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(G. 22, No. 18. See line from Capernaum going Northward, Westward, Southward,

Eastward, and to the North of the Lake of Galilee.
MATT. iv. 23-5.

MARK i. 356.9.

LUKE iv. 42—4. [Ch. iv. 22, & xvi. p. 109.] 35 And in-the-morning,

a pwi rising-up a-great-while
before-day evvuxov Alav,

6 And when-it-was day, 42
che-went-out, and departed he-departed and-went
into a-solitary place,

into a-desert place:
and-there prayed.
36 And Simon and they that were with him followed-
37 after him. And when-they-had-found him, they-said
38 unto-him, All men seek-for thee. And he said unto-

them, Let-us-go into the next towns, that I-may-preach
there-also: for therefore came-I-forth.

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. Mk. i. 35. morning-Jesus was an early riser-see in a solitary place also was his last severe wrestling Jno. viii. 2. & 55; Lu. xxi. 38, § 86—and so he would with the Father, in the garden, immediately before have his disciples to be, vi. 13, § 27-the women were his apprehension, Mt. xxvi. 36-45, 888_see direction early at the sepulchre, xxiv. 1, $ 93—in the morning to his disciples regarding prayer, vi. 6, p. 131. the pentecostal anointing was given: 'and when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with

prayedmy voice shalt thou hear in the morning, one accord in one place,' &c. ii. 1; 'for these are not

O Lord; in the morning will I direct my prayer unto

thee, and will look up,' Ps. v. 3-see the prayer which drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third

Jesus taught his disciples, Mt. vi. 9_13, § 19 his inhour of the day,' ver. 15and by Divine command

tercessory prayer for his disciples, Jno. xvii. S 87the apostles entered into the temple early in the

in the garden, Lu. xxii. 406.6, 88upon the cross, morning and taught: but the angel of the Lord by

Lu. xxiii. 34, § 91; Ps. xxii.-see p. (76)-earnest night opened the prison doors, and brought them

continuous prayer becomes the followers of Jesus: forth, and said, Go, stand and speak in the temple to

praying always with all prayer and supplication in the people all the words of this life. And when they

the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseheard that, they entered into the temple early in the morning, and taught,' Ac. v. 1921.

verance and supplication for all saints,' Ep. vi. 18. solitary place-.... So Jacob: "and Jacob was 38. therefore came I forth- but thou, Bethlehein left alone; and there wrestled a man with him,' Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands Ge. xxxii. 24-30-see p. (105); Ho. xii. 3—5—- see of Judah, yet out of thee shali he come forth unto D. (27). second column, second paragraph in the me that is to be Ruler in Israel, whose goings forth wilderness. Jesus wrestled with the enemy, Mk. i. have been from of old, from everlasting.' Mi. v. 2- I 12..3. & 9. p. 63—and he withdrew himself into the came forth from the Father, and am come into the wilderness, and prayed,' Lu, v. 16, 821-immediately world : again, I leave the world, and go to the Father.' before sending forth the twelve, Lu. vi. 12, § 27-and Jno. xvi. 28, § 87.

NOTES. Mk. i 35-.7. And in the morning, rising up a is, in effect, no discrepancy; since the two circumgreat while before day. Luke says, ch. iv. 42, when it stances may both have taken place. First, it should was day.' The passage in Mark is, in the original, seem, his disciples “hunted him out," as karadintay not literally a great while before day, but very early, literally means, and said what is recorded in Mark: or while there was yet much appearance of night. and then the multitudes, coming up, said what is The place in Luke means at daybreak, at the be- recorded in Luke.'-Bloomfield.] ginning of day. Then also there is much appear 37. All men seek for thee. The inquiry after him ance of night; and Luke and Mark, therefore, refer

was general. They told him this evidently with a to the same time-before it was fully light, or just at

view to induce him to leave his place of retirement, daybreak. It was customary with the Jews to resort

and to prevail upon him to appear publicly, to inearly in the morning to prayers, and our Lord has

struct the multitudes. Many wished to be instructed, left us an example that, before entering upon any

and others to be healed by him. undertaking, we should ask God's counsel and bless

38. Towns. The word here rendered towns, denotes ing. The object of this prayer it is reasonable to presume was preparation for the circuit of Galilee. places in size between cities and villages, or large

places, but without walls. - See ADDENDA, Jesus' [36. And Simon and they that were with him.

nim: first general circuit of Galilee,' p. 118, third paragraph. Katadiway. This word not only signifies persequi, but insequi-see Ho. ii. 7. "And she shall follow aster

That I may preach, c. This was part of his her lovers, but she shall not overtake them : and she office for which he came into the world: to proclaim shall seek them, but shall not find them then shall the mercy of God, and direct men in the way of ever. she say, I will go and return to my first husband; for lasting life. then was it belier with me than now.” It here implies 1 For therefore came I forth. That is, came forth the ardent desire which Simon had for finding and from God, or was sent by God. Luke says, ch. iv. 43, accompanying his Master. In the passage of Luke'for therefore am I sent.' Making known God's mercy this is ascribed to ol 82ou: “the people." Yet there was his business, to which his miracles gave witness.

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. Mk. i. 35. Let us be followers of Jesus: he went out to join in the public worship of God, and reading of as soon as it was day, and had been up a great his word, but to seek, in solitude also, communion while before the sun, even although the preceding with our heavenly Father. day had been one of constant occupation, in his Those especially who are much outwardly engreat work of delivering men, from both their spiri- l gaged in the work of God, as had been Jesus, have tual and bodily ills.

need to follow his example, as to secret prayer, that,

having done all, they may stand: receiving from Let us learn from the example of Jesus, not only God, and giving to men, should go hand in hand.]

* See ADDENDA, p. 118.


Matt. iv. 23.
MARK i. 39

LUKE iv. 42-4.
d and the people sought him, and came unto
him, and stayed Kateixov him, that-he-should..
not.-depart from them. And he said unto 43
them, I must preach the kingdom of God to-

other cities also: for therefore am-I-sent. 23 And Jesus went-about all Galilee, teaching

And he-preached

And he-preached in their synagogues,

in their synagogues,

in the synagogues throughout all Galilee,

of Galilee.
and preaching the gospel

[Ch. v. 1, & xx. p. 153.]
of the kingdom, and healing all-manner-of
sickness macav vogov and all-manner-of
disease agav Maluktav among the people.s

Sand cast-out devils.6
[For Mark i. 40, 8 xxi. p. 159.]

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. Luv. 43. therefore am I sent he is the Shiloh, or people: and I will dwell in the midst of thee, and thou Sent of the Father, the Apostle of our profession, (He. I shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto iii. 1.) the Messenger of the Covenant, (Mal. iii. 1,) the thee,' Zec. ii. 11- the word which God sent unto the Seni. Jno. viii. 42, 8 55-to bring unto us peace, he was children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ : given of the Father and sent into the world: The (he is Lord of all). Ac. X. 36-30 Jesus sent forth the sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver apostles, Mt. x. 5, 6, &e., $ 39' in this was manifrom between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto fested the love of God toward us, because that God him shall the gathering of the people be,' Ge. xlix. 10 sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we -which gathering is through the power of the gift might live through him,' I Jno. iv, 9 Jesns said unto of Christ' 'but unto every one of us is given grace his disciples, 'Peace be unto you: as my Father hath according to the measure of the gift of Christ,' Ep. iv. sent me, even so send I you,''Jno. IX. 21, $ 95. 7; and he gave some, apostles, and some, prophets;

Mt. iv. 23. teaching - see 'custom,' Sect. xv. p. 102. and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers: for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of preaching the gospel of the kingdom-see Scripture the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: Ilustrations,' Mk. 1. 14, $ 16, p. 108. till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the

healing -- usually accompanied the preaching of knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, I unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of

| Jesus, and of his apostles-see $ 17, p. 112; Lu. v. 15, Christ,' ver. 11.3; from whom the whole body

821; vi. 17-49, $ 27; vii. 19-23, & 29 see his second

general circuit, $ 30—his third, $ 3-the apostles' fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual work

mission, $ 39—preceded the feeding of the 5000, Lu.

ix. 11, $ 40—the mission of the seventy, Lu. 1. 1-24, ing in the measure of every part, makoth increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love,' ver. 169

$ 60—30 Philip at Samaria, Ac. viii. 5-7. ....... - say yo of him, whom the Father hath sanctified. I

-and Paul at Lystra, in Lycaonia, xiv. 7-10_God and serit into the world, Thou blasphemest; because

also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonI said, I am the Son of God ?' Jno. X. 36, § 56-he

ders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy

Ghost, according to his own will, He. ii. 4. said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel,' Mt. xv. 24, S 45 many nations shall Mk. i. 39. cast out devils-see an unclean spirit, be joined to the LORD in that day, and shall be my | Sect. xvii. p. 110.

NOTES. Mt. iv. 23. All Gulilee.-See ADDENDA, Jesus' first Preaching.--See Came preaching,' ch. iii. I, § 7, circuit of Galilee,' p. 118.

p. 50. Synagogues. Places where the Jews met to pray, and hear the reading of the Law and the Prophers. 1 The gospel of the kingdom. The good news respectThe heads of the synagogue desired such learned | ing the kingdom which he was about to set up; or and grave persons as happened to be there, to give the good news respecting the coming of the Messiah. a discourse to the people. The fame of Jesus' mira and the nature of his kingdom.-See Notes,' 'The be. cles obtained for him ready admission to preach.- ginning of the gospel,' $ 7, p. 49; and Scripture See ADDENDA, Synagogue,' Sect. IV. p. 106.

Illustrations,' Mk. 1. 14, $ 16, p. 108

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 35. Jesus knew the value of the morning hours- solicitations of friends, who would have detained he rose while the world was still he saw when the him in Capernaum.] light spread abroad from the east with fresh tokens

| From the example of Jesus, let us direct the attenof bis Father's presence, and joined with the univer

tion of others, as frequently as we have opportunity, sal creation in praising the everywhere present God.'

to the coming kingdom : by keeping this constantly If Jesus prayed in the morning, how much more in view, we shall bear the more cheerfully with the important is it for us, before the world gots possession evils of the present time, and become assimilated to of our thoughts-before Satan fills us with unholy those who through faith and patience inherit the feelings; when we rise fresh from beds of repose, promises. and while the world around us is still !'

Mt. iv. 23, Mk. i. 39. Jesus did not let one work . This will be found to be true, universally, that the prevent his doing another; he both taught in their pious feelings-the religious enjoyment through the synagogues, and proclaimed the gospel of the kine

dom in other places; and, at the same time, healed day, will be according to the state of the heart in the

all manner of sickness and disease, and cast out morning, and can therefore be measured by our faith

devils. He is our example, with regard to diligence fulness in early, secret prayer.'

in service, as well as watchfulness in prayer. [36.8 ver. Let us, with the disciples, follow after

r24..5 ver. Beside those that came to him from Jesus early to the place of retirement and prayer;

Ti Syria, there were many that came to him from all and, not contented with the good which has been

the quarters around, except from Samaria, the pordone, let us, with Jesus, contemplate the much that

tion of Ephraim-plainly intimating that this was remains to be accomplished, as to the making known

not yet the great gathering of the people unto Shiof his truth upon the earth.]

loh, when the adopted firstborn will be found in Lu. iv. 42, .3. As Jesus could not be driven from possession of the birthright, which can only be had The work which he came forth to do, so neither could in Christ- In him all the promises are Yea and he be drawn therefrom, into a corner, by the kindly | Amen.']


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Bal circuit of Galilee.__





Matt. iv. 24,.5.

MARK. 24 8 And his fame went throughout all Syria: and they brought unto

him all sick-people that-were-taken oveyourvous with divers dis-
eases and torments Basavors, and those-which-were-possessed-

with-devils, and those-which-were-lunatick, and those-that-had-the25 palsy; and he-healed them. And there-followed him great multi

tudes of people from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jeru-
salem, and from Judæa, and from beyond Jordan.


SCRIPT ORE ILLUSTRATIONS. Mt. iv. 24. those which were possessed with devils- - see the miracles of feeding multitudes, SS 40, .6 Christ and the apostles spoke to them, and of them, and as Jesus went up to the last passover, they trode as under the influence of evil spirits. They spake, one upon another,' Lu. xii. 1. 8 63—and when he had conversed, asked questions, gave answers, and ex-finished his sayings,'he departed from Galilee, and pressed their knowledge of Christ, and their fear of came into the coasts of Judæa beyond Jordan; and him ; things that certainly could not be said of dis-great multitudes followed him; and he healed them eases, Mt. viii. 2832, (Mk. v. 1-13, Lu. viii. 27–33,) there,' Mt. xix. 1, 2, S 71-and 'as he was come nigh $ 35. They are represented as going out of the per unto Jericho,' Lu. xviii. 35, .6. $ 78 - and having sons possessed, and entering other bodies, Mt. viii. passed through Jericho, Zaccheus.sought to see Jesus 32, ib. He threatened them, commanded them to ... and could not for the press,' Lu. xix. 3, 4, § 80 be silent, to depart, and not to return, Mk. i. 25, $ 17, - and when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city p. 111; 1.8, 35; ix. 25, $ 51. Christ says, he cast was moved,' Mt. xxi. 10,.1, 882—a few days after, this out devils by the Spirit of God, Mt. xii. 25—8, $ 31. same multitude cried out, Crucify him, Mk. Iv. 11, Those possessed are said to know Christ; to be ac .3, 4, 8 90 and as he hung on the cross, "they that quainted with the Son of God, Mk. i. 24, (Lu. iv. 34,] passed by railed on him,' ver. 29, 30, $ 91-'Let him $ 17, p. 110: this could not be said of diseases.-See save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God,' unclean spirit,' Sect. xvii. p. 110, ver. 23.

Lu. xxiii. 35, $ib.- When he comes again it will be those that had the palsy-one carried by four, and

with multitudes of angels, as he said: The Son of

man shall come in the glory of his Father with his let down to Jesus, Mk. ii. 3, 4, (Lu. v. 18, 9,] $ 22.

angels; and then he shall reward every man accord25. great multitudes-at the conclusion of this circuit, ing to his works,' Mt. xvi. 27, § 50-'whosoever seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain, therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in Mt. v. 1, $ 19, p. 120-having ended his sermon on the

this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also mount, it came to pass, that, as the people pressed shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the

in the glory of his father with the holy angels, lake of Gennesaret,' Lu. v. 1, $ 20—when withdrawn

Mk. viii. 38, sib.-'when the Lord Jesus shall be from the malice of the Pharisees, great multitudes revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in followed him, and he healed them all,' Mt. xii. 15, flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know & 26-after the ordination of the twelve apostles, 'henot God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord came down with them, and stood in the plain, and

Jesus Christ,' 2 Th. i. 7, 8. ... a great multitude ... came to hear him, and to be healed, Lu. vi. 17-9, $ 27-30 on his second circuit of

Galilee-N.W. part of the land, wherein his disciGalilee the multitude cometh together again, so that

I ples were mostly gathered:' and they were all amazed they could not so much as eat bread,' Mk. iii. 20, $ 30

and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are as he went to raise Jairus' daughter, 'much people fol

not all these which speak Galilæans?' Ac. ii. 7. lowed him, and thronged him,' Mk. v. 24, S 36 and Decapolis-N.E., referred to, Mk. v. 20, $ 35-and on his third circuit of Galilee, Mt. ix. 35, -6, 8$ 38, .91 vii. 31, § 46.


NOTES 24. Fame. Sometimes signifies common talk, public spirits are called demons, of which there are multireport, Gen. xlv. 16, . And the fame thereof was heard tudes, Mk. v. 9. & 35, ' And he asked him, What is thy in Pharaoh's house, saying. Joseph's brethren are name? And he answered, saying, My name is Lecome: and it pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants ;'gion : for we are many ;' but there is but one devil. but ordinarily it means a wide-spread report of one's supreme or head over the rest.-Clarke.] excellency and glorious deeds, Zep. iii. 19, Behold, at that time I will undo all that afflict thee: and I Those that were lunatic. Literally, 'moon-struck.' will save her that halteth, and gather her that was but fig. denoting 'epileptic persons; ' so called from driven out; and I will get them praise and fame in the common notion that the disorder was aggravated every land where they have been put to shame.'

by, and returned upon them with the increasing

moon. It is mentioned only in this place, and in And his fame went throughout all Syria. It is

Mt. xvii. 15, $ 51. not easy to fix the exact bounds of Syria in the time of our Saviour, of which the country of the And those that had the palsy. Many infirmities Jews and the Samaritans was but a very small part. were included under this general name of palsy, in It was, perhaps, the general name for the country

the New Testament. Ist. The apoplexy, or para. Jying between the Euphrates on the east, and the lytic shock, affecting the whole body. 2nd. The Mediterranean on the west, and between mount

hemiplegy, affecting only one side of the body; the Taurus on the north, and Arabia on the south-but most frequent form of the disease. 3rd. The paramore properly referred to the region N.E. of Pales

S- plegy, affecting all the system below the neck. 4th. tine. See GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICES, Syria,' p. 117. The catalepsy. This is caused by a contraction of

Possessed with devils. Persons possessed by evil the muscles in the whole or a part of the body, and spirits. It is evident from Scripture, and the writ

is very dangerous. The effects are very violent and ings of primitive Christians, that evil spirits, devils,

fatal. For instance, if, when a person is struck, he or some of those angels who kept not their first estate,

happens to have his hand extended, he is unable and which are called by the collective name Salan,

to draw it back; if not extended, he is unable to and Araßbog the Devil, were permitted about the

stretch it out. It appears diminished in size, and time of our Saviour's appearance in the world to

dried up in appearance. Hence it was called the possess, and in various and dreadful manners to

withered hand, Mt. xii. 104.3, & 25. 5th. The cramp. torment, the bodies of men, by which their malice

This, in eastern countries, is a fearful malady, and to mankind was manifestly displayed, as well as our

by no means unfrequent. It originates from chills Saviour's Divine power and benevolence demon

in the night. The límbs, when seized with it, remain strated in casting them out.'

unmovable, and the person afflicted with it resembles

one undergoing a torture. This was probably the (AalmoviSoukrovs, devils,' is not the strictly correct disease of the servant of the centurion, Mt. viii. 6, rendering. The word diabolos, devil,' is not found [Lu. vii. 2,0 S 28. Death sometimes follows from this in the plural in any part of the sacred writings; evil disease in a few days.

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DECAPOLIS, p. 116. DECAPOL19.-A country of Palestine, which was The other nine cities which constituted the Demainly in the half-tribe of Manasseh, so called from capolis are supposed to have been all on the eastern its containing ten cities; about the names of which side of the Jordan: they were Capitolias, Capatha, the learned are not agreed.

Abila, Hippos, Gadara, Pella, Dium, Gerasa, and Phi

ladelphia. The whole of these belonged to the king• The city of Bethshan, or Bethsean, Bysan, was in dom of Israel, prior to the captivity, but they were the N.E. corner of Samaria, on the borders of Galilee subsequently reckoned as belonging to Syria: the and Peræa, and close to the river Jordan : to this Romans included them in their province of Cæleplace the Philistines brought the body of Saul after Syria, and though they gave Herod some of them, the battle in Gilboa, and fastened it to a wall. It was yet, upon his death, they were withheld from his afterwards called Scythopolis, from the Scythians, heirs. A few miles to the south of Scythopolis was who, during the time of the Medes, overran all Asia, Bezec, where the men of Judah defeated the Caand advanced as far as the limits of Egypt. It be- naanites with great slaughter, Ju. i. 4, and where came subsequently a very flourishing place, being also Saul mustered his army prior to giving the Amthe metropolis of the Decapolis, or those ten cities, monites a signal overthrow, I Sa. xi. &. To the eastwhich were chiefly inhabited by Syrians, and united ward of this stood Ænon, near to Salim, where John themselves in a league to resist the oppressions of baptized after he quitted Bethabara,' Jno. iii. 2244, the Maccabees.

1$ 13, p. 89.--Arrowsmith's Ancient and Modern Geog.

SYRIA. SYRIA, or Sham, as it is called by the natives, was able figure, and terribly harassed Abaz and his subbounded on the west by the Mediterranean; on the jects, and even took Élath, on the Red Sea. But north by mount Amanus, and by mount Taurus; on Tiglath-pileser, instigated by Ahaz, ravaged their the east by the river Euphrates, and the desert of country, demolished their cities, and carried the Palmyra ; and on the south by the river Arnon, the inhabitants to Media. During the decline of the Dead Sea, and the torrent of Egypt. To the north Assyrian empire, the Syrians returned, and recoverit touched upon Asia Minor, to the east on Mesopo ed themselves not a little; but Nebuchadnezzar tamia, and to the south on Arabia and Egypt: it again reduced them. In the end of the 11th century, contained 55,800 square miles, and was divided into the Seljukian Turks seized on it, and erected one of the three great divisions of Syria Superior, or Syria their four sultanies at Aleppo, and another at Daproperly so called; Phænice; Palestina, or Judæa. mascus. Soon after, the European croisaders took Syria is also called Assyria, as forming part of that the most of it, and after terrible struggling were, great empire, and the two names, though sufficiently about an hundred years after, driven out of it, by defined in geography, are often used indiscriminately Saladin, sultan of Egypt, and his successors. In the in history.

beginning of the sixteenth century it was seized by The name of Syria, which seems to have been the Ottoman Turks, who retain it to this day. We derived from Sora, or Tyre, does not appear to have know no place in it at present of note, except Aleppo been applied to the country until this city had arrived and Damascus. Its principal rarities are the ruins of at the pre-eminence it enjoyed, which was long after noted buildings, especially those of Tadnor and the time of Homer, who mentions neither the one Baalbek. A Christian church was early planted nor the other. The old Greeks called the inhabit-| here, and was famous at Antioch, and other places ants of Syria, Arminia, and Mesopotamia, Arimai, of the country: and there is still a shadow of Chrisor Arimi, a name derived from Aram, one of the tianity with not a few.- Ac. xv. 23, 41. 23, And they sons of shem, to whose lot these countries first fell wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles (except Phænice and Palestine, which came into the and elders and brethren send greeting unto the possession of Canaan); they seem, also, to have ex-brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and tended the appellation to the Leuco-Syri of Asia | Syria and Cilicia.' 41, And he went through Syria Minor. Syria, prior to Assyrian invasion, does not and Cilicia, confirming the churches.' appear to have been governed by one king; for be

The following are some of the prophecies concerning sides the Phenicians and the Israelites, who were a

Syria :people distinct from all others, there were also the

"Am. i, 3–5. 3, .Thus saith the LORD; For three kingdoms of Damascus, of Hamath, and probably transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not other dynasties in the northern part of the country.

turn away the punishment thereof; because they have From the hands of the Assyrians and Medes, the

threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron : whole of Syria fell under the Persian yoke, to which

4, but I will send a fire into the house of Hazael, it remained subject until wrested from it by Alex

which shall devour the palaces of Ben-hadad. 5, I ander the Great, after whose death, Seleucus Nica

will break also the bar of Damascus, and cut off the nor, one of his generals, received this province as

inhabitant from the plain of Aven, and him that part of his lot in the division of the Macedonian

holdeth the sceptre from the house of Eden: and the dominions : he raised it B.C. 312 to an empire, which

people of Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir, saith is known in history as the kingdom of Syria or

the LORD." Babylon. The Selucidæ, or successors of this prince, Am. iii. 12, Thus saith the LORD; As the shepgoverned the country for more than two hundred

herd taketh out of the mouth of the lion two legs, or years, during which they contested parts of it with

a piece of an ear; so shall the children of Israel be the Egyptians, the Parthians, and the Jews; the last

taken out that dwell in Samaria in the corner of a of their race was Antiochus Asiaticus, who was de

bed, and in Damascus in a couch.' throned by Pompey, B.C. 65; and from that time

Is. vii. 4, And say unto him, Take heed, and be Syria became a Roman province. The new conquer

quiet ; fear not, neither be fainthearted for the two ors allowed the ancient divisions of the country to

tails of these smoking firebrands, for the fierce anger remain, and kept possession of it until it was reduced

of Rezin with Syria, and of the son of Remaliah.'" by the Saracens, A.D. 610.'-Arrowsmith's Ancient

Is. viii. 4, 'For before the child shall have knowand Modern Geography, p. 497.

ledge to cry, My father, and my mother, the riches of Its excellent soil and agreeable rivers, the Eu-Damascus and the spoil of Samaria shall be taken phrates, Orontes, Cassimire, Adonis, Barrady, &c., away before the king of Assyria.' rendered it a most delightful country. It was an Is. ix. 11, .2. 11, "Therefore the LORD shall set up ciently divided into a variety of cantons, as Aram the adversaries of Rezin against him, and join his naharaim, Aram-zobah, Aram-maachah, Aram-re enemies together; 12, the Syrians before, and the hob, and Aram of Damascus. Zobah, Damascus, Philistines behind; and they shall devour Israel with Hamath, Geshur, &c., were its most noted states open mouth. For all this his anger is not turned about the time of David, who conquered it, 2 Sa. away, but his hand is stretched out still.' viii.-X. About sixty years after, Rezin, who had Is. xvii. 13. 1, The burden of Damascus. Befled from Haddadezer his master, erected a kingdom hold, Damascus is taken away from being a city, and at Damascus. He, and his successors, Benhadad it shall be a ruinous heap. 2, The cities of Aroer are and Hazael. did much mischief to the Hebrews, | forsaken: they shall be for flocks, which shall lie 1 Ki. xv., xx, xxii.; 2 Ki. vi., viii., X.; but Joash down, and none shall make them afraid. 3. The and Jeroboam, kings of Israel, sufficiently resented | fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingthese iniuries, and brought the Syrian kingdom to | dom from Damascus, and the remnant of Syria: the point of ruin, 2 Ki. xiii., xiv. They recovered they shall be as the glory of the children of Israel, themselves, and under Rezin they made a consider- saith the LORD of hosts.'

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GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICES (continued). JUDÆA, properly so called, was the south division the parts about and east of the sources of the Jorof the Holy Land. - See HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE dan.-See GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICE, Sect. x. p. 74; also LAND OF PROMISE, p. ix.

ADDENDA, Sect. vii. On the ministry of John the

Baptist,' p. 56, commencing at The scene of this FROM BEYOND JORDAN, p. 116.-Probably including ministry, &c.



ON JESUS' FIRST GENERAL CIRCUIT OF GALILEE,' p. 114. • The next morning ... Jesus retired early to a included; and their country, which was once adesolitary place, for the sake of private prayer, Mk. i. quate to the support of the two tribes, and one half, 35.9, (Lu. iv. 42–4]... With this time, then, that out of the twelve, would probably supply a million of is, with the morning of the first day of the week, an- souls additional. The population of all Palestine, swering to Sunday with us, and, probably, within then, both west and east of Jordan, would appear to seven days since the recurrence of the feast of Pente be, on this principle, not less than ten millions of cost, consequently on June 6, we must date the com souls. mencement of a circuit of Galilee; which evidently

The populousness of Judæa is a circumstance set out from Capernaum, and though it was confined

| often insisted on by profane writers, Diod. Sic. lib. xl. to Galilee, yet was general in that country, and on

Ecloga I., Operum X. 215-..9; Tac. Hist. v. 5; and all these accounts the first of its kind, and as com

there is little doubt that, in proportion to its size, it plete as any. The intention of making such a pro

was the most abundant in numbers of any country gress, in his departure from Capernaum itself, is im

within the Roman dominions; and Strabo tells us, plied by his answer to Simon, and the people, when that in his time, the small district of Jamnea and its they would have detained him, or prevailed upon him suburbs could bring into the field an army of 40,000 to return to that city: Let us go to the neighbouring

men, Lib. xvi. 2, § 28, 347, which implies a general Kwuotódous-(«wuas kaltóaus) towns or cities that I

population of at least 160,000.' - Ibid. Vol. IV., App. may preach there also ; for, for this purpose am I

Diss. xxiii. p. 491,..2. come forth, Mk. i. 38.... This circuit is also de

• We will assume that our Lord would visit only scribed by St. Matthew, iv. 23.5. St. Luke says, the work of the circuit was discharged in the syna

one half of the towns and villages; and, what is no gogues of Galilee; St. Mark, in their synagogues unto

extravagant supposition, that he would pass, upon an all Galilee; and St. Matthew, that it went round all

average, one day in each. We will assume also that, Galilee; and each of them, that it consisted in teach

for every week of the continuance of the progress, he

would necessarily be stationary somewhere during ing, and preaching, that is, proclaiming i and per

the four and twenty hours of the sabbatic rest. Even forming miracles....

upon this calculation, which every one will allow to "The expediency of undertaking such a progress, as į be moderate and reasonable, the duration of a circuit soon after the public commencement of the ministry

would never be less than three months, and probably in Galilee as possible, must be undeniable; ... and

never less than four. This, then, we may assume, in whatever length of time might have been occupied every instance of what is perceived to have been a by such circuit, the same, it may be supposed, would

general circuit, not otherwise limited, as the nearest | be taken up by another. . . . Every circuit, whether | approximation to the exact measure of its continu

in Galilee or elsewhere, undertaken in the course of ance. Consequently, the circuits which began about our Lord's ministry, having been undertaken for the the feast of Pentecost would be over about the feast benefit of the inhabitants... must be determined by of Tabernacles; of which fact we shall find incidental the number of places which he would visit, and the notices supplied, on more than one occasion, by the length of the stay which he would make in each....

gospel narrative itself. And it is a general argument It is not to be supposed that he would merely peram. in favour of its truth, first, that on this principle a bulate Galilee in a circle, and, consequently, pass circuit would commonly begin after wheat-harvest through such towns and villages only as lay on the

was over, and terminate when seed-time was ready to line of his route: the expression, repuñyev 32 n TI

arrive; the effect of which would be that the people radidalay, in reference to this circuit, must be under

in the interval would be enabled to attend upon our stood and interpreted, conformably with others, Saviour with the least inconvenience to themselves : Tepunyay o'lmous Tas 62 ans mágas kai tas kauas, Mt. ix. and, secondly, that it would coincide with the period 35, S 38_and, diwdove kardróuy kai kóuny, Lu. viii. 1, of the year when travelling could best be performed § 30, in reference to circuits subsequently under

to circuits subsequently under only in the morning and the evening of the day, and taken....

when resting throughout the day, so obviously neces

sary for the purpose of teaching, would not be more The number of towns and villages-bas kal

necessary for that purpose than expedient in itself. Kwuar-which Galilee contained is estimated by Jo

• The course of the present circuit, we may conjecsephus, Bell. Jud. iii. iii. 2, at 204, and the population of each, upon an average, at not less than 15,000

ture from St. Matthew, iv. 24,.5, was, upon the whole, souls.'-Greswell, Vol. II. Diss. xxiii. p. 289—92.

as follows-first, along the western side of the Jordan,

northward; which would disseminate the fame of JeMany of them, especially the cities, as we may

sus in Decapolis: secondly, along the confines of the presume, would contain much more. To assume,

tetrarchy of Philip, westward; which would make however, the average population of every town or him known throughout Syria: thirdly, by the coasts city as only 15,000-and to understand the specified of Tyre and Sidon, southward : and, lastly, along the number of such towns and villages as intended of verge of Samaria, and the western region of the lake both the Galilees; on these suppositions the popula- of Galilee-the nearest points to Judæa Proper, and tion of all Galilee amounted to 3,060,000 souls.

to Peræa-until it returned to Capernaum. In the

course of the progress, if he visited Bethsaida, he • The whole extent of Palestine from Dan to Beer might be joined by Philip, Jno. i. 44, § 10, p. 72; sheba, that is, from Beersheba to Cæsarea Philippi, is if he visited Cana, by Nathanael, xxi. 2, S 97; and if estimated by Reland, ii. cap. v. 423, at 156 Roman there was such a village as Iscarioth, Chrys. Oper. miles; of which 52 miles, or one third, at least, must 219; Theophyl. Comm. in Matt. 51, 160, by Judas Isbe assigned to the length of Galilee, Upper and Lower, cariot also. All our Lord's disciples were natives of in particular. And as the breadth of the country Galilee, and, probably, first became disciples in Gali(that is, of the habitable part of the country, on the lee. No incident, however, is expressly recorded as west of the Jordan,) was sufficiently uniform, if the having transpired on the circuit itself ; a circum. population of every part had been on an equal scale, stance by no means more peculiar to this first, than to the population of the whole in general would have any other of the number, except the last ; for these been three times the population of a third part in periods in our Lord's ministry, though in themselves particular. On this principle the whole population integral portions of its whole duration, and as full of of Palestine, west of the Jordan, must have been es-action and employment as any part of it. are invariatimated at 9,180,000 souls. In this number, however, bly the least related in detail of all.' Ibid. Vol. II. the inhabitants of Judæa, east of the Jordan, are not Diss, xxiii. pp. 292, ..3.




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