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MATT. v. 19–22. ments, and shall-teach men so, he-shall-be-called the least in the kingdom of heaven:

but whosoever shall-do and teach them, the-same shall-be-called great in the kingdom 20 of heaven. For I-say unto-you, That except your righteousness shall-exceed TEPEG

gevon #decov the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye-shall-in-no-case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

Ye-have-heard that it-was-said by-them of-old-time, Thou shalt-not-kill; and who22 soever shall-kill shall be in-danger of Evoxos the judgment: but I say unto-you, That

whosoever is-angry with his brother without-a-cause Elky shall-be in-danger of the judgment; and whosoever shall-say to his brother, Rack, shall-be in-danger of the

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 19. whosoever shall do and teach— They that be 21. thou shalt not kill - Whoso sheddeth man's wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; blood, by man shall his blood be shed,' Ge. ix. 5,6; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars | Ex. xx. 13– be that killeth any man shall surely be for ever and ever,' Da. xii. 3– Study to shew thyself put to death,' Le. xxiv. 17. approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth,' 2 Ti. ii. 22. angry without cause-Cain, Ge. iv. 1-3-Ja 15 following righteousness In meekness instruct-seph's brethren hated him, xxxvii. see p. (63) ing those that oppose,' ver. 22-6-In all things see the case of Miriam and Aaron, Nu xii.; Korah, shewing thyself a pattern of good works : in doctrine Dathan, &c., xvi.-Saul: And Saul was very wroth, shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity, sound and the saying displeased him; and he said, They speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil they have ascribed but thousands: and what can be thing to say of you,' Ti. ii. 7, 8.

have more but the kingdom? And Saul eyed David 20. except your righteousness shall erceed, &c.-50 I from that day and forward,' 1 Saxviii. 8, 9-the John warned the Pharisees and Sadducees, who les have

ho | Jews hated Jesus, Jno. X. 25, § 87-as having just had merely an outward formal righteousness, per

cause we may be angry; but the sun is not to go down formed as in the sight of man, Mt. iii. 7-10, S7--the

upon our wrath; and we are not to give place to the Pharisee and publican, Lu. xviii. 9_14, $ 73_no de- !

devil,' the suggester of dark suspicions and distrust,

5, p. (103). ceiver can enter the kingdom of heaven: And there | Ep. iv. 26, 7-be ye,' &c. comp. Ge. iii. shall in no wise enter into it anything that defileth. I'Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast.' neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh &c.- Ye are of your father, &c., Jno. viii. 14, § 55. a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book

Raca—such language may not be used unjustly, or of life,' Rev. xxi. 27and be found in him, not

without cause; it is used, but not without cause, having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, Ja. ii. 20. But wilt thou know, 0 vain man, that but that which is through the faith of Christ, the

faith without works is dead?' righteousness which is of God by faith,' Ph. iii. see also Rom. i. 16 .8 For I am not ashamed of the the council-see Na. xi. 16, And the LORD said gospel of Christ : for it is the power of God unto sal- unto Moses, Gather unto me seventy men of the vation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders and also to the Greek. For therein is the righteous of the people, and officers over them; and bring ness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is writ-them unto the tabernacle of the congregation, that ten. The just shall live by faith. For the wrath of they may stand there with thee'Jesus foretold that God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness the apostles should be delivered up to councils, Mt. and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in x. 17, § 39-sought to put Jesus to death, Mt. *xvi. unrighteousness.'

159, 89.

NOTES. 19. These least commandments. The Pharisees, it is be made to the council, the supreme court, or sanheprobable, divided the precepts of the law into lesser drim, composed of seventy-two elders.] and greater, teaching that they who violated the | 22. With his brother; i.e., with any one. With the former were guilty of a trivial offence only; distin

Jewish writers, a 'brother' is, Ben Berith, a son of guishing between what is called, by the corrupt the covenant; i.e., an Israelite. A neighbour' was Romish church, mortal and denial sins see Mt. xxiji.

a proselyte, in opposition to a heathen. In the 23, $ 85.

church, a brother is a Christian, Mt. xviii. 15, 17, Shall be called least. The farthest from attaining

$ 53; 1 Co. v. 11, But now I have written unto you heaven;' i.e., he shall not attain it at all.'- Bloom

not to keep company, if any man that is called a

brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or (20. The righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees.!

a railer, or a drunkard, or an ertortioner; with such They made no small part of the law void by their ! an one no not to eat. A neigubour is any one we traditions and divisions, Mt. xxiii. 23. & 85: xi. 3-9. I can assist, Lu. X. 2337, $ 60. § 44. Christ meant to say that he would not own for Shall be in danger of the judgment. Shall be liable his disciple the man who gave a relaxed view of the to a worse punishment from God. law, as did the scribes, ver. 20—the righteousness re Raca. (That is, without cause.) quired is that perfect righteousness which can only

This is a Syrine

word, expressive of great contempt. It comes from be found in Christ, TAE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS; I verh sionifsins to be emn by submitting to whom we are also made holy in

esi a verb signifying to be empty, vain; and hence, as a

word of contempt, denotes senseless, stupid, shallonheart and life.

brains. Jesus teaches us that to use such words un21. Thou shalt not kill. The Jews understood the I justly is a violation of the sixth commandmentlaw, Thou shalt not kill,' only of actual murder, [Danger of the council; i.e. of the sanhedrim.' and that committed by a man's own hand. But such whose business was to judge in the most important is the spirituality and extent of this commandment, affairs of the nation ; for instance, in all matters that whosoever indulges rash, wrathful, and causeless relative to religion, as when any person pretended to anger, or a malicious and revengeful temper, is, in be a prophet, or attempted to make innovations in God's account, guilty of murder in his heart, and the established worship. Possibly, this court always thereby exposed to his righteous judgment.

consisted of seventy-one members, in imitation of the (The judgment means an inferior court, consisting | elders appointed by Moses, but with very varying of twenty-three members; from it an appeal might powers.-See ADDENDA, The council,' p. 129.]

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 19 ver. We must be careful not only to avoid com- (20 ver. The Christian's righteousness must not be mitting great sins, but the least sins; and especially merely that which consists in an orthodox creed, of justifying ourselves therein before men, thus even when combined with a punctilious observance teaching them to act in opposition to our God. And of religious ordinances. It must be the righteouswe must be heedful not only to do the will of Godness which is of God by faith; faith in Christ, as the ourselves, but to communicate the knowledge thereof end of the law for righteousness, must be in the to others.-'Wouldest thou know if thou lovest God, I heart, working by love, so as to bring the soul and be frequent in exercises of love and charity.'

the life into a living conformity to the will of God.) 124)



MATT. v. 23.9. council: but whosoever shall-say, Thou-fool uwpe, shall be in-danger of hell fire eis 23 tnv yeevvav TOV Tupos. Therefore if thou-bring thy gift to the altar, and there remem24 berest that thy brother hath ought against thee; leave there thy gift before the altar,

and go-thy-way; first be-reconciled to thy brother, and then come and-offer thy gift. 25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou-art in the way with him ; lest-at-any

time the adversary deliver thee to-the judge, and the judge deliver thee to-the officer, 26 and thou-be-cast into prison. Verily I-say unto-thee, Thou-shalt-by-no-means.-come

out thence, till thou-hast-paid the uttermost farthing. 27 Ye-have-heard that it-was-said by-them of-old-time, Thou-shalt-'not.-commit-adul28 tery: but I say unto-you, That whosoever looketh-on a-woman to lust-after her hath29 committed-adultery-with her already in his heart. And if thy right eye offend thee,

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 22. thou fool-The fool hath said in his heart, There I pray thee, my blessing that is brought to thee: beis no God, Ps. xiv. 1-this word is used by our Lord cause God hath dealt graciously with me, and because himself, but not without cause,' as Mt. xxiii. 17, $ 85. I have enough. And he urged him, and he took it,'

Ixxxiii. 11_Seek ye the LORD while he may be found, 23. bring thy gift-And Samuel said, Hath the

Is. lv. 6, 7-see p. (55)– Kiss the Son, lest he be angry,' LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacri

Ps. ii. 12-see p. (7) To-day if ye will hear his voice, fices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold,

harden not your hearts,' &c., He. iii. 7-13....... to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than

- see the case of Balaam, Nu. xxii. 31, 2; xxxi. 8; the fat of rams, ' 1 Sa. xv. 22-God turned away from

Rev. ii. 14-see p. 123, ver. 19. the sacrifices of the Jews, as offered by hands stained with blood, Is. i. 11-5--see p. (62)--they were first, to

26. thou shall by no means come out, Sc.-the servdo jastice to those who had only God to plead for

ant who would not forgive his fellow servant, Mt. them, ver. 16, -7, ib. and then, he would be gracious xviii. 34. & 53. to them, ver. 18, ib.

27. thou shall not commit adultery-Ex. xx. 14

such to be put to death, Le. xx. 10-whoso commit24. be reconciled Laban warned of God to be re

teth adultery with a woman lacketh understanding : conciled to Jacob, Ge. xxxi. 249-Christians are to

he that doeth it destroyeth his own soul,' Pr. vi. 32be willing to suffer wrong: Now therefore there is

whoremongers and adulterers God will judge,' He. utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one

xiii. the adulteress 'forsaketh the guide of her with another. Why do ye not rather take wrong? why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be defraud

youth, & forgetteth the covenant of her God,'Pr. ii. 17. ed?' 1 Co. vi. 7-be ye all of one mind, having com 28. whosoever looketh, &c.-thus Shechein sinned. passion one of another,' I Pe. iii. 8-11.

Ge. xxxiv. 2-50 Potiphar's wife, xxxix. 7-80 David,

2 Sa. xi. 2_ Lust not after her beauty,' Pr. vi. 2525. agree with, c.-Jacob sought agreement with every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his his brother Esau, Ge. xxxii. 3—5—see p. (105) Take, own lust, and enticed,'Ja. i. 14, .5.

NOTES. 22. Thou fool. pwps. A term of the greatest abhor. Roman custom, an aggrieved person could compel rence, thou impious wretch,' folly and impiety | the party to go with him before the prætor, unless being equivalent with the Hebrews.- Bloom field. he agreed by the way to adjust the matter.

Hell-fre. yeevvar, the GEHENNAH of fire. The place 26. Furthing. Nodpávrny. A word formed from the referred to is supposed to have been a beautiful spot | Latin quadrus, which (from quatuor, four,) denotes at the foot of mount Moriah, lying partly within the a Roman coin, made of brass or lead, the fourth part mouth of Hinnom, and partly in the valley of Je- of an as, and equal in value to about three-fourths of hoshaphat, and irrigated by tho waters of Siloam. our farthing. There was a smaller coin than this in It was caded Tophet because of the sacrifices that use among the Jews.-See Mk. xii. 42, § 85. were offered there to the god Molech, by beat of drum, which in Hebrew is called Toph (an).

(28. Looketh, &c. BASTWY yuraika. Gazeth on a The statue of Molech was of brass, hollow within. woman. Indulges unchaste imaginations, desires. with its arms extended, and stooping a little forward.

and intentions. Such was the guilt of David-see They lighted a great fire within the statue, and an

2 Sa. xi. 2. 'Our Lord means to say, that it is not the other before it. They put upon its arms the child

act only, but the unchaste desire also, (what is called they intended to sacrifice, which soon fell into the lat 2 Pe. ii. 14,“ eyes full of adultery," which is infire at the foot of the statue. To stifle the noise of cluded in the commandment. Etrevula may be these cries, they made a great rattling of drums and

defined, "such a desire as gains the full consent of other instruments, that the spectators might not be

the will, and would certainly terminate in action, moved with compassion. And this, as they say, was

did not impediments from other causes arise;"thus the manner of sacrificing in Tophet.-See ADDENDA,

making the essence of the vice to be in the intention.' Tophet,' p. 129.)

- Bloomfield.] 23. As the former verse forbids all-timed and ex [29. si de o peanuós-okavdalite ot. If thy right eye cesside anger and hatred, so this and the following prove a stumblingblock to thee,' 'occasion thee to enjoin love to our neighbour, and a placable spirit.

I stumble, lead thee into sin.' It is used as a metaAnd since the Pharisees reckoned anger, hatred, and

phor for whatever proves the occasion of the comreviling among the slighter offences; and thought

mission of sin. The Hebrews were accustomed to that they would not incur the wrath of God, if sacri compare lusts and evil passions with members of the fices and other external rites were accurately ob

body; for example, an evil eye denoted envy, Mt. served; so here we are taught that external worship

xx. 15, $76; the bowels denoted compassion; the heart, is not pleasing in the sight of God, unless it be

affection, &c. So Paul writes to the Romans, ch. vi. accompanied by a meek and charitable spirit.

13. Neither yield ye your members as instruments of 523, .4. Therefore, if thou bring thy gift, &c. The

unrighteousness unto sin: but yield your selves unto

God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your scribes required restitution in money-matters; yet

members as instruments of righteousness unto God.' otherwise held, that gifts and sacrifices would expiate

Thus, to pluck out the eye, and cut off the hand, is all offences not amenable to the judge.]

equivalent to crucify the flesh with the affections and 25. Adversary. artidukos. one going to law with lusts,' Ga. v. 24; and Col. iii. 5, Mortify therefore another.' It here means a creditor; a man who has your members which are upon the earth.') a just claim on us. It is wrong to carry the conten

Why the right eye is mentioned, may be that that tion to a court of law-see I Co. vi. 7, ver. 24, Se. Illus.' was essentially necessary to the purposes of war, as Whiles thou art in the way. According to the lit was then carried on.

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 214.6 ver. Justice must be observed in thought If we would desire our gifts to be accepted of God, and word, as well as in deed. Without cause, we we must first render justice to man; and no delay is must neither be angry, nor at any time speak de- to be made in satisfying all just demands. The spitefully of others. Other men's failings should longer the injustice is continued, the greater is the be our warnings.'

| difficulty in procuring a discharge. EVIL MEN UNDERSTAND NOT JUDGMENT.-Prov. xxviii. 5.


OUR EYES ARE CASEMENTS TO LET IN LUSTS, WHEN THEY SHOULD BE FLOODGATES TO LET OUT TEARS. Matt. v. 30.7. pluck-it-out, and cast it from thee: for it-is-profitable ayudeper for-thee that one of-thy 30 members should-perish, and not that thy whole body should-be-cast into hell. And if

thy right hand offend thee, cut-it-off, and cast it from thee: for it-is-profitable for-thee that one of-thy members should-perish, and not that thy whole body should-be-cast

into hell. 31 It-hath-been-said, Whosoever shall-put-away his wife, let-him-give her a-writing-of32 divorcement: but I say unto-you, That whosoever shall-put-away his wife, saving-for

the-cause-of TAPEKTOS Noyov fornication, causeth her to-commit-adultery: and whoso

ever shall-marry her-that-is-divorced committeth-adultery. 33 Again, ye-have-heard that it-hath-been-said by-them of-old-time, Thou shalt-not34 forswear-thyself, but shalt-perform unto the Lord thine oaths: but I say unto-you, 35 Swear not at-all; neither by heaven; for it-is God's throne: nor by the earth; for it-is 36 his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it-is the-city of the great King. Neither shalt37 thou-swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. But


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NOTES. (31. It hath been said. Having before adverted to or promise, and to avenge us in time and eternity, if the seventh commandment, our Lord takes occasion we swear what is false or unknown to us, or if we do to allude to that abuse of the judicial law, which, not perform what we engage. An oath was not to though intended to regulate and repress divorces, be taken but in the name of the one true God: De. had rendered them more frequent, and become al vi. 13. Thou shall fear the LORD thy God, and serve most as pestilent to good morals as adultery itself. him, and shalt suear by his name;' Jos. xxiii. 7,

We are to bear in mind,-1, that the Jews were per-'neither make mention of the name of their gods, nor mitted to divorce their wives without assigning any cause to suear by them, neither serve them, nor bor canse ;-2, that our Lord, neither here nor at Mt. xix. yourselves unto them; 'Ja, v. 12—see ver. 37, Scrip3, 874, meant to give political directions ;-3, that he, ture Illustra'ions ;' see ver. 31, .5; oaths are not to moreover, did not contradict Moses, who even him. be taken irreverently, without godly fear and awe of self never approved of the arbitrary divorces of his the Most High. times see xix. 8, & ib. ;-and, 4, that the Jewish doc- Perform unto the Lord thine oaths. The morality tors in the age of Christ were not agreed on the sense

of the Jews on this point was truly execrable; they of the passage of De. xxiv. 1-see Scrip. Illus.')

maintained, that a man might swear with his lips, [32. Saving for the cause of fornication. Tapectos and annul it at the same moment in his heart. byou tropvaias. Eccept for whoredom. The Jews had

36. Thy head. This was a practice common to both extended it to any cause, and to such an extent, that Rabbi Akiba said, 'A man may put away his wife, i

Greeks and Romans. The hand, it should seem, was he see another woman that pleases him better.'l

placed on the head during swearing; implying im

precation in case of perjury, since the heud was pe337. Thou shalt not for swear thyself. Christ here culiarly spoken of in such imprecations. To swear proceeds to correct another false interpretation of the by the head was the same as to swear by the life; or law. See Scripture Illustrations,' ver. 33.

to say, I will forfeit my life if what I say is not trne. An oath is a solemn act wherein we swear by God, God is the author of the life, and to swear by that, or call on him to witness the truth of what we assert I therefore, is tho same as to swear by him.

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. (27-32 ver. The stability of our Christian charac- is a right hand, let it be parted with rather than that ter is manifested not merely by standing the force of it should sink us in perdition. great trials, but by resisting the first approaches of (Let onr firmness be manifested, not merely by evil, and it is secured by denying ourselves to every. the resisting of evil in ourselves, but in bearing with thing that may be likely to lead into sin, although the infirmities of others, and in our being constant the thing should in itseli be lawful.)

to our engagements in the several relations of life, as But though dear as is a right eye, or necessary as here with regard to the marriage covenant.]



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SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 37. yea, yea; nay, nay putting away lying, speakmen,' 1 Th. v. 15 Ye have condemned and killed every man truth with his neighbour: for we are mem- the just; and he doth not resist you,' Ja. v. 6-not bers one of another, Ep. iv. 25 above all things, my rendering evil for evil,... but contrariwise blessing.' brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by I Pe. iii. 9. the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your

whosoever shall smite thee, fc. yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into con.

and when they had

blindfolded him, they struck,' &e., Lu. xxii. 64, Š 89 demnation,' Ja. v. 12.

'who did no sin,' I Pe. ii. 22, .3. 38. an eye for an eye-' And thine eye shall not pity ; but life shall go for life, eye for eye, tooth for

42. give-to thy poor brother' thou shalt open tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,' De. xix. 21; Ex.

thine hand wide,' &c., De. xv. 7-10-see p. (53), ver. xxi. 24; Le. xxiv. 20.

11, under HB THAT HATI TWO COATS'do good, 39. resist not edit' Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear

and lend, hoping for nothing again,' Lu. vi. 35, $ 27. any grudge,' &c., Le. xix. 18_see ver. 43—' he is 43. ye have heard, &c. - Thou shalt not avenge, brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep | nor bear any grudge against the children of thy peobefore her shearers is dumb, so be openetl not his ple, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I mouth,' Is. liii. 7-Recompense to no man evil for am the LORD, Le. xix. 18_but as to the Moabites and eyil. Rom. xii. 17.9......... See that none | Ammonites, it was commanded, Thou shalt not seek render evil for evil unto any man; but ever follow their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever, that which is good, both among yourselves, and to all | De. xxiii. 6.

NOTES. 37. Yea, yea. Nal, vai,......... The Hebrew tended to the neck, and had long or short sleeves. repeats the affirmative, to give it more strength. It Over this was commonly worn an upper garment, was a proverbial manner anong the Hebrews of cha- here called cloak, or mantle. It was made commonly racterizing a man of strict probity and good faith, by nearly square, of different sizes, five or six cubits long, saying,'his yes is yes, and his no is no.')

and as many broad, and wrapped around the body, COS evil. ex Tov fornpov. or the evil one.' And

and thrown off when engaged in labour. there is not in the universe more cause of amazement

(By zıtūra is denoted the under garment; and by at his forbearance, than that God does not, in ven

Luárioy the upper, usually of greater value than the geance, smite the profane swearer at once to hell.]

former. Indeed, from the circumstance of its being

used as a blanket, to wrap the person in by night, it 38. An eye for an eye, $c. By the Mosaic law, was not allowed by the law to be taken by the creretaliation was permitted.-See Scripture Illustra

ditor, though the purbuy might, Ex. xxii. 26, I thou tions.' There was a rule given to regulate the at all take thy neighbour's raiment to pledge, thou decision of the judges, but the Jews made it a rule to shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down.'] take private revenge. Greeks and Romans had the

41. Whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile. dyya. same law. The savage nations in America, as well as in almost every other part of the world, set no bounds

petsuy (from 'hangar,' a dagger, which the couriers to the cool, deliberate malignity, with which they

wore as a mark of authority ;-Chardin, Tan. vol. II. will pursue, for years together, not only the person

242; Michaelis, part I. c. iv. Sect. ix. p. 159, Clark's himself, from whom they have received an injury,

Trav.) is a Persian word used to express the obliging but sometimes every one related to or connected

of men to carry burthens from stage to stage. In orwith him. The Arabs are equally implacable in

der that the royal commands might be delivered with their resentments; and the Koran itself, in the case

safety and dispatch in different parts of the empire, of murder, allows private revenge, Christianity only

Cyrus stationed horsemen at proper intervals on all is powerful to overcome evil with good.

the great public highways. One of these delivered the

message to another, and intelligence was thus rapidly 39. Whosoever shall smite thee. Pation. The word and safely communicated. These Angari are now corresponds to our rap or slap; and was chiefly, as termed Chappars,' and serve to carry dispatches behere, used of striking on the face; which was regard. tween the court and provinces. When a chappar sets ed as an affront of the worst sort ; and was severely out, the master of the horse furnishes him with a sinpunished both by the Jewish and Roman laws.

gle horse, and when that is weary he dismounts the Turn to him the other also. A proverbial phrase, to first man he meets, and takes his. There is no pardon express a meek submission to injuries and affronts :

for a traveller that refuses to let a chappar bave his I gave my back to the siniters, and my cheeks to them

horse, nor for any other who should deny him the best that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shume

in his stable. The Jews and other provinces were and spitting, Isa. 1. 6; He giveth his cheek to him compelled by the Roman governors, or tetrarchs, to that smiteth him: he is filled full with reproach,' La.

furnish horses, and themselves to accompany them iii. 30see Mt. xxvi. 67. .8: Jno. xviii. 22..3.8 89. So the (Plin. Epist. x. 14, 121.) The practice is still retained heathen writers, Liv. iv. 35; and Tacit. Hist. iii. 31. by the Turks. 40. Coat, terwva.

The linen ennis encircline thel a mile. M
The linen tunic encircling the

oy. A word formed from the Latin mille, body. The Jews wore two principal garments, an a thousand; for a Roman mile consisted of a thousand interior and an exterior. The interior, here called | paces, each of which was nearly equal to five English the coat, or the tunic, was made commonly of linen, Teet. and encircled the whole body, extending down to the 43. Ye have heard, tc. Their malevolence toward knees. Sometimes beneath this garment, as in the all mankind except their own nation was so remarkacase of the priests, there was another garment cor-ble, that the heathens took notice of it:-Tacit. Hist. responding to pantaloons. The coat, or tunic, ex- v.5, Their fidelity is inviolable, and their pity ready


PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 33.7 ver. [Cunning is to be eschewed by the Chris- his presence & his power in our making of covenants.) tlan, and especially in matters so solemn as that of We are honestly to say what we mean, and promise calling God to witness.-He is not the less a witness what, God willing, we intend to perform : saying and and the avenger because we do not choose to recognise doing all as in the sight, and under the power of God.

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than others the same? And them which 7 the-good, an

--- or commandments contained from heaven and b


MATT. v. 44.8. 44 enemy. But I say unto-you, Love your enemies, bless them that-curse you, do good to

them that-hate you, and pray for them which-despitefully-use eripea Sovrov you, and 45 persecute you; that ye-may-be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he

maketh- his sun.-to-rise on the-evil and on the-good, and sendeth-rain on the-just and 46 on the-unjust. For if ye-love them which-love you, what reward have-ye? do not even 47 the publicans the same? And if ye-salute your brethren only, what do-ye more repicCOV 48 than others? do not even the publicans so? Be ye therefore perfect teAEIO, even-as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 44. but I say, &c.-he 'baring abolished in his flesh out witness, in that he did good, and gave us rain the enmity, enen the law of commandments contained from heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one with food and gladness,' Ac. xiv. 17. new man, so making peace; and that he might recon

46. what reuard-the reward is of grace, according cile both unto God in one body by the cross, having

to the grace manifested— So speak ye, and so do, as slain the enmity thereby,' Ep. ii. 15, .6.

they that shall be judged by the law of liberty. For love your enemies-50 did Jesus when we were

he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of

shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoiceth Cor, glorieth] his Son,' Rom. v. 10—and so he hath commanded his

against judgment,' Ja. ii. 12, -3. followers, Love,' &c., do good to them which hate 47. schat do ye more--the children of God are not sou.' Lu.'vi. 27.5 821_Bless them which persecute to content themselves with merely receiving from you,' Rom. xii. 14--20-as Christ, Father, forgive, God-For unto whomsoever much is given, of him 1 &c., Lu. xxiii. 34, S 91-s0 Stephen, Ac. vii. 60 and, shall be much required,' Lu. xii. 48, § 63. so should all that truly would act as followers of the 48. be ye therefore perfect _ And when Abram was Lamb, I Pe. iii. 9-see ver. 39, p. 127.

ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to 45. that ye may be the children of God are not to

Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God: imitate the world be not conformed to this world:

walk before me, and be thou perfect,' Ge. xvii. 1-50

to Israel, And ye shall be holy unto me: for I the bat be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable,

LORD am holy, and have severed you from other peoand perfect, will of God,' Rom. xii. 2-but to take the

ple, that ye should be mine,' Le. xx. 26So to the disMost High for their example as to holiness, Pe. i. ciples: Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also I46-see p. (36) as to love, I Jno. iv. 7, &see p.

is merciful, Lu. vi. 36, § 2-Christians must aim (56) his love was manifested in the most costly sa

high: Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear chilcifice for us, ver. 9, 10, ibid.-and it is by acting out our

dren; and walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, love in like manner, that we truly confess the truth

and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrirespecting the Father and the Son, ver. 11-7, ibid.

fice to God for a sweetsmelling savour,' Ep. v. 1, 2

.......'whom we preach, warning every man, his sun/ upon whom doth not his light arise?' and teaching every man in all wisdom; that we may Job xxv. 3— Nevertheless he left not himself with present every man perfect in Christ Jesus,' Col. i. 28.

NOTES. toward one another; bat unto all others they bear an, wish; were it in my power, if he were dead, I would implacable hatred.' It is evident, that by neigh-raise him to life again; rather than, being alive, to bour' they understood a Jew; and that by 'enemy' I put him to death.' they understood heathens in general. It is to be re

45. That ye may be the children, ie., assimilated marked, that the clause, hate thine enemy, is not in

to him by conformity of disposition, as children the lav-see Lev. xix. 18, Serip. Hlus.;' but the Rabbins pretended, that it was deducible from the first

usually are to their parents see. Scrip. Hlus.' part of the precept, which seems to limit forgiveness

748. Be ye therefore perfect, eren as your Father,

I fc. •Be not children of mammon like the publicans to Israelites.

I Gulavai, but Be ye perfect' (rales); and, so, the 44. Bless them that curse you. Implying such a sin- children of your Father which is in hearen,'-perfeet cere disposition to do them good as shall shere itself in goodness, exercising longsuffering and patienee. in actions ; done to them not indeed as enemies, but while working good for others; fully resolved to carry ag fellow creatures. It is said of Theodosius the , out your Father's purposes of love, notwithstanding emperor, that being urged to erecute one who had re- i all outward discouragements, persevering in kindness, viled him, he answered, 'So far from gratifying your not only to the good, but also to the unthankful.]

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 38_48 per. We are not to imitate the world in temporal blessing we enjoyed, but gave us his Son, returning evil for evil; but rather to rejoice in op- the dearest object he had, that we might be made portunities of benefiting or obliging those who seek most blessed in him by the power of his Holy Spirit. to do us hurt.

So let us be willing to part with what is dearest to of the good which God hath given us, we are to us that others may be with us reconciled unto God. dispense to others to the utmost of our power. Thus [Our standard of perfection is not presented from should we act, not only like forgiven sinners, but like among the mighty and honourable of the earth: it Him who forgives, like our heavenly Father; who, is to be seen in the condescending mercy and longwhen we were yet enemies, not only gave us the suffering kindness of our father in heaven. ]



ONE TITTLE, ch. 1. ver. 18. p. 123. One tittie.-The Hebrew letters were written with The laws of the Jews are commonly divided into small points or apices, which serve to distinguish one moral, ceremonial, and judicial. The moral laws letter from another. To change a small point of one are such as grow out of the nature of things, which letter, therefore, might vary the meaning of a word, cannot, therefore, be changed, such as the duty of and destroy the sense. It might have been correetly loving God and his creatures. rendered, "not the least letter, or stroke," de.; and

Those requiring love and obedience to God, and the more so, as fot and titele in English signifs much the same. Hence the Jews were exceedingly

love to men, could not be changed, and Christ did cautious in writing these letters, and considered the

not attempt it, Mt. xix. 19, 75; xxii. 3749, § 85; smallest change or omission a reason for destroying

Lu.. 27, $ 60; Rom. xiii. 9. the whole manuscript, when they were transcribing Of this kind are the ten commandments. The the Old Testament. The expression, “one jot or ceremonial laws are such as are appointed to meet dittle," became proverbial, and means that the certain states of society, or to regulate the religious smallest part of the law shall not be destroyed. | rites and ceremonies of a people. These can be



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