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John iii. 6-11. 6 God. That which-is-born tu yeyevunuevow of the flesh is flesh; and that which-is-born 7 of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I-said unto-thee, Ye must der be-born again 8 avwber. The wind bloweth where it-listeth, deler and thou-hearest the sound thereof,

but canst-not-tell whence it-cometh, and whither it-goeth : so is every-one that is born 9 of the Spirit. Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these-things be? 10 Jesus answered and said unto-him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these11 things? Verily, verily, I-say unto-thee, We-speak that we-do-know, and testify that we

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 6. born of the Aesh-Adam begat a son in his own 13-gather unto me all the elders of your tribes.' likeness,' Ge. v. 3- all flesh had corrupted his way,' xxxi. 28–30—see ch. xxxii., which contains the song vi. 5. 12- who can bring a clean thing out of an rehearsed in their hearing, wherein is so strongly unclean ? not one.' Job xiv. 4- what is man... born declared the need there would be in the latter days of a woman. that he should be righteous ?' xv. 14-.6 for Israel's being born again of the Spirit, ver. 1, 2

in my flesh dwelleth no good thing.' Rom. vii. 5, as making known the name of Him whose work is 18_' the natural man receiveth not the things of the perfect, ver. 3, 4-so as to know Him to be their Spirit of God,' I Co. ii. 14-as is the earthy, such are | Father, who hath bought them, made them, estabthey also that are earthy.'&c., xv. 47–9" the flesh lished them, ver. 5, 6- They shonld have known what lusteth against the Spirit,' Ga. v. 17-' the works of God had thus testified respecting the regeneration of the flesh,' ver. 19-21 by nature the children of his people: and afterwards by the prophets, as in Eze. wrath,' Ep. ii. 3 for all that is in the world, the lust xxxvi. 25—7; xxxvii. 3-10--but the spirit of deep of the flesh, and the last of the eyes, and the pride sleep had fallen upon them, Is. xxix. 102-' his of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world, watchmen are blind,' lvi. 10_ have rejected the word 1 Jno. ii. 16.

of the Lord : and what wisdom is in them?' Je. viii.

8, 980 our Lord afterward testified: hid these 8. the wind bloweth—as on the day of Pentecost,

things from the wise,' &e., Mt. xi. 25, § 29_they be Ac. ii. 2, 'as thou knowest not what is the way of

blind leaders,' &e.. xv. 14. § 44—'ye do err, not the spirit, nor how the bones do grow,'&c., Ec. xi. 5.

knowing,' &c., xxii. 29, S 85 yet not conscious of but canst not tell, tc.--this ignorance exemplified their ignorance, Jno. ix. 39–41, § 55. on the day of Pentecost, Ac. ii. 6-13—'even so the

11. we speak thal ure do know-no man hath seen things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of

God,' &c., Jno. i. 18, 97- I speak that which I have God, 'I Co. ii. 11- they think it strange that ye run

seen with my Father,' viii. 38, § 55—see xii. 49, S 85; not with them to the same excess,' &c., 1 Pe. iv. 4.

and Mt. xi. 27, S 29; Rev. i. 5-men are to testify 10. master of Israelwise men made rulers, De. i. that which they know, Is. xliii. 8–12; xlv. 19-22.

NOTES. 16. That which is born of the flesh. To shew the ne- others. As such he onght to have understood this ceisity of this change our Saviour directs the atten- doctrine. It was clearly taught in the Old Testation of Nicodemus to the natural condition of man. ment.-See Scrip. Illus.,' supra; and Notes,' p. 83. By that which is born of the flesh he evidently intends And knowest not these things! The things which man as he is by nature, in the circumstances of his

| Jesus had been teaching, having been previously | natural birth. As the parents are corrupt and sin

taught by the prophets, ought to have been known ful, so will be their descendants, Job xiv. 4. And as by Nicodemus. the parents are trholly corrupt by nature, so their

I'Nicodemus having expressed his ignorance of

Nicodemns having a children will be the same. The word flesh, here, is what Jesus had said, our Lord refers to the words used to denote, corrupt, defiled, sinful.]

of the prophets, see Eze. Xxxvi. 22-.8, who had proThe flesh in the Scriptures is often used to denote

phesied that before God would receive Israel into the the sinful propensities and passions of our nature, as

promised kingdom, he would sprinkle clean water those propensities have for their end the pratica- upon them; and also that a new heart he would give tion of the animal nature alone.-See Scripture

! them, and a right spirit he would put within them. Illustrations,' supra.

He would put his Spirit within them: so they, being 8. The wind bloureth where it listeth. The work of born again, shall be his people, and he will be their the Spirit is felt, but his way of working is a mystery. God. Nicodemus, who, as being 'a master of Israel,

[The Holy Ghost is likened to wind or winds; in- ought to have known these things, still, in amazecomprehensible in his nature; self-moved, powerful, ment, asks, How can these things be?' And our convincing, quickening, conforting, and purifying Lord proceeds to shew him how these things can be. in his influences. May not the north-ucind figure out by pointing to his being the Divine Saviour, the antihis convincing, and the south-wind his cherishing type of the brazen serpent, lifted up by Moses, for the and comforting efficacy? In 8tov Ole there seems an healing of the people in the wilderness; by believing allusion to the freedom of Divine grace, both as to in whom, as given of the Father out of pure love to nations and to individuals.]

the world, we are renewed in his image, who was [ So is every one that is born of the Spirit. These made after our likeness, the likeness of sinful flesh.] words are intended to apply the comparison ; mean. 11. We speak. Jesus, agreeable to the usage of ing that there are points of resemblance between the persons in authority, see Mk. iv. 30, § 32, here effects of the wind in nature and those of the Spirit speaks in the plural number. Nicodemus had said. in him who is born of the Spirit ; and that they are (ver. 2,) 'We know that thou art, doc., including him of a kind which every one must ascribe to the Author self and those with whom he acted. of all good. He cannot indeed trace the exact pro

We speak that we do know, and testify that we have cess by which that heavenly agency is employed for

seen. Both are expressive of that complete knowledge this effect; but he does not the less believe it.]

which the Son, as united with God the Father, could 10. Art thou a master of Israel! The teacher of not but possess. There is also implied knowledge by Israel.' Nicodemus was so called as compared with a virtue of his own, and not by revelacion.

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 6 per. Men are by nature carnally-minded, and can | Let us, whatever may be our standing, candidly aconly become spiritually-minded by being born of the knowledge our difficulties, not to puzzle the weak, Spirit.

but that we may have the help of the strong. 17 ver. Man must have it deeply impressed upon 10 ver. Let the strong not be offended at the inhim, that his being born into the kingdom of Godquiries of the weak; but, like Jesus, persevere in must be from above. Not of blood, nor of the will presenting the truth to inquiring minds, according of the flesh, por of the will.' &c.-See Jno. 1. 13, $7) as they are able to bear it. Jesus, in teaching regene8 ver. Regeneration must be known by its effects.

ration by the word and Spirit of God, taught no new

doctrine, but that which had been taught by the The Spirit of God operates freely as the wind. Its

prophets : which it should have been the business of coming and issue are not otherwise visible.

Nicodemus, as a master of Israel, to make plain to 9 ver. Men will often admit facts on other subjects, 'the people.-See as to water and spirit,' Eze. xxxvi. and be greatly perplexed by similar facts in religion. 25-7; as to word and spirit,' xxxvii. 1-10.

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[Continued from page 83.]

And Moses spake in the ears of all the congregation of they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by Israel the words of this song, until they were ended.'the water courses.'

And see ch. Xxxii., infra. washing of regeneration, and renewing, fc. Tit. iii. see Scripture Illustrations,' page opposite. 5, Not by works of righteousness which we have done, afterwards by the prophets Eze. xxxvi. 25—7—see ch. but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing xxxvi. p. (83) xxxvii. 3-10%set ch. xxxvii. p. (30). of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.'

but the spirit of deep sleep, c. -Is. xxix. 10-2. 10, it is the Spirit that quickeneth, &c. :-Jno. vi. 63, § 43. 1 For the LORD hath poured out upon you the spirit of

if any man, fc.:-Rom. viii. 9, But ye are not in the deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes: the prophets and flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God your rulers, the seers hath he covered. 11, And the vi. dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit otsion of all is become unto you as the words of a book that Christ, he is none of his.'-See Scrip. Illus.,' p. opp. is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, say

ing, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I cannot; for 6. BORN OF THE FLESH.

it is sealed: 12, and the book is delivered to him that is Adam begat, &c.:-Ge. v. 3, 'And Adam lived an hun not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, dred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own like I am not learned. ness, after his image: and called his name Seth.'

his watchmen are blind :-Is. lvi. 10. His watchmen all nesh had corrupted his way:Ge. vi. 5, 12. 5, 'And are blind: they are all ignorant, they are all dumb dogs, GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the they cannot bark; sleeping, lying down, loving to slumearth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his ber. - Je. viii. 8, 9. 8, How do ye say, We are wise, and heart was only evil continually.' 12, And God looked the law of the LORD is with us? Lo, certainly in vain upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh made he it; the pen of the scribes is in vain. 9, The wise had corrupted his way upon the earth.'

men are ashamed, they are dismayed and taken: lo, they who can bring, $c.-Job xiv. 4, Who can bring a have rejected the word of the LORD; and what wisdom clean thing out of an unclean? not one. xv. 14-.6. 14, 1 is in them? . What is man, that he should be clean ? and he which is so our Lord afterward testified :-see. Scripture Illusborn of a woman, that he should be righteous ? 15, Be trations,' page opposite hold, he putteth no trust in his saints; yea, the heavens 11. WE SPEAK THAT WE DO KNOW. are not clean in his sight. 16, How much more abomi

see Scripture Illustrations, page opposite.-Rev. i. 5, pable and filthy is man, which drinketh iniquity like. And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and water? __Rom. vii. 5, 18. 5, For when we were in the the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings flesh, the motions of sins, which were by the law, did of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death.'

from our sins in his own blood.' 18, For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwell

men are to testify that which they know:-Is. xliii. & 12 eth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but -see ch. xliii. p. (27).-xlv. 19-22-see ch. xlv. p. (22). how to perform that which is good I find not, Co. ii. 14. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the DEUTERONOMY XXXII. Give ear, Oye heavens, Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither

and I will speak; and hear, 0 earth, the words of my can he know them, because they are spiritually dis 2 mouth. My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech cerned.'-XV. 47–.9. 47, . The first man is of the earth, shall distil as the dew, as the small rain upon the tenearthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven. 48, 3 der herb, and as the showers upon the grass: because As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and I will publish the name of the LORD: ascribe ye greatas is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 4 ness unto our God. He is the Rock, his work is per49, And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we fect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth shall also bear the image of the heavenly.'--Ga. v. 17. 5 and without iniquity, just and right is he. "They • For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit have corrupted themselves, b their spot is not the spot against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the of his children: they are a perverse and crooked geneother: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.' 6 ration. Do ye thus requite the LORD, O foolish peover. 18-21. 18, But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not ple and unwise? is not he thy father that hath bought under the law. 19, Now the works of the flesh are mani. thee? hath he not made thee, and established thee? fest, which are these ; Adultery, fornication, unclean 7 Remember the days of old, consider the years of ness, lasciviousness, 20, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, many generations : ask thy father, and he will shew variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, 8 thee; thy eiders, and they will tell thee. When the 21, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds you in tirne past, that they which do such things shall of the people according to the number of the children not inherit the kingdom of God.'--Ep. ii. 3, Among 9 of Israel. For the LORD's portion is his people; Jawhom also we all had our conversation in times past in 10 cob is the lot of his inheritance. He found him in a the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh desert land, and in the waste howling wilderness; he and of the mind; and were by nature the children of

d led him about, he instructed him, he kept him as wrath, even as others.'-1 Jno. ii. 16, . For all that is in | 11 the apple of his eye. As an eagle stirreth up her nest, the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, futtereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the 12 taketh them, beareth them on her wings: so the LORD world.'

alone did lead him, and there was no strange god with 8. THE WIND BLOWETH.

13 him. He made him ride on the high places of the as on the day of Pentecost :- Ac. ii. 2-4. 2, And sud

earth, that he might eat the increase of the fields; and denly there came a sound from,' &c.

he made him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil as thou knowest not, te.:--Ec. xi. 5, As thou knowest

14 out of the flinty rock; butter of kine, and milk of not what is the way of the spirit, nor how the bones do

sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed or Bagrow in the womb of her that is with child: even so thou

shan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and knowest not the works of God who maketh all.'

thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape.

15 But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked thou art BUT CANST NOT TELL, &c.

waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered this ignorance exemplified on the day of Pentecost :- Ac.

with fatness; then he forsook God which made him, ii. 6--13--see ch. ii. p. (35).-I Co. ii. 11, For what man

16 and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation. They knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man

provoked him to jealousy with strange gods, with which is in him ? even so the things of God knoweth no

17 abominations provoked they him to anger. They man, but the Spirit of God.'-1 Pe. iv. 4, Wherein they

sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they think it strange that ye run not with them to the same

knew not, to new gods that came newly up, whom excess of riot, speaking evil of you.'

18 your fathers feared not of the Rock that begat thee 10. MASTER OF ISRAEL

thou art unmindful, and hast forgotten God that urise men made rulers :-De. i. 13, Take you wise men, 19 formed thee. And when the LORD saw it, he aband understanding, and known among your tribes, and I horred them, because of the provoking of his sons, and will make them rulers over you.'

20 of his daughters. And he said, I will hide my face gather me all the elders, &c. :-De. xxxi. 28_30. 28, from them, I will see what their end shall be : for they • Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your are a very froward generation, children in whom is no officers, that I may speak these words in their ears, and 21 faith. They have moved me to jealousy with that call heaven and earth to record against them. 29, For I which is not God; they have provoked me to anger know that after my death ye will utterly corrupt your with their vanities: and I will move them to jealousy selves, and turn aside from the way which I have com with those which are not a people; I will provoke them manded you; and evil will befall you in the latter days; 22 to anger with a foolish nation. For a fire is kindled because ye will do evil in the sight of the LORD, to pro in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, voke him to anger through the work of your hands. 30,

[Continued see next page.] a Heb. he hath corrupted to himself. Or, that they are not his children, that is their blot. Heb. cord.

d Or, compassed him about. "Or, despised. Or, hath burned.

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also will choose their delusions, and will bring their fears and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set upon them because when I called, none did answer ; 23 on fire the foundations of the mountains. I will heap when I spake, they did not hear: but they did evil be.

mischiefs upon them; I will spend mine arrows upon fore mine eres, and chose that in which I delighted pot.' 24 them. They shall be burnt with hunger, and devoured 30 Jesus aller card testified: --see Scrip. Illus.' with burning heat, and with bitter destruction: I will

12. EARTHLY THINGS. also send the teeth of beasts upon them, with the poi.

things which are to take place, &c. : see as before Eze. 25 son of serpents of the dust. The sword without, and

xxxvi. 2538, p. (83). terror c within, shall d destroy both the young man

compare with Is. xxx. 1825—see p. (88).-xlix. 18—23 and the virgin, the suckling also with the man of gray

see eh. xlix. p. (23).--and Joel ii. 16-32-see p. (57). 26 hairs. I said, I would scatter them into corners, I

HEAVENLY THINGS. would make the remembrance of them to cease from

Is. Ixiv. 4 see p. (55).-! Co. ii. 9, 10. 27 among men: were it not that I feared the wrath of

9, But as it is

written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have the enemy, lest their adversaries should behave themselves strangely, and lest they should say, Our hand entered into the ne

entered into the heart of man, the things which God 28 is high, and the LORD hath not done all this. For

hath prepared for them that love him. 10, But God hath they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any

| revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit search

eth all things, yea, the deep things of God.--2 Ti. i. 10, 29 understanding in them. O that they were wise, that they understood this, that they would consider their

• But is now made manifest by the appearing of our

Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and 30 latter end! How should one chase a thousand, and

hath brought life and immortality to light through the two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had

gospel.'-Jno. xiv. 2, 3, § 87.-1 Th. iv. 16, .7. 16, 31 sold them, and the LORD had shut them up ? For

For their rock is not as our Rock, even our enemies them

the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout,

with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of 32 selves being judges. For their vine sis of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah: their grapes

God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: 17, then we 33 are grapes of gall, their clusters are bitter: their wine

which are alive and remain shall be caught up together is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.

with them in the cloudis, to meet the LORD in the air: 34 Is not this laid up in store with me, and sealed up

and so shall we ever be with the Lord.'-He. xi. 16, But 35 among my treasures? To me belongeth vengeance,

now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: and recompence; their foot shall slide in due time:

wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for the day of their calamity is at hand, and the things

for he hath prepared for them a city.'-Rev. xxi. 10-2736 that shall come upon them make haste. For the

see eh. xxi. p. (19).-Rev. xxii. 5, And there shall be no LORD shall judge his people, and repent himself for

night there; and they need no candle, neither light of his servants, when he seeth that their power is gone,

the sun ; for the Lord God giveth them light: and they 37 and there is none shut up, or left. And he shall say,

shall reign for ever and ever.' Where are their gods, their rock in whom they trusted, 13. NO MAN:-Pr. XXX. 4, Who hath ascended up into 38 which did eat the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the heaven, or descended ? who hath gathered the wind in

wine of their drink offerings ? let them rise up and his fists? who hath bound the waters in a garment? who 39 help you, and be your protection. See now that I, hath established all the ends of the earth? what is his

even I, ain be, and there is no god with me: I kill, and name, and what is his son's name, if thou canst tell?' I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there

BUT AR THAT CAME DOWN FROM HEAVEN. 40 any that can deliver out of my hand. For I lift up see. Scripture Illustrations,' page opposite. 41 my hand to heaven, and say, I live for ever. I

the Lord from heaven:-1 Co. xv. 47, The first man is whet my glittering sword, and mine hand take hold on of the

of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from judgment; I will render vengeance to mine enemies, heaven. 42 and will reward them that hate me. I will make mine when the fulness, &c. :-Ga. iv. 4, But when the fulness arrows drunk with blood, and my sword shall devour

of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a flesh; and that with the blood of the slain and of the woman, made under the law.' captives, from the beginning of revenges upon the

descended :-Ep. iv. 8—10. 43 enemy. (Rejoice, o ye nations, with his people : for he will avenge the blood of his servants, and will ren

14. As MOSES LIFTED UP THE SERPENT :-Nu. xxi. 7-9. der vengeance to his adversaries, and will be merciful

7, Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, We unto his land, and to his people.

bave sinned, for we have spoken against the LORD, and 44 And Moses came and spake all the words of this against hee: Pray mo

against thee; pray unto the LORD, that he take away the song in the ears of the people, he, and k Hoshea the son

serpents from us. And Moses prayed for the people. 45 of Nun. And Moses made an end of speaking all these

8, And the LORD said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery ser46 words to all Israel: and he said unto them, Set your

pent, and set it upon a pole : and it shall come to pass, hearts unto all the words which I testify among you

that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, this day, which ye shall command your children to

shall live 9, And Moses made a serpent of brass, and 47 observe to do, all the words of this law. For it is not

put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent a vain thing for you; because it is your life: and

had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, through this thing ye shall prolong your days in the

he lived.' 48 land, whither ye go over Jordan to possess it. And

this si un abrused, ... Hezekiah destroyed it :-2 Ki. xviii. the LORD spake unto Moses that selfsame day, saying,

| 4, He removed the high places, and brake the images, 49 Get thee up into this mountain Abarim, unto mount

and cut down the groves, and brake in pieces the brasen Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, that is over against

serpent that Moses had made: for unto those days the Jericho; and behold the land of Canaan, which I give

children of Israel did burn incense to it and he called it 50 unto the children of Israel for a possession: and die

Nehushtan.'-[MARO.:-that is, a piece of brass.) in the mount whither thou goest up, and be gathered

Jesus again referred to his being lifted upJ no. viii. unto thy people; as Aaron thy brother died in mount

28, § 55 ; xii. 32.4, $ 82. 51 Hor, and was gathered unto his people because ye

cursed is every one that, fc.:-Ga. iii. 13, Christ hath trespassed against me among the children of Israel at

redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a the waters of Meribah-Kadesh, in the wilderness of

curse for us for it is written, Cursed is every one that Zin; because ye sanctified me not in the midst of the

hangeth on a tree.'-2 Co. v. 21, . For he hath made him 52 children of Israel. Yet thou shalt see the land before

to be sin for us, who knew no sin ; that we might be made thee; but thou shalt not go thither unto the land

the righteousness of God in him.' which I give the children of Israel.


thus Abraham :-Ge. xv. 6, And he believed in the

LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness.' so had they been forearned :-Is. i. 2, Hear, O hea- | Rom. iv. vens, and give ear, ) earth: for the Lord hath spoken, thus all the ends of the earth are invited I have nourished and brought up children, and they

Is. xlv. 22.

. Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the have rebelled against me.'-liii. 1. Who hath believed earth: for I am God, and there is none else.' our report? and to whom is the arm of the LORD re- they shall look, . vealed?'- xlviii. 8. Yea, thou heardest not; yea, thou upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of

Zec. xii. 10, And I will pour knewest not; yea, from that time that thine ear was Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and not opened: for I knew that thou wouldest deal very they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and treacherously, and wast called a transgressor from the they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only womb.'-lxv. 2, I have spread out my hands all the son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in day unto a rebellious people, which walketh in a way bitterness for his first born.' that was not good, after their own thoughts.'-lxvi. 4, 1

[Continued see next page.] a Or, hath consumed. Heb. burning coals. e Heb. from the chambers. Our high hand, and not the Lord, hath done all this.

d Heb. bereave.

s Or, is worse than the vine of Socloin, Heb. an hiding for you.

e. & Heb. hand. Or, Praise his people, ye nations : or, Sing ye. k Or, Joshua.

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John iii. 12 .5 12 have-seen; and ye-receive not our witness. If I-have-told you earthly-things, ta eniyela

and ye-believe not, how shall-ye-believe, if I tell you of heavenly-things? Ta erovpava. 13 And no-man hath-ascended-up to heaven, but he that-came-down from heaven, even the 14 Son of man which is in heaven. And as Moses lifted-up woe the serpent in the 15 wilderness, even-so must the Son of man be-lifted-up vwOnvar: that whosoever be.

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 11. receive not our witness-s0 had they been fore- but he that came down from heaven-'the bread of warned- none to answer,' Is. 1. 2—who hath be- God is he which cometh down from heaven,' &c., Jno. lieved our report?' liii. 1-yea, thou heardest not,' vi. 33, .8, 51, § 43— where he was before,' ver. 62. & ib. xlviii. & a rebellious people,' lxv. 2—'when I called, - from above,' viii. 23, $ 55' from God,' ver. 42, ib.; none did answer; when I spake, they did not hear, xiii. 3, § 87—came forth from the Father,' xvi. 38, lsvi. 4-So Jesus afterward testified, Ye will not Sib- with thee before the world was,' xvii. 5. & ib. come to me,' &c., Jno. v. 40,.3, S 23 Ye would not,' 'the Lord from heaven,'1 Co. xv. 47-when the Mt. xxiii. 37, 8 86.

fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his 12. earthly things--things which are to take place Son,' &c., Ga. iv. descended,' Ep. iv. 8-10. upon earth, in preparation for the heavenly glory, 14. as Moses lifted up the serpent-described, Nu. which shall come to the people as waiting for the xxi. 7-9-this sign abused, like that of the cross King-see as before, Eze. xxxvi. 2538_comp. with among many professing Christians - Hezekiah deIs. xxx. 18_25; xlix. 18—23; and Joel ii. 1632. stroyed it, 2 Kí. xviii. 4-Jesus again referred to his heavenly things-neither hath the eye seen, O

being lifted up, Jno. viii. 28, $ 55; xii. 32-4, § 82God. beside thee. what he hath prepared for him l'cursed is every one that,' &e.. Ga. iii. 13-made that waiteth for him.' Is. lxiv. 1_but God hath him to be sin for us, who,' &c., 2 Co. v. 21. revealed them unto us by his Spirit,' I Co. ii. 9, 10_1 15. whosoever believeth-thus Abraham, Ge. xv. 6; our Saviour Jesus Christ ... hath brought life and,' Rom. iv.--thus all the ends of the earth are invited, &c., 2 Ti. i. 10I go to prepare a place for you, I Is. xlv. 22- they shall look,' &c., Zec. xii. 10—'he will come,' &c., Jno. xiv, 2, 3, § 87 ' we shall be that believeth on the Son,' &c., Jno. iii. 36, S 13 caught up together,' &c., I Th. iv. 16, .7'he hath though he were dead, yet,' &c., xi. 25, S 58-justified prepared for them a city,' He. xi. 16—that great from all things,' Ac. xiii. 39— believe in thine heart city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven that God hath, &c., Rom. x. 9–am persuaded that from God,' Rev. xxi. 10-27-'they shall reign for he is able to keep,' &c., 2 Ti. i. 12. ever and ever,' Rev. xxii. 5.

eternal lifeI give unto them eternal life,' Jno. X. 13. no man who hath ascended up into heaven ?' 28-30, $ 56 and this is life eternal, that,' &c., xvii. Pr. xxx. 4see also Jno. i. 18, $ 7: vi. 46, § 43—Jesus 2. 3. & 87_this is the record, that God hath given to saith unto him, I am the way, & the truth, & the life: us eternal life, and this life is in his Son,' &c., 1 Jno. Do man cometh unto the Father,'&e., Jno. xiv. 6, § 87. I v. ll.

NOTES. Our witness. Our testimony. The evidence which in the wilderness. Near the land of Edom. In the is furnished by miracle, and the saving power of the desert and desolate country to the south of mount

Hor, Nu. xxi. 4. 12. If I have told you earthly things, fc. "If I have

Even so. He here refers donbtless to his deathtold you of that preparation which must be made

comp. Jno. viii. 28, $ 55; xii. 32, 8 82. upon earth, as introductory to the possession of the earthly portion of the inheritance, and yet you be

The points of resemblance between his being lifted lieve not things so evident, how shall you believe if

up, and that of the brazen serpent, seem to be these: I tell you of the unseen things of heaven?'

Ist. In both cases, those who are to be benefited can

be aided in no other way. The bite of the serpent Heavenly things. The things belonging to the

was deadly; and there is no cure for sin in any other heavenly portion of the kingdom, to be enjoyed by

manner. 2nd. The mode of their being lifted up. the saints in resurrection glory.

The brazen serpent was set on a pole in the sight of 13. And no man hath ascended up to heaven. To the people. So Jesus was exalted from the earth; one alone, even the Son of man, belongs the know raised on a tree, or cross. 3rd. The design was similedge of these heavenly things. He alone knoweth, lar. The one was to save the life: the other the soul. and can declare the counsels of God.

The one to save from temporal, the other from eter(The expression must be taken figuratively to de- nal death. 4th. The manner of the cure was siminote the investigation of hidden things, for which lar. The people of Israel were to look on the serpent, Christ, who came down from heaven, was peculiarly and be healed. And so sinners are to look, or believe, qualified. The phrase αναβαίνειν εις τον ουρανόν is here on the Lord Jesus, that they may be saved. used agreeably to the language commonly employed of one who announced any rerelation; 9. d. that he

Must. It is proper, necessary, indispensable, if men had ascended into heaven, and fetched his knowledge

are to be saved.-Comp. Lu xxii. 42, $ 88; xxiv. 26, $ 94. from thence. No one knoweth the counsels of God, The Son of man. The Messiah. but he who came down from God.' De. xxx. 11. .2.

15. Here consider-Ist. The universality of the incomp. with Rom. x. 6. Christ, then, who literally

vitation, whosoever ;'all need, and all may have salwas in heaven, is figuratively said to have ascended

vation.-2nd. The medium of salvation, faith ;'.whothither, because, being in the bosom of his father,

soever believeth.'-3rd. The object of faith, in whom he had the fulness of knowledge in heavenly things.]

is salvation, Jesus Christ the Son of God, as made sin 14. And as Moses. Jesus proceeds in this and the for us, that we might be made the righteousness of following verses to state the reason why he came | God in him ;'whosoever believeth in him.'-4th. The into the world, and illustrates his design by a re- danger of neglecting this great salvation: there is no ference to the case recorded in Nu. xxi. 8, 9. The other way of escape from perdition; 'should not people were bitten by flying, flery serpents. There perish,' -5th. That which is to be obtained through was no cure for the bite. Moses was directed to make faith in the Saviour, life;' it is the joy of the Holy an image of the serpent, and place it in sight of the Ghost now; it is eternal life,' Jno. iv. 14, § 13. It is people, that they might look on it and be healed. an ever-blessed abiding in the presence of God,

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. ri ver. He who hath Jesns for his teacher hath a they are connected with still more wondrous things teacher unlike many masters of Israel, who know not in the heavens. the things, nor the evidence of the things which they (13 ver. That we be born again, it is necessary to teach. He has a full knowledge of what he teaches;

see Jesus, as God, who both came down from heaven, he testifies not by hearsay, but of what he hath

and who yet was in heaven, at the same time that he seen.)

was the Son of man talking with Nicodemus upon The disciples of Jesus should, like their Master, earth.) speak according to their knowledge, having for them

14 ver. As it was in the wilderness that the lifting selves full evidence of what they call upon others to

up of the serpent took place, for the healing of the believe.

people who would otherwise have perished, so it is in 12 ver. The change which Jesus had declared to the wilderness of this world now that the Son of Nicodemus, and the kingdom for which it is ap- man must be lifted up; that by him, through faith, pointed a preparation, take place upon earth: but the people may receive healing





John iii. 164.9. 16 lieveth in him should not.-perish, but have eternal life. For God so loved the world,

that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should-not17 perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent arcoteldev not his Son into the world 18 to condemn the world; but that the world through him might-be-saved. He that

believeth on him is-not-condemned: but he that believeth not is-condemned already, 19 because he-bath-not.-believed in the name of-the only-begotten Son of God. And this is the condemnation, that light is-come into the world, and men loved darkness rather

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 16. so loved_God commendeth his love toward 18. he that believeth is not condemned that beus,'&c., Rom. v. & great love,' Ep. ij. 4,5 hereby lieving, ye might have life through his name,' Jno. perceive we the love of God,' I Jno. iii. 16 herein is | xx. 31, $ 100% being justified by faith,' &c., Rom. v. love, not that we loved God,'&c., iv. 10—see ver. 7-21. 11-no condemnation to them,' &c., viii. 1-' he that he gave his only begotten Son his well-beloved,

hath the Son hath life,' &e., 1 Jno. v. 12. he sent him,' Mk, xii. 6, § 84% spared not his own believeth not-death to unbelieving Israel in the Son,' Rom. viii. 32.

| wilderness, Nu. xxxii. 11-a warning to those that

should come after, Ps. xcv. 7-11-comp. with He. sh. nol perish the wages of sin,' &c., Rom. vi. 23.

iii. 7-12; iv. 5-11 how shall we escape,' &c, 17. sent not lo condemn-*is come to save that He. ii. 3. which was lost,' Mt. xviii. 11, $ 53—' not to destroy 19. light is come into the world 'in him was life; men's lives, but to save,' Lu. ix. 56. & 59 came not

and the life was,' &c., Jno. i. 4, 87_ he that folto judge the world, but to save,' Jno. xii. 47. S 85 loweth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall but he will come to judge, Mt. xxv. 31-46, $ 86. have the light of life,' viii. 12, $ 55.

but that the world - as 'before, on ver. 15-the men loved darkness_say to the seers, See not,' Is. Christ, the Saviour of the world,' Jno. iv. 42, S 13; xxx. 10 did not like to retain God in their know1 Jno. iv. 14–the propitiation ... for the sins of the ledge,' Rom. i. 28- received not the love of the whole world,' ii. 2 for us all,' Rom. viii. 32-died truth, that,' &c., 2 Th. ii. 9, 10% if we say that we for all ... reconciling the world unto himself,' 2 Co. have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we v. 14, .5.9% will have all men,' &c., I Ti. ii. 3-6. lie,' &c., 1 Jno. i. 5—8.

NOTES. 16. For God so loved. This does not mean that He is condemned already. So certain is his deGod approred the conduct of men, but was desirous struction. He is condemned by law, and in the of their happiness. A parent may love his child, and judgment of God; and not unfrequently he is condesire his welfare, and yet be strongly opposed to the demned even of his own conscience. conduct of that child.

Because he hath not believed. All men are by naThe world. All mankind, the race, who had re-ture condemned. There is but one way of being free belled, and deserved to die, Jno. vi. 33, $ 43; xvii. & 98. from this state; and that is by believing on Jesus.

That he gave. It was a free gift, unmerited. Man Those to whom the gospel comes greatly heighten had no claim; and when there was no eye to pity, or

their guilt and condemnation by rejecting the offers arm to save, it pleased God to give his Son into the

of mercy, and trampling under foot the blood of the hands of man to die in their stead, Ga. i. 4; Rom.

Son of God, Mt. xi. 23, & 29; Lu. xii. 47, S 63; He. X. viii. 32; Lu. xxii. 19, § 87.

29; Pr. i. 2430. His only begotten Son. This is the highest expres 19. This is the condemnation, that light, &c. It is sion of love of which we can conceive. A parent who here intimated that unbelief is not a speculative should give up his only son to die-if this could, or mistake, into which any honest mind may be led, might, be done, would shew higher love than could but originates in the enmity of the heart to God. be manifested in any other way. From the 17-21 ver. This is the ground of the sinner's condemnationseems to be levelled against the Jewish notion, that that light is come into the world, but men refuse to Messiah would come for the benefit of the Jews only; receive the truth, though coming with the fullest nay, would rather destroy the Gentiles.

evidence, and spurii the gracious offer of salvation. 17. Not to condemn the world. Not to judge, or pro

In whom the god of this world hath blinded the

minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the nounce sentence on mankind. Man deserved condemnation; but God was willing that there should

| glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, be an offer of pardon, and the sentence of condemna

should shine unto them,' 2 Co. iv. 4.] tion was delayed; and God was willing to put forth | That light is come. Light often denotes instrucin mercy his arm of power, to rescue sinners from tion, teaching, doctrine, as that by which we see death. Though Jesus did not come then to condemn clearly the path of duty. All the instruction that mankind, yet the time is coming when he will return God gives us by conscience, reason, or revelation, to judge the quick and dead, Ac. xvii. 31; 2 Co. v. 10. may thus be called light. But this word is used

18. He that believeth. He that trusts to his merits peculiarly to denote the Messiah, or the Christ, who and promises for salvation. To believe on him, is to

is often spoken of as the light-see Is. ix. 2; lx. 1go as lost sinners, and, relying on him, look to him

comp. Mt. iv. 16, § 16; also Note on Jno. i. 4, § 7, only for salvation.

p. 46. It was doubtless this light to which Jesus here Is not condemned. Because believing on him, we

makes particular reference.] are pardoned and delivered from deserved punish Men loved darkness. Darkness is the emblem of ment. Jesus died in our stead. And by his suffer- iniquity, error, superstition : whatever is opposite to ings God is satisfied, and our sins are expiated. truth and piety. Men are said to love darkness more • There is therefore now no condemnation to them than they do light, when they are better pleased with which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the error than truth; with sin than holiness; with Belial flesh, but after the Spirit,' Rom. viii. l.

than Christ.

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. (16 ver. Regeneration is of the free love of God teaching us to deal with men, not according to the the Father, who gave the dearest object he had, severity of justice, but according to the law of the

his only begotten Son,' that men might not have kingdom, which is LOVE. the reward of their own evil doings, but the re- 18 ver. Jesus gave the clearest evidence of his compense of His perfect work in their behalf-have being the truth itself, and was the purest exemplifithe Spirit given them, which is life-life eternal.'

cation of LOVE; and his mission was abundantly Salvation is free to all who will have it, as confiding attested of God: those therefore who reject him, in Him who is God-man, given of the Father, lifted

condemn themselves in so doing.--He that refuses to up for our redemption, that we might be regenerated

be saved through the merits of Jesus Christ, maast through the power of his Spirit.]

remain in condemnation. 17 ver. The mission of Jesus had not as its object 19 ver. Condemnation is aggravated by the abuse that which might have been expected, the condemn- of privilege.--The great cause of anbelief is the love ing of the world, but the enduring the curse of the of that which the principles of the gospel condemn,

law, that the world through him might be saved ; 1 viz., the love of this world and its riches. 86]



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