. We are about to introduce to the the German masters in their most sucs acquaintance of our readers, a great cessful efforts, the Danes have, in conpoet of Denmark, whose compositions, sequence of this very adherence, bein his native language, have rendered come poets of a totally different order him the chief living pride of his own from the Germans. Like them, they country; while his German versions are intensely national and that single of these same compositions have en- circumstance points out abundantly titled him, according to the judgment both the nature of the resemblance of his most enlightened contempora- they bear to them, and the wide mearies, to sit with the full privileges of sure of the difference which obtains an honoured denizen among the heirs between them. Drawing their imaand representatives of the illustrious gery from the kindred, but far purer founders of the modern poetry of sources of Scandinavian mythology and Germany. The most severe of Ger- romance and applying these, and all man critics are constrained to admity the other instruments of their art, to that Oehlenschlager writes the lan- the illustrations of the history, the guage of Schiller as correctly, as if its manners, and the old life of a kindred accents had been the earliest that ever also, but nevertheless a very different fell on his ear--- so that we might very people,-the poets who sing of the safely have considered him in the light downfall of Odin, and the rearing of of a proper German classic, and pro- the Cross among the rough Earls of ceeded to analyze his works in part of the Baltic shores, are in no danger of the same series which has already being confounded, by such as have made known to the readers of Enge studied their works, with those that land the merits of Adolphus Müllner, record the proud visions of Wallenand Francis Grillparzer. But every stein, and the mild generosity of Eg-: man of genius owes to his own coun- mont. try the sacred debt of cultivating, Of all the modern Danish Poets, preserving, and cherishing her lan- Oehlenschlager is the most deeply and guage; and as Oehlenschlager has, in essentially imbued with this prevailspite of many temptations, adhered ing spirit of Scandinavian thought. through life to this rule of duty, we Almost all the tragedies he has written should think ourselves very much to and all his excellent tragedies, with blame were we to treat him merely as the one splendid exception of the Cona German poet. The literature of eggio-are founded on incidents of which he is the chief living ornament, the old history of the Norsemen. is indeed closely allied to that of Ger- The wild unbridled spirits of those many; but it has been developed, note haughty Sea-kings that carried ravage withstanding, in a manner perfectly and terror upon all the coasts of Euindependent. It is as different from rope-the high, warm, unswerving the literature of Germany as the li- love of those northern dames that welterature of Germany is from that of comed them on their return to their England-er as the literature of Pore native ice-girt fastnesses--the dark tugal is from that of Castille. Acting ferocious superstitions which made upon the same general principle of these bold men the willing sport and art, which has swayed the greatest of tools of demons-their sacrifices of
blood-their uprootings of tenderness Tho. To judge -their solemn and rejoicing submis- By your surprise, my lord, and if I dare sion when fate irresistible arrests them To say so, by your looks, such was the truth. in their buoyant and triumphant breath
Hak. Trust not my looks-My features
are mine own, of strife-their hot impetuous lawless
And must obey their owner. What I seem living their cold calm dying-and is only seeming. With the multitude their desperate ignorance of the name I must dissemble. Now we are alone, of despair-such are the characters Hear me! Whate'er of Olaf thou hast said, and such the passions that Oehlen- I knew it long before. schlager has delighted to contemplate Tho. His warlike fame as an antiquarian, and dared to depict Had reach'd to Norway? as a Tragedian. The materials are
Hak. Aye. rich surely—but it deinanded all the
Tho. But thou art serious.
What mean'st thou, noble Jarl ? audacity of genius to grapple with
Hak. Give me thine hand, them--and all the delicacies of perfect
In pledge of thy firm loyalty!, skill to adorn the victory and justify the boldness.
Thy kindness and my gratitude must bind The history of Earl Hakon, well me. known to all those who have read the Hak. Thou art a man even after mine Scandinavian ballads, forms the sub
own heart! ject of, we think, the noblest of all for such a friend oft had I long'd. With this poet's tragedies. Olaf, the son m
prudence of Harald
Thou know'st to regulate thine own affairs; the golden-haired, the And if obstructions unforeseen arise, rightful heir of the crown of Norway, With boldness thou can'st use thy battewas left by his father in possession of
sword, his Irish conquests, and there main- And as thy wisdom is exerted, still tained in his youth the state of a So must thy plans succeed. pirate king-but all his Scandinavian Tho. The gods endow us possessions, except only the royal With souls and bodies. Each must bear title, were usurped in his infancy by
their part. Earl Hakon. The young king, how
Hak. Man soon discovers that to which
by nature ever, in the course of one of his expe- He has been destin'd. His own impulses ditions, landed on one of the green Awake the slumbering energies of mind ; islands off the Norwegian coast, and Thence he attains what he feels power to his arrival there was no sooner known,
reach ; than a strong party in Norway, dis- Nor for his actions other ground requires. gusted with the tyrannies and the Tho. It is most true. licentiousness of the usurper, began to
can to Hak. My passion evermore proclaim their sense of his rights, and
Has been to rule-to wear the crown of their determination to throw off their
This was the favourite vision of my soul. allegiance to Hakon. The Christian
Tho. That vision is already realized. faith of Olaf, however, (for the young Hak. Not quite, my friend-Almost, but prince had been converted at Dublin
yet not wholly. gives Hakon confidence-he is per- Still am I styl'd but Hakon Jarlthe name suaded that Odin will protect him, Whereto I was begot and born. and that the mass of his subjects will
Tho. 'Tis true; not receive as their monarch an apos
But when thou wilt then art thou king. tate from the creed of their forefathers.
Hak. My hopes The first scene we shall extract repre
Have oft suggested that our Northern heroes
Will soon perceive it more befits their honsents Hakon as talking in a holy grove
our, of pines, with Thorer, one of his chief A monarch to obey than a mere Jarl. captains, concerning the arrival of the Therefore at the next congress I resolve Christian prince.
At once to explain my wishes and intent. Hak. We are alone. Within this sacred Bergthor, the smith, a brave old Drontheimwood
er, Dares no one come but Odin's priests and Labours already to prepare my crown. Hakon.
When it is made I shall appoint the day. Tho. Such confidence, my lord, makes Tho. Whate'er may chance, thou art ine . Thorer proud.
deed a king. Hak. So, Thorer, thou believ'st all that Hak. Thou judgest like a trader, still of
to-day Was told of Olaf Trygvason at table, But yet, methinks, the mere external splenTill that hour was unknown to me?