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Matt. xiii. 554.7.

MARK vi. 3, 4.
insomuch-that they were astonished, and many hearing him were astonished,
and said, Whence hath this man

saying, From-whence hath this man

these things? this wisdom,

and what wisdom is this

which is-given unto-him, and these mighty-works?

that even such mighty-works

are-wrought by his hands? 5 Is not this the carpenter's son?

Is not this the carpenter, d d is not his mother -called Mary?

the son of Mary, and his brethren, James, and Joses,*

the-brother of James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?

and of-Juda, and Simon ? 56 And his sisters, are they not all with us? and are not his sisters here with us? Whence then hath this man all these things? 57 And they-were-offended in him.

And they-were-offended at him. But Jesus said unto-them, A-prophet is But Jesus said unto-them, A-prophet is 4 not without-honour ativos, save in his-own not without-honour ativos, but in his own

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. Mk. vi. 2. were astonished-In his visit recorded by i 3. Is not this the carpenter-'the carpenter's son,' Mt. Luke, 'all bare him witness, and wondered at the gra- xiii. 55-four carpenters are 'to cast out the horns of cious words which proceeded out of his mouth,' Lu. the Gentiles, which lifted up their horn over the land iv. 22, § 15, p. 104.

of Judah to scatter it,' Zec. i. 20,.1-Paul, the great From whenee, &c.-He had before told them from apost!

apostle of the Gentiles, at Corinth, unto which place whence: 'The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,' &c., especia

especially he was an apostle, ( If I be not an apostle Lu. iv. 18, & ib. p. 102; but in them was fulfilled the

I unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the seal prophecy of Isaiah,vi. 9, 10, p. (94), “By hearing ye shall i of mine apostlesi

of mine apostleship are ye in the Lord,' I Co. ix. 2.) fear, and shall not understand-Mt. xiii. 14, 5, $ 32,

wrought with Aquila at the craft or occupation of p. 245.

I tent-making, Ac. xviii. 1-3. wisdom-He was himself the power of God, and

Mt. xiii. 55. called Mary-the Lord may have dealt the wisdom of God '_* Where is the wise ? where is bitterly with her as with Naomi, who, because of the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? this, claimed to be called 'Mara, Ru. i. 20—his being hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?

the son of a woman rightly called by that name 1 Co. i. 20—Howbeit we speak wisdom among them

seems to have been reckoned a reproach to Jesusthat are perfect : yet not the wisdom of this world. I see on Lu. 1. 27, 92, p. 9. nor of the princes of this world, that come to

come to Mk. vi. 3. the brother of James, fc.--'neither did nought: 7, but we speak the wisdom of God in al

his brethren believe in him," Jno. vii. 5, § 54-they mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God or

even attempted to interrupt him in the exercise of dained before the world unto our glory: 8, which none of the princes of this would knew : for had

his ministry, Mk. iii. 21, 31, 8 30, p. 233, $ 31, p. 240. they known it, they would not have crucified the offended at him-accomplishing the prediction by Lord of glory,'ii. 6-8.

Simeon, Behold, this child is set for the fall,' &c. ... mighty works-and all things, whether they be i'and for a sign which shall be spoken agaiast.' Lu. thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers:

ii. 34, § 4, p. 26-their neighbourhood, or pear relaall things were created by him, and for him. Col. i. tionship, could not profit them as being offended in 16—but Who hath believed our report? and to whom him, Mt. xl. 6, 323, p. 223 ; X11. is the arm of the LORD revealed ?' Is. liii. I, p. (55). 4. A prophet, &c.- see Lu. iv. 24, § 15, p. 104.

NOTES. (Mk. vi. 2. Whence hath this man these things? The Mt. xiii. 55. And his brethren, James, and Joses, &c. sense is, 'Whence have these talents fallen to the lot -See ADDENDA, p. 290, 'On the brethren of our Lord.' of this man; and what is this wisdom given him from above; insomuch that [not only he teaches us the

56. Whence then hath this man all these things? way of salvation, but] even such miracles (as we have

- See on Mk. vi. 2, supra. heard related) are performed by him?' Aid Tây 57. They were offended in him. iokardal írovro av zeepwv, by the hands, &c., Hebraism (like ) by

auro. They were scandalized at him. This is one of the hand, for oi' aŭrow. - Bloomfield.]

the few instances in which the English verb scan3. Is not this the carpenter. The word translated

dalize expresses better the sense of the Greek than 'carpenter,' signifies worker in iron, wood, or stone,

any other in the language. To be scandalized, is to that is, an artificer; but when used alone, without

be offended on account of something supposed cri. an adjective, in Scripture, it uniformly signifies a

minal or irreligious. This was the case here. Their carpenter. That our Lord should have been taught

knowledge of the meanness of our Lord's birth and some handicraft occupation the Jewish law required.

education, made them consider him as guilty of an And what was so likely as that he should be brought

impious usurpation, in assuming the character of a up to the trade of his reputed father: which, though prophet, much more in aspiring to the title of the lowly, was not degrading? Their most distinguished

Messiah. Rabbis exercised a trade.-Comp. Jno. vi. 42, § 43, A prophet is not without honour, &c. A proverbial p. 330.

sentiment, importing, that 'one whose endowments

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 2-4 ver. The natural man seeks to account for and that had they lived at that time, their portion spiritual things by mere natural causes; and, in place would probably have been with unbelievers. of being convinced, he is offended with that which proves that He who was called Jesus of Nazareth is

Let us beware of despising men because of the indeed the Sent of the Father.'

seeming mean condition of themselves or their rela

tions. The Son of God, who is KING OF KINGS, AND 3 ver. Let us admire the condescension of Jesus,

LORD OF LORDS,' appeared as the son of Mary, and as who, although the great Architect that built the

having brethren and sisters among the poor inhabitheavens and the earth, yet condescended to work

ants of a poor Galilean village. Most true it is, that with his hands at the homely occupation of a car.

he who despiseth the poor, reproacheth his Maker.' penter. Those who despise the ministry of poor mechanics should remember that they despise the | [4 ver. Let us seek to divest ourselves of prejudice: very condition of life in which our Lord appeared, I and let us endeavour to judge impartially with re

* See ADDENDA, p. 290, . On the brethren of our Lord.'


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MATT. xiii. 58

MARK vi. 5, 6. country,

country, and in his-own house.

and among his own kin, and in his own house.s 58 And he did not many mighty-works there And he-could there do no mighty-work, 5

because-of their unbelief.:
[Ch. xiv. 1, 8 xl. p. 304.]

& save that he laid his hands upon-a-few

sick appwotois folk, and-healed them. And he-marvelled because of their unbelief. 6

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. Mk. vi. 4. among his own kin_his friends went out to which I was wounded in the house of my friends, lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside hiinself,'ch. Zec. xiii. 6. iii. 21, § 30, p. 233-Jesus, although the truth' itself, Jno. xiv. 6, § 87, suffered the punishment appointed 5, 6. because of their unbelief-He was 'grieved for to a false prophet, and might well speak of the wounds the hardness of their hearts,' ch. iil. 5, $ 25, p. 197wherewith he was wounded in the house of his friends : At the curiug of the lunatic, he lamented the tinbelief . And one shall say unto him, What are these wounds of his disciples, which had prevented their effecting in thine hands? Then he shall answer, Those with that cure, Mt. xvii. 16-20, $ 51.

NOTES. enable him to instruct others is in general nowhere ently with the rules on which he invariably acted so little held in honour as among his townsmen and in performing miracles, namely, to require faith in immediate connexions.'

his Divine mission of those who sought them. It Mk. vi. 5. And he could there do no mighty work, was neither fit por convenient to perform any more &c. Our Saviour could not, not because he wanted works, since they were offended with what had already power, but that the subjects of it were unbelieving, been done. Had be performed ever so many, their and therefore wanted the condition on which alone it prejudices would have prevented any good effect they was fit he should heal them. He could not, consist-might otherwise have had.-See ADDENDA, P. 292.

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. gard to those that are more nearly connected with what he hath done, but deprives us of the good he us, and in comparing whom with ourselves, emula-would do for us in the performance of his mighty tions and envies are most likely to arise. Let him works. Jesus gave the Nazarenes repeated opporthat is spiritual seek the honour that cometh from tunities of receiving blessing, but he would not mulGod only. Let him be contented to be as his Lord.) tiply evidences of his Divine mission, which only

5, 6 ver. Unbelief not only robs God of the glory of gave occasion for increasing their guilt.



NAZARETH, p. 286. NAZARETH.-See Sect. vi. p. 43 Dr. Wilson, in his Dr. Richardson, describing the valley of Nazareth, work, The Lands of the Bible Visited and Described,' says, 'It seems as if fifteen mountairs met to form page 91, Vol. II., says, "At the foot of the hills of one enclosure for this delightful spot; they rise Nazareth, we overtook our luggage, which had come around it like the edge of a shell to guard it from through the valley of Esdraelon, by the straight road intrusion. It is a rich and beautiful field in the midst from Jenin. We made the ascent of the hills to- of barren mountains.' gether, keeping our seats on our horses the whole way. The road which we took is rough and winding. Dr. Robinson, in Biblical Researches.' Vol.III .183 It was the one which lies farthest to the west. The says, "The houses stand on the lower part of the slope other. which was to our right hand, follows the of the western hill; which rises steep and high above course of a deeper and more distinct gash in the them, and is crowned by a Wely called Neby Isma'il. hills, leading down from Nazareth itself..... We Towards the north the hills are less high; on the passed close to the village of Yafa, or JAPHIA, near east and south they are low. In the south-east the à cistern, where we found the villagers watering basin contracts, and runs out narrow, and winding their flocks. This village is referred to, along with apparently to the great plain. Various roads pass out the two villages CAISLOTA-TABOR and DABERATH, of the basin; on the north to Sefurieh and 'Akka: in in Joshua, xix. 12, in which it is said of the border of the north-east, to Kefer Kenna and Tiberias; toZebulun, that it * turned from Sarid eastward to- wards the east, to mount Tabor and Tiberias; and in ward the sunrising unto the border of Chisloth-tabor, the south-west, to Yafa and the plain of Esdraelon. and then goeth out to Daberath, and goeth up to The populationJaphia ;" a description remarkably correspondent with its present position. We had hitherto had no view Greeks. ... 160 families, or 260 taxable men. of NAZARETH; but in a few minutes, when we had Greek Catholics. 60 turned the shoulder of the hill, we found it to our Latin Ditto .. 65 left, ensconced in a lovely little dell, or basin, sur Maronites. . . 40 rounded on all sides by hills, to which we had not Muhammedans. 120

170 very far to descend, as it has itself a very considerable elevation. The view, as we went downwards, Total ... 445

780 and approached the village, became very contracted in dimensions, though not certainly so in the interest

This implies about 3000 souls. of its associations. We had before us the very scene which would be most familiar to the Saviour during

Dr. Wilson, in Vol. II. p. 92, says, 'We left our

5 lodgings in an early part of the day, that without the greater part of his sojourn in this sinful world.

disturbance or interruption we might engage in NASTRAB, or NAZARETH, stands on the western social worship and communion on the top of the hill, side of the basin in which it is situated. Though on the western flank of which the village is principally not so mean as some other villages in the country, situated. We were sorry to observe the villagers. there is nothing very striking in its appearance. The three-fourths of whom are professing Christians, of conventual buildings of the Franciscan monks, in- different denominations, paying very little regard to cluding the Latin church of the Annunciation, with the sanctity of the sabbath. As far as we could rea. their different enclosures surrounded by strong walls; it was marked only by the shutting of the shops the Casa Nuova, or house built by the convent for Many people were at work as masons. Several were the accommodation of travellers; and the Muham engaged in cutting grass in the fields. Crowds of medan mosque, are the erections which principally women, tittering, and laughing, and jesting, were attract the aitention of the visiter.'--See Sect. ii. p. 14. filling their pitchers at what is called the "Fountain


130 120 100




of the Virgin," to which they think it is particularly life during those early years, yet there are certain meritorious to repair for water. The children were

features of nature which meet our eyes now, just as heartily engaged in their every day amusements.' I they once met his. He must often have visited the

fountain near which we had pitched our tent; his Dr. Robinson, in Biblical Res., says, Vol. III., p. 188: feet must frequently have wandered over the adjacent - Later in summer the fountain dries up, and then hills; and his eyes doubtless have gazed upon the water is brought from more distant fountains. The splendid prospect from this very spot. Here the source itself is under the Greek church of the An | Prince of Peace looked down upon the great plain, nunciation, eight or ten rods further north; and where the din of battle so oft had rolled and the thence the little stream is conducted by a rude aque garments of the warrior been dyed in blood; and he duct of stone, over which at last an arch is turned, looked out too upon that sea, over which the swift where it pours its scanty waters into a sculptured marships were to bear the tidings of his salvation to nable trough, probably once a sarcophagus. The church tions and to continents then unknown. How has the is built over the source, at the spot where the Greeks moral aspect of things been changed ! Battles and say the Virgin was saluted by the angel Gabriel; it bloodshed have indeed not ceased to desolate this is very plain outside, but gaudy and tawdry within, unhappy country, and gross darkness now covers the and has a subterranean grotto arranged as a chapel.' people; but from this region a light went forth,

which has enlightened the world and unveiled new The same author continues, After breakfast I climes; and now the rays of that light begin to be walked out alone to the top of the hill over Nazareth, reflected back from distant isles and continents, to where stands the neglected Wely of Neby Isma'il. illuminate anew the darkened land where it first Here, quite unexpectedly, a glorious prospect opened sprung up.'-Vol. III. p. 184.91. on the view. The air was perfectly clear and serene: and I shall never forget the impression I received, as 1 The Maronite church, which Dr. Clarke thinks

the enchanting panorama burst suddenly upon me. was the site referred to at Lu. iv. 29, (§ 15, p. 105,) | There lay the magnificent plain of Esdraelon,* or at stands quite in the south-west part of the town, under least all'its western part ; on the left was seen the l a precipice of the hill, which here breaks off in a perround top of Tabor over the intervening hills, with pendicular wall forty or fifty feet in height. There portions of the Little Hermon and Gilboa, and the are several other similar precipices in the western opposite mountains of Samaria, from Jenin west hill, around the village. Some one of these, perhaps wards to the lower hills extending towards Carmel. that by the Maronite church, may well bave been the Then came the long line of Carmel itself, with the spot whither the Jews led Jesus, "unto the brow of convent of Elias on its northern end, and Haifa on the hill whereon their city was built, that they might the shore at its foot. In the west lay the Mediterra- cast him down headlong. But he passing through the nean, gleaming in the morning sun; seen first far in midst of them went his way.” the south on the left of Carmel; then interrupted by that mountain ; and again appearing on its right, so

The monks have chosen for the scene of this event as to include the whole bay of 'Akka, and the coast the Mount of the Precipitation, so called ; a precipice stretching far north to a point north 10° west, 'Akka overlooking the plain of Esdraelon, nearly two miles itself was not visible, being hidden by intervening south by east of Nazareth. Among all the legends hills. Below, on the north, was spread out another that have been fastened on the Holy Land, I know of the beautiful plains of northern Palestine, called of no one more clumsy than this; which presupel-Buttauf; it runs from east to west, and its waters poses, that in a popular and momentary tumult, they are drained off westwards through a narrower valley, should have had the patience to lead off their victim to the Kishon (el-Mukutta'), at the base of Carmel. to an hour's distance, in order to do what there was On the southern border of this plain, the eye rested | an equal facility for doing near at hand. Besides, on a large village near the foot of an isolated hill. the bill on which Nazareth stands is not a precipice with a ruined castle on the top; this was Sefurieh, overlooking the plain of Esdraelon ; but it is this the ancient Sepphoris or Diocæsarea. Beyond the western hill, a good hour distant from that plain, plain el-Buttauf, long ridges running from east to | Indeed, such is the intrinsic absurdity of the legend, west rise one higher than another; until the mounthat the monks themselves now-a-days, in order to tains of Safed overtop them all, on which that place avoid it, make the ancient Nazareth to have been is seeri, “a city set upon a hill." Further towards near at hand on the same mountain. The good the right is a sea of hills and mountains, backed by friars forget the dilemma into which they thus bring the higher ones beyond the lake of Tiberias, and in themselves; for if the ancient Nazareth lay near the the north-east by the majestic Hermon with its icy precipice overhanging the plain, what becomes of crown.

the holy places now shewn in the present town? Carmel presented itself in the west to great advan

That precipice was doubtless selected, because it tage, extending far out into the sea, and dipping his forms a striking object as seen from the plain; but feer in the waters. The highest part of the ridge is

the legend seems not to go further back than the towards the south. The southern end of the proper

time of the crusades. It is not mentioned by Antoridge, as here seen, bore south 80° west, and the

ninus Martyr, who particularly describes the holy highest point south 86° west. Thence it declines

places then shewn at Nazareth; nor by Adaionanas, gradually northwards, until at the convent, accord

nor St. Willibald, nor Sawulf, who was here about ing to Schubert, it has an elevation of only 582 Paris

A.D. 1103. But the crusaders cherished Nazareth, feet above the adjacent sea. The same traveller

and raised it to a bishop's see; and then, apparently, estimates the highest point at 1200 feet, which seems

this precipice was selected, as the brow of the mounto me relatively too high. The northern extremity

tain. Phocas first mentions it slightly in A.D. 1185, bore north 58° west. Towards the south-east Carmel

and then Brocardus more fully; and since their day is connected with the mountains of Samaria, by the

it has been noticed by most travellers. broad range of low wooded hills, separating the great From the days of our Saviour we hear no more of plain of the more southern coast from that of Es-Nazareth, until Eusebius, in the fourth century, again draelon. Here large trees of the walnut are said to describes it as a village, fifteen Roman miles eastbe prevalent. The middle point of this connecting

ward from Legio (Leijun), and not far from Tabor. range bore south 64° west. The same appearance of

Epiphanius relates, in the same century, that until bushes and trees is seen on many parts of Carmel, the time of Constantine Nazareth was inhabited only which thus presents a less naked aspect than the by Jews; from which at least it would appear, that mountains of Judæa.

Christians dwelt there in his day. It would seem,

however, not then to have become a regular place of Seating myself in the shade of the Wely, I re-pilgrimage; for Jerome mentions it only incidenmained for some hours upon this spot, lost in the tally, and makes Paula on her journey merely pass contemplation of the wide prospect, and of the events through it without stopping. Nor was it made & connected with the scenes around. In the village bishopric; for the name is not found in any of the below, the Saviour of the world had passed his child- ecclesiastical Notitiæ before the time of the crusades. hood; and although we have few particulars of his Yet it must early have been visited by pilgrims; for


* Bounded by the picturesque mountains of Samaria, the great plain," the battle field of the country both in ancient and modern times, and probably the real or typical site of the battle of Armageddon.' Dr. Wilson, Lands of the Bible,' Vol. II., p. 93.

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towards the close of the sixth century, Antoninus by the Sultan Bibars. Nazareth appears afterwards describes in it the ancient synagogue and a church. to have been neglected, and the church not to have Arculfus, a century later, found here two churches; been again built up until after several centuries : one over the fountain, and the other covering the although the nominal succession of Latin bishops, or house where Mary had lived. St. Willibald, in the rather archbishops, was long continued in the Roeighth century, mentions but one church. About mish church. Brocardus, in the thirteenth century. A.D. 1103, Swewulf describes the place as having been says nothing of the state in which Nazareth then totally destroyed by the Saracens; though a noted was; but writers of the fourteenth, describe it as a monastery still served to mark the place of the small village, with a church wholly in ruins, and a Annunciation.

fountain, and make bitter complaint of the Muslim After the crusaders had got possession of Jerusa

inhabitants. In the fifteenth century, Nazareth lem, the country of Galilee, extending from Tiberias

seems hardly to have been visited by pilgrims. About to Haifa, was given by Godfrey of Bouillon as a

the middle of the sixteenth, Belon describes here fef to the noble leader Tancred. He immediately

the chapel of the Annunciation as a grotto below subdued Tiberias; administered the province with

ground, surrounded by the ruins of an ancient justice and equity : erected churches at Nazareth,

church; the village was inhabited only by MuhamTiberias, and on mount Tabor, and richly endowed

medans. I Cotovicus, at the close of that century, thom; that his memory was long cherished in

confirms this account, describing the people as the this region. In the new ecclesiastical arrangements

worst he had seen; there being only two or three

Christian inhabitants. The former church still lay of the country, the see of Scythopolis, the former metropolitan seat of Palæstina Secunda, was trans

in ruins. His party were here treated only with ferred to Nazareth; which then first became a

insult. bishopric, and remains so nominally in the Greek

It was in A.D. 1620 that the Franciscan monks church to the present day. * When this transfer first obtained permission from the celebrated Fakhr took place, we are not informed; but it must beve

ed-Din, then master of this region, to take possession been at an early period; for in A.D. 1lll a strife

of the grotto, and rebuild the church in Nazareth, already existed, between the bishop of Nazareth and

with which they naturally connected a monastery. the convent founded by the Benedictines of Clugay

The circumstances are fully related by Quaresmius, on mount Tabor, respecting the jurisdiction of the

as they happened in his time, but the buildings apbishop over the latter. The matter was adjusted by

pear not to have been completed for many years. Gibelin, patriarch of Jerusalem, in an assembly of

Doubdan, some thirty years later, speaks of the place the bishops and clergy, with the consent of the king

as a miserable village, almost ruined and deserted, and barons, to the satisfaction of both parties. The

with eight or ten monks residing there from the conconsecration of the abbot and monks, and also of the

vent in Jerusalem. ll Surius, a few years before, larger church, was to depend only on the patriarch;

found in the village only four Maronite and two while the bishop of Nazareth was to exercise all

Greek families of Christians. At the close of the other episcopal rights over the convent.

same century, Maundrell describes the monks as The fatal battle of Hattin, in A.D. 1187, was fol being shut up in their convent for fear of the Arabs. lowed by the subjugation of almost the whole land About A. D. 1720 .30, the church and convent were by Saladin, and of Nazareth and Sepphoris among repaired and enlarged. Since that day, the number other places. At what time Nazareth again passed of Christians in Nazareth has been greatly aug. into the hands of the Christians is uncertain; but in mented; and the character of the place has under. A.D. 1250, king Louis of France made a pilgrimage gone an entire change. Even in the time of Korte, from 'Akka thither, and to mount Tabor; and in there were here only one hundred and fifty families A.D. 1263, the town of Nazareth and the noble church in all; but the Christian population is said to have of the Annunciation, as also the church of the Trans- increased greatly under the noted Sheikh Dhaher. of figuration on mount Tabor, were laid in total ruins l'Akka, about the middle of the century.'



ON THE BRETHREN OF OUR LORD, p. 287.** At Jno. ii. 12, ($ 11, p. 78,) Mt. xii. 46, (Mk. iii. 31,]' It may be said, however, that these might be the (831, p. 240,) Lu. viii. 19, (933, p. 262,) Jno. vii. 3, 5, 10, children of Joseph, but by some former, or at least (99 54,.5) Ac. i. 14, mention occurs of the brethren- some different wife; in which case they might still ol à dex pol-of our Lord; and Mt. xiii. 55, .6, [Mk. vi. be called the dden pol, or adeqal, of our Lord, and 3,] (p. 287,) of his brethren and of his sisters both; and Mary might possibly be living with them. ...If any this at times, and on occasions, which synchronize such other wife of Joseph had once existed, still, before with the beginning, with the middle, and with the the commencement of our Saviour's ministry, that is. very end of his ministry. The parties alluded to in before Jno. ii. 12, at least, she must have been dead. all these instances were obviously persons, whether It seems equally clear that Joseph himself was not male or female, arrived at maturity.... What kind then alive, any more than she. It would follow, of relationship is thus implied, except the natural one therefore, that these sons and daughters, the fruit of in the ordinary sense of the term, it is not easy to a distinct marriage, were all older, instead of being say. The use of the term dras leads directly to that all younger, than our Saviour. one conclusion. They could not be the children of Mt. xiii. 55, Mk. vi. 3, (p. 287,) the names of these any other Mary, distinct from the mother of our ado, poi of our Lord are specifled as follows: James Lordat least exclusively-because it is always Mary and Joses, Sinion and Jude, or Jude and Simon. the mother of our Lord, and not any other Mary, Now Jno. vii. 5. (8 54,) at a point of time which coinwho is mentioned along with them, who was ob- cides with the third feast of Tabernacles, his ddeddol viously living with them, and making one of some it is said, did not believe in him; and Mk. iii. 21, family with them; which it is not probable she would (8 30, p. 233,) Mt. xii. 46, (Mk. iii. 31,) (831, p. 240, make with any family but her own.

Lu. viii. 19, ($ 33, p. 262,- all relating to a point

* Will. Tyr. xxii. 16. Jac. de Vitr. 56. p. 1077. Marinus Sanntus, p. 176. The present titular Greek bishop of Nazareth resides at Jerusalem-see Robinson, Vol. II. p. 90.

According to Brocardus, the Saracens had endeavoured to fill up the fountain; and had polluted the ruined church as far as possible, by making it a receptacle for the dead bodies of asses, carnels, cattle, and dogs. I Belon, Obs. Paris, 1588, p. 327.

& Cotov. Itin. pp. 319,.50.-Comp. Sandys's Travels, p. 160. Il Quaresmius, Elucid. ii. p. 837, seq. Doubdan, p. 569.

Surius Pelerin, p. 305, seq. ** See Greswell, Vol. II. Diss. xvii. pp. 108—34, 'On the brethren of Christ.'

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of time one year earlier than the notice in St. John- ajtoù, as applied to her, does not mean the sister of implicitly confirm St. John. Yet Ac. i. 14, they his mother. In either case it will follow that adal pos, must have become believers after the resurrection, or å dono), do not strictly denote the relation of a broand before the descent of the Holy Ghost; and I Co. ther or a sister, but at the utmost of a male or a ix. 5,6 they must have become, in due time, evange-female cousin. The term therefore in a given inlists of Christianity itself. If then they continued stance, agreeably to the Jewish usage, may imply no unbelievers up to the time of the last passover, and more than this. Nor is it possible even partially to yet were converted before the day of Pentecost en-escape this conclusion, except by contending that suing, it is probable they were converted by the fact this Mary was really the sister of the Virgin, and I of the resurrection between those dates. It would really the wife of Joseph; in which case two uterine be, consequently, in their unbelieving state that our sisters must have both borne the name of Mary; Saviour, Jno. xix. 25–7, (8 91,) committed his mother, must have both been married to Joseph ; and both in his dying moments, to the care, not of these his been living in marriage with him at the same time; brethren, but of St. John. And this is the best reason which is, I think, directly repugnant to Le. xviii. 18, why he might pass over them, even though they had and Joseph himself must have borne the other name been present. Not but that commentators, both an of Alphæus. All these suppositions are very incredicient and modern, have supposed some relationship ble, and open to the greatest objections. Besides between the Virgin and St. John; which, if the fact of which, Mary is called in the same passage, Jno. xix. this relationship could be made out, might conspire 25, (S 91,) Toù Klatra, which must be understood with to produce the same effect. The relationship in the ellipsis of yuri), agreeably to the Latin idiomquestion is that of a nephew of the Virgin ; Salome Apicatam Sejani. Tac. Ann. iv. 11--Agrippina Gerthe mother of St. John, and Mary the mother of our manici, Plin. H. N. vii. 11-Antonia Drusi, ib. vii. Lord, being supposed to have been sisters. Be this, 18-Verania Pisonis, Plin. Ep. ii. xx.--in all which | however, as it may, still, with respect to the unbelief there is the same ellipsis of uxor. So common is of our Lord's adea poi, the gospel accounts are not in this ellipsis, both in Latin and in Greek, that Eckel, consistent with each other. They all shew, either vi. 259, considers it a great singularity to find the directly or by implication, that up to the close of his word yurth expressed on some of the coins of Aggrippublic ministry his brethren, or some at least who pina, the consort of Claudius. Now Cleopas, if Hegeare called by that name, were not believers as yet ; sippus (Eus. E. . 111. 11) 18 to be believed, was nimbut none of them implies that they did not become so self the brother of Joseph. But, Lev. xviii. 16, exafterwards.

cept in the case provided by the law, to marry with a “ These all continued with one accord in prayer

the wife of a brother, even after his death, (Jos. Ant. and supplication, with the women, and Mary the mo

Jud. xvii. xiii. 1.) was forbidden. dúo adax pas dysofa. ther of Jesus, and with his brethren."

τον αυτόν ουκ επίτρεπει, ούτ' εν τω αυτώ, ούτ' εν διαφέρουσί

góvous, sày 16xy Tag y ngoáy uy ảniaơevos (Philo. ii. "Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, 303, l. 41, De Special. Legibus.) as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the We are at liberty, then, to assume that the name Lord, and Cephasy"

of adapos, among the Jews, might be applied indif'Now, among those who, even in the lifetime of ferently to the relation of brother, or to the relation Christ, were not merely believers, but already disci. of cousin. Hence, it may be so applied, Mt. xiii. 55, ples, and already apostles, of our Lord, Mt. x. 3, Mk. and, (p. 287 ;) that is, some of the persons there iii. 18, Lu. vi. 15, ($ 27, p. 207,) 'Iákubos ó Toù 'Arpaio mentioned by name may be strictly the brethren, is invariably mentioned as one: and if this James and the rest may be merely the cousins, of our Lord. was James the first bishop of Jerusalem, then, Ga. i. But how are we to discriminate them asunder? I 19, ("But other of the apostles saw I none, save James observe that the two first are called James and Joses ; the Lord's brother," and even Joseph. Ant. xx. ix. I the two last Simon and Jude, or Jude and Simon. I this James was undoubtedly known and denominated observe also, and it is a critical coincidence, that as the adapos Toù Kupíou, or to XprOTOū. There was Mary, the adenon or cousin of the Virgini, who is one, then, even in the lifotime of Christ, known as an called, Mk. xvi. 1, and Lu. xxiv, 10, ($ 93,) Mary the à doapos, or brother of Christ, who believed in him; / mother of James, is called, Mt. xxvii. 56, and Mk.XV. and there were others, known by the same relation, 40, .7, (92,) Mary the mother of James and Joses. It who did not believe in him.

is an obvious and natural inference that this James Now, according to the Hebrew idiom, the relation

and this Joses, who are here described as the chilof son is extended to every direct rernove, however

dren of Mary, are the same James and the same distant, from the fountair head; and, on the same

Joses who were described above, Mt. xiii. 55, Mk. vi. principle, the relation of brother or sister to every

3, as among the dea pol of our Lord. I observe, too, collateral, eqnally remote. In proof of this idiorn,

that Mary is never called the mother of Simon and the very subject under discussion supplies a case in

Jude, or of Jude and Simon; and, therefore, I cannot point. Mt. xxvii. 56, Mk. XV. 40, (8 92, xvi. 1, (893)

assume these were her children also. One of our SaLu. xxiv. 10, (ib. ;) the Mary there spoken of is de

viour's apostles, besides Judas Iscariot, was certainly scribed as Mary the mother of James; concerning

called Jude, Jno. xiv. 22, (8 87.) Lu. vi. 16, (S27, p. 207,) which James, we may take it for granted, he is

Ac. i. 13, the same who, Mt. X. 3, Mk. iii. 18, ($ 27,) is James the apostle, the son of Alphæus. But in the

also called Lebbæus, or Thaddæus ; and whom Lu. parallel place of Jno. xix. 25, (S 91.) she is described

vi. 16, ib., Ac. i. 13, twice describes by a certain relaas the ador) or sister of Mary the mother of Jesus;

tion to James, which his own Epistle, Jude I, proves from both which descriptions we may argue as fol

to be rightly pronounced the relation of brother. lows

This Jude, then, as well as James, inust have been a

son of Alphæus; but this Jude is never called, like • If this Mary was really the sister of the Virgin, James, a son of Mary, or consequently a brother, in their children would be simply cousins; and, conse- any sense, of our Lord. I infer that he was no such quently, James, the son of this Mary, could not be son of Mary, though he might be the son of Alphæus ; | really ihe bro-her of Jesus, the son of the other Mary: and I assign thereby a reason which no commentator, and therefore d adapos Toù Kupíou, as applied to him, so far as I know, has yet been able satisfactorily to cannot mean the brother of the Lord. But if she was do, why he should call himself the brother of James, not really the sister of Mary, then, Addon on TÝs untpoe but not the brother of Christ. * Alphæus, whosoever


* On this we may remark-A higher relationship than that according to the flesh was, more especially after his resurrection, known to subsist between Christ and his disciples. Then was he declared to be the Son of God with power,' Rom. i. 4. He said unto Mary Magdalene, I ascend unto my Father, and your father' Jno. xx. 17, (93;) and speaking of the disciples generally, he said, 'Go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me,' Mt. xxviii. To, (8 95.) He bad, indeed, during his personal ministry, | distinctly declared, My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God, and do il, Lu. viii. 21, ($ 33, p. 262 ;) but it was not until the promised outpouring of the Spirit, consequent upon the resurrection and ascension of our Lord, that his words appear to have been truly understood. Up to that point we hear of the mother and brethren of Jesus, Ac. i. 14, but thereafter the distinction appears to have been greatly lost sight of, so that even his mother is never once mentioned. The disciples seem then to have said,

He died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again. Wherefore henceforth know we no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we him no more,' 2 Co. v. 15, .6. They knew him no more according to earthly relationship, because they knew him to be in a higher sense brother to them all. It is true, that Paul, when vindicating himself and his doctrine against those who were prone to trust in A WISE SON MAKETH A GLAD FATHER.-Prov. xv. 20.

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