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PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS--(continued). 49 ver. Those who are made willing to acknow-heaven, the angels of God shall be seen ascending ledge Christ in the day of small things have, with and descending upon the Son of man.'] Nathanael, the promise of seeing greater things.

Let us not lose sight of one truth by attending to

another. Nathanael acknowledged Jesus as being 51 ver. Let us never fail to connect the crown with the Son of God: Jesus reminded him of his being the the cross; to contemplate both the sufferings of Jesus Son of man; and as he, as the son of man, was to deas the Son of man, with the glory that will be when scend to a depth of humiliation which Nathanael the vision of Jacob at Bethel shall be realized in our may not have thought of; so also was he, as the Son house which is from heaven--the house of God not of God, to ascend to a height of glory, and extent of made with hands, eternal in the heavens-when, as dominion, which Nathanael may not have anticiwas seen upon the ladder reaching from earth to pated when he called him the King of Israel.

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICE BETHABARA BEYOND JORDAN.-Bethabara signi- who afterwards imprisoned John. Scythopolis, or the fies a place of passage of which there were, and are, ancient Bethshan, in the south-east corner of Galilee, several in the course of the river Jordan. Bethabara' agrees very well with a known ford, frequently crossed was a common name for such. The place of this by modern travellers, about eight or ten miles south history is supposed to have been near lake Tiberias, of the sea of Galilee.-See ADDENDA, Sect. vii. p. 56, and in the region under the jurisdiction of Herod, 1. On the Ministry of John the Baptist.'



ON John i. 15, 27-30, pp. 48, 69. It is evidently necessary that Christ should be not baptize with water, because he was to baptize understood to have come after, in the same way, and with the Holy Ghost. The water-baptism, then, of in the same sense, in which John himself had gone John was typical of the Spirit-baptism of Christ; and before; in other words, that the personal ministry of water, as the medium of the baptism of John, was each respectively was to be the same, differing only analogous to the Holy Ghost, the medium of the in the order of succession. The successor of the baptism of Christ. So far, therefore, from introBaptist, even in a common work, was such as by the ducing a real difference into the office of John, comsuperior lustre of his person, and by the corresponding pared with the office of Christ, this distinction brings authority of his teaching, could not fail to eclipse and them nearer to a resemblance than before ; making to supersede his predecessor. For He, who was from the Baptist so exactly the counterpart of Christ, that eternity; He, who was before the Baptist, by virtue even that most important particular in the functions of his essential pre-existence, his sublime and myste- of the latter, the mission and effusion of the Holy rious Divinity, could not possibly rank, or long con- Ghost, is not without its significant prototype in the tinue to rank, after or beneath him; but must be functions of the former. And this may be one reason preferred before him. The same assertion, there why the baptism of John, though, as conveyed by the fore, of his own subordination to his successor, and same external medium, but destitute of the same inthe same reason for that subordination ; via., that | ward grace, it might so far appear the appropriate John was from the earth, Christ was from heaven; emblem of Christian baptism in general, should be John was from below, Christ was from above; are considered in reality no type, or similitude, of that not more piously than naturally repeated in that sacrament, but only of the one baptism, once for all other testimony of the Baptist's, which holds out the administered, at the day of Pentecost, by Christ himtorch to the meaning of this, Jno. iii. 30-2, § 13. self, upon the first Christian converts, in the commu

The only difference between the personal ministry nication of the extraordinary graces of the Spiritof John, and the personal ministry of Jesus Christ, and afterwards, as often as those graces were rewas, that John baptized, and with water, because he peated, upon all converts subsequently.'-Greswell, was not to baptize with the Holy Ghost; Christ did I Vol. II. Diss. xix. pp. 159. .60...7.

PRIESTS, p. 68. These were superior to the Levites in dignity, and to each order was assigned a president, 1 Ch. chosen from the family of Aaron exclusively. They xxiv. 6, 31; 2 Ch. xxxvi. 14, whom some critics supserved immediately at the altar, prepared the vic- pose to be the same as the chief priests, so often tims, and offered the sacrifices. They kept up a per. mentioned in the New Testament, Mt. xxvii. 1; Ac. petual fire on the altar of the burnt sacrifices, and iv. 23; v. 24; ix. 14, 21; xxii. 30; xxiii. 14; xxv. 15; also in the lamps of the golden candlesticks in the xxvi. 10. The prince or prefect of each class apsanctuary; they kneaded the loaves of shew bread, pointed an entire family to offer the daily sacrifices; which they baked, and offered on the golden altar in and at the close of the week, they all joined together the sanctuary; and changed them every sabbath day. in sacrificing. And as each family consisted of a Every day, morning and evening, a priest (who was great number of priests, they drew lots for the dif appointed at the beginning of the week by lot) ferent offices which they were to perform. It was by brought into the sanctuary a smoking censer of in- virtue of such lot that the office of burning incense cense, which he set upon the golden table, and which was assigned to Zacharias, Lu. i. 9, 91, p. 3; and the on no account was to be kindled with strange fire; most honourable in the whole service. This office that is, with any fire but that which was taken from could be held but once by the same person. the altar of burnt sacrifice, Ex. XXX. 9; Le. X. 1, 2. And as the number and variety of their functions

In order that the priests, as well as the Levites, required them to be well read in their law, in order

might be wholly at liberty to follow their sacred prothat they might be able to judge of the various legal

fession, they were exempted from all secular burthens uncleannesses, &c., this circumstance caused them

I or labours. of the Levitical cities already mentioned, to be consulted as interpreters of the law, Ho. iv. 6; Mal. ii. 7, &c.; Le. xiii. 2; Nu. v. 14, .5; as well as

thirteen were assigned for the residence of the priests,

with their respective suburbs, Nu. XXXV.; the limits judges of controversies, De. xxi. 5; xvii. 8-13. To

of which were confined to 1,000 cubits beyond the them it belonged publicly to bless the people in the

walls of the city, which served for out-houses-as name of the Lord.

stables, barns, and perhaps for gardens of herbs and The priests were divided by David into twenty- flowers. Beyond this they had 2,000 cubits more for four classes, i Ch. xxiv. 7-18; which order was re- their pasture, called properly, the fields of the sutained by Solornon, 2 Ch. viii. 14; and at the revivals burbs, Le. xxv. 34. In all 3,000 cubits. - See Nu. of the Jewish religion by the kings Hezekiah, xxxi. 2, XXXV. 4, 5. and Josiah, XXXV. 4,5. As, however, only four classes returned from the Babylonish captivity, Ezr. ii. 36-.9: Their maintenance was derived from the tithes Ne. vii. 39-42; xii. 1, these were again divided into offered by the Levites out of the titles by them retwenty-four classes, each of which was distinguished ! ceived, from the first fruits, from the first clip of by its original appellation. This accounts for the wool when the sheep were shorn, from the offerings introduction of the class or order of Abia, mentioned made in the temple, and from their share of the sinin Lu. i. 5, § 1, p. 2, which we do not finå noticed offerings and thanksgiving offerings sacrificed in the among those who returned from the captivity. One temple, of which certain parts were appropriated to of these classes went up to Jerusalem every week to the priests, Le. vii. 33, .4..6, .8; De. xviii. 3: see discharge the sacerdotal office, and succeeded one also Nu. xviii. 13, .5, .6; Le. xix. 23, 4; Nu. xxxi. another on the sabbath day, till they had all attended. 28-41.'-Horne's Introduction, Vol. Ill. pp. 275- .7. 741




and Levites, even the principal fathers over against their every day, $c.:-Ex. xxx. 9, Ye shall offer no strange younger brethren.'-2 Ch. xxxvi. 14, Moreuver all the incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering: chief of the priests, and the people, transgressed very neither shall ye pour drink offering thereon.'-Lex. 1, 2. much after all the abominations of the heathen; and 1, And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either polluted the house of the LORD which he had hallowed of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense in Jerusalem. thereon, and offered strange fire before the LORD,which he whom some crilics suppose to be the same as the chief commanded them not. 2. And there went out fire from the priests mentioned :-Mt. xxvii. 1, $ 89.-Ac. iv. 23 .. LORD, and devoured them, and they died before the LORD.' .......... . 24-...........-ix. 14, 21. 14,

consulted as interpreters, &c. - Ho. iv. 6, My people And here he hath authority from the chief priests to are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because tbou hast bind all that call on thy name,' 21, But all that heard rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou him were amazed, and said ; Is not this he that destroyed shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the l them which called on this name in Jerusalem, and came law of thy God, I will also forget thy children. Mal. ii. hither for that intent, that he might bring them bound 7, &c., For the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and l unto the chief priests?'-xxii. 30,On the morrow, bethey should seek the law at his mouth: for he is the cause he would have known the certainty wherefore he messenger of the LORD of hosts.'-Le. xiii. 2,When a was accused of the Jews, he loosed him from his bands, man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, and commanded the chief priests and all their council or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the to appear, and brought Paul down, and set him before plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron them.'-xxiii. 14, ' And they came to the chief priests the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests.'-Nu. v. and elders, and said, We have bound ourselves under a 14, .5. 14, . And the spirit of jealousy come upon him, I great curse, that we will eat nothing until we have slain and he be jealous of his wife, and she be defiled: or if Paul.'-XXV. 15, `About whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he be jealous the chief priests and the elders of the Jews informed of his wife, and she be not defiled: 15. then shall the me, desiring to have judgment against him.'-xxvi. 10. man bring his wife unto the priest, and he shall bring Which thing I also did in Jerusalem : and many of the her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley saints did I shut up in prison, having received authority meal; he shall pour no oil upon it, nor put frankincense from the chief priests; and when they were put to death, thereon; for it is an offering of jealousy, an offering of I gave my voice against them.' memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance.'

their maintenance was from the tithes, fc.-Le. vii. 33, as well as judges of controversies: -De. xxi. 5, And 34, .6, .8. 33, He among the sons of Aaron, that offer the priests the sons of Levi shall come near; for them leth the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto him, I have the right shoulder for his part. 34, For the wave and to bless in the name of the LORD; and by their word breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the chil. shall every controversy and every stroke be tried.'-xvii. dren of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offer 8_13. 8, If there arise a matter too hard for thee in ings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the chilplea, and between stroke and stroke, being matters of dren of Israel.' 36, Which the LORD commanded to be controversy within thy gates: then shalt thou arise, and given them of the children of Israel, in the day that he get thee up into the place which the LORD thy God shall anointed them, by a statute for ever throughout their choose; 9, and thou shalt come unto the priests the Le generations.' 38, Which the LORD commanded Moses vites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and in mount Sinai, in the day that be commanded the chilenquire ; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judg-dren of Israel to offer their oblations unto the LORD, in ment: 10, and thou shalt do according to the sentence, the wilderness of Sinai.'-De. xviii. 3, And this shall be which they of that place which the LORD shall choose the priest's due from the people, from them that offer a shall shew thee; and thou shalt observe to do according sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep and they shall give to all that they inform thee: 11, according to the sen unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the tence of the law which they shall teach thee, and accord maw.' Nu. xviii. 13, .5, .6.13, And whatsoever is first ing to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou ripe in the land, which they shall bring unto the LORD, shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence which shall be thine; every one that is clean in thine house they shall shew thee, to the right hand, nor to the left. shall eat of it.' 15, Everything that openeth the matrix 12, And the man that will do presumptuously, and will in all flesh, which they bring unto the LORD, whether it not hearken unto the priest that standeth to minister I be of men or beasts, shall be thine: nevertheless the firstthere before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling that man shall die: and thou shalt put away the evil of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem. 16, And those that from Israel. 13, And all the people shall hear, and fear, I are to be redeemed from a month old shalt thou redeem. and do no more presumptuously.'

according to thine estimation, for the money of five she divided by David into 24 classes :-I Ch. xxiv. 7-18. kels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, which is twenty

which order was retained by Solomon :-2 Ch. viii. 14, gerahs.'-Le. xix. 23, .4. 23, And when ye shall come "And he appointed, according to the order of David his into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees father, the courses of the priests to their service, and the for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncirLevites to their charges, to praise and minister before cumcised: three years shall it be as uncircumcised unto the priests, as the duty of every day required: the por- you: it shall not be eaten of. 24, But in the fourth year ters also by their courses at every gate: for so had David all the fruit thereof shall be holy to praise the LORD the man of God commanded.'

withal.'-Nu. xxxi. 28–41. 28, And levy a tribute tinto by king Hezekiah:-2 Ch. xxxi. 2, ' And Hezekiah ap the LORD of the men of war which went out to battle: pointed the courses of the priests and the Levites after one soul of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the their courses, every man according to his service, the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep: 29, take it priests and Levites for burnt offerings and for peace of their half, and give it unto Eleazar the priest, for an offerings, to minister, and to give thanks, and to praise heave offering of the LORD. 30, And of the children of in the gates of the tents of the LORD.'

Israel's half, thou shalt take one portion of tifty, of the and Josiah:2 Ch. XXXV. 4, 5. 4, And prepare your persons, of the beeves, of the asses, and of the flocks, of selves by the houses of your fathers, after your courses, all manner of beasts, and give them unto the Levites, according to the writing of David king of Israel, and ac which keep the charge of the tabernacle of the LORD. cording to the writing of Solomon his son. 5, And stand 31, And Moses and Eleazar the priest did as the LORD in the holy place according to the divisions of the fami. commanded Moses. 32, And the booty, being the rest of lies of the fathers of your brethren the people, and after the prey which the men of war had caught, was six hun. the division of the families of the Levites.'

dred thousand and seventy thousand and five thousand four classes only returned from Babylon :-Ezr. ii. sheep, 33, and threescore and twelve thousand beeves, 36-.9. 36, The priests: the children of Jedaiah, of the | 34, and threescore and one thousand asses, 35, and therty house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three. 37, and two thousand persons in all, of women that had not The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two. 38, known man by lying with him. 36, And the half, which The children of Pashur, a thousand two hundred forty was the portion of them that went out to war, was in and seven. 39, The children of Harim, a thousand and number three hundred thousand and seven and thirty seventeen.'-And see. Scrip. Illus.,' page opposite. thousand and five hundred sheep: 37, and the LORD'S

to each order was assigned a president : Ch. xxiv. 6, tribute of the sheep was six hundred and threescore and 31. 6. •And Shemaiah the son of Nethaneel the scribe, fifreen. 38, And the beeves were thirty and six thouone of the Levites, wrote them before the king, and the sand; of which the LORD's tribute was threescore and princes, and Zadok the priest, and Abimelech the son of twelve. 39. And the asses were thirty thousand and five Abiathar, and before the chief of the fathers of the priests hundred; of which the Lord's tribute was threescore and Levites: one principal household being taken for and one. 40, And the persons were sixteen thousand; of Eleazar, and one taken for Ithamar.' 31, .These like which the LORD's tribute was thirty and two persons. wise cast lots over against their brethren the sons of 41, And Moses gave the tribute, which was the LORD'S Aaron in the presence of David the king, and Zadok, heave offering, unto Eleazar the priest, as the LORD and Abimelech, and the chief of the fathers of the priests commanded Moses.'


out your generations,' -ver. 1, 2.1, 'And the LORD Leri assisted Simeon, $c.:-Ge. xxxiv. 25—30; xlix. 5-7. spake unto Moses, saying, 2, Make thee two trumpets see p. (77).

of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them that

thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, appointed to the service of the sanctuary :-Nu. iii. 12, and for the journeyings of the camps. 13.12, And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from | the third "class was the porters :-I Ch. xxiii. 5.- See among the children of Israel instead of all the firstborn above, consisted of four thousand.'-xxvi. 1-13, .9. 1, that openeth the matrix among the children of Israel: Concerning the divisions of the porters: Of the Korhites therefore the Levites shall be mine; 13, because all the was Meshelemiah the son of Kore, of the sons of Asaph. firstborn are mine; for on the day that I smote all the 2, And the sons of Meshelemiah were, Zechariah the firstborn in the land of Egypt I hallowed unto me all the firstborn, Jediael the second, Zebadiah the third, Jathfirstborn in Israel, both man and beast: mine shall they niel the fourth, 3, Elam the fifth, Jehohanan the sixth, be: I am the LORD.'-viii. 18, 'And I have taken the Le Elioenai the seventh. 4, Moreover the sons of Obedvites for all the firstborn of the children of Israel.'

edom were, Shemaiah the firstborn, Jehozabad the sein lieu of the Arstborn males : Nu. iii. 146. 14, 'And cond, Joah the third, and Sacar the fourth, and Nethathe LORD spake unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, neel the fiftb, 5, Ammiel the sixth, Issachar the seventh saying. 15, Number the children of Levi after the house Peulthai the eighth: for God blessed him. 6, Also unto of their fathers, by their families : every male from a Shemaiah his son were sons born, that ruled throughout month old and upward shalt thou number them. 16, the house of their father for they were mighty men of And Moses numbered them according to the word of the

valour. 7. The sons of Shemaiah; Othni, and Rephael, LORD, as he was commanded.'-viii. 17. For all the first and Obed, Elzabad, whose brethren were strong men, born of the children of Israel are mine, both man and Elihu, and Semachiah. 8, All these of the sons of Obedbeast : on the day that I smote every firstborn in the land edom : they and their sons and their brethren, able men of Egypt I sanctified them for myself.'

for strength for the service, were threescore and two of in David's time they were thirty-eight thousand : Obed-edom. 9, And Meshelemiah had sons and breCh. xxiii. 3, Now the Levites were numbered from the thren, strong men, eighteen. 10. Also Hosah, of the age of thirty years and upward: and their number by children of Merari, had sons; Simri the chief, (for though their polls, man by man, was thirty and eight thousand.' he was not the firstborn, yet his father made him the

twenty-four thousand divided into twenty-four courses: chief:) 1l, Hilkiah the second, Tebaliah the third, Ze- Ch. xxiii. 4, • Of which, twenty and four thousand chariah the fourth: all the sons and brethren of Hosah toere to set forward the work of the house of the LORD were thirteen. 12, Among these were the divisions of and six thousand were officers and judges.'-2 Ch. xxxi. the porters, even among the chief men, having wards 17,. Both to the genealogy of the priests by the house of one against another, to minister in the house of the their fathers, and the Levites from twenty years old and

LORD. 13, And they cast lots, as well the small as the upward, in their charges by their courses.'

great, according to the house of their fathers, for every the first class to wait on the sons of Aaron, &c.:-1 Ch. gate.' 19,. These are the divisions of the porters among xxiii. 28, .9. 28, . Because their office was to wait on the the sons of Kore, and among the sons of Merari.'-2 Ch. sons of Aaron for the service of the house of the LORD, XXXV. 15, And the singers the sons of Asaph were in in the courts, and in the chambers, and in the purifying their place, according to the commandment of David, of all holy things, and the work of the service of the land Asaph, and Heman, and Jeduthun the king's seer; house of God; 29, both for the shewbread, and for the and the porters waited at every gate; they might not fine flour for meat offering, and for the unleavened cakes, depart from their service; for their brethren the Levites and for that which is baked in the pan, and for that which prepared for them.'-Also viii. 14see p. (74).-2 Ch. is fried, and for all manner of measure and size.'-2 Ch. xxiii. 19,' And he set the porters at the gates of the xxix. 34, . But the priests were too few, so that they could house of the LORD, that none which was unclean in anynot flay all the burnt offerings : wherefore their brethren thing should enter in.'-1 Ch. ix. 33, 'And these are the the Levites did help them, till the work was ended, and singers, chief of the fathers of the Levites, who remainuntil the other priests had sanctified themselves: for the ing in the chambers were free: for they were employed Levites were more upright in heart to sanctify themselves in that work day and night.' than the priests.'-xxxv. 10%4. 10, So the service was the Levites and priests precluded from sharing, &c. :prepared, and the priests stood in their place, and the

De. xviii. 1, 2.1, The priests the Levites, and all the Levites in their courses, according to the king's com tribe of Levi, shall have no part nor inheritance with mandment. Il, And they killed the passover, and the Israel: they shall eat the offerings of the LORD made by priests sprinkled the blood from their hands, and the Le- fire, and his inheritance. 2, Therefore shall they have vites flayed them. 12, And they removed the burnt offer- no inheritance among their brethren: the LORD is their ings, that they might give according to the divisions of inheritance, as he hath said unto them.'-Jos. xxi. the families of the people, to offer unto the LORD, as it is

in lieu thereof had forty-eight cities, dc. Nu. XXXV. written in the book of Moses. And so did they with the

-8. 1, And the LORD spake unto Moses in the plains oxen. 13, And they roasted the passover with fire accord- of Moab by Jordan near Jericho, saying, 2, Command ing to the ordinance: but the other holy offerings sod the children of Israel, that they give unto the Levites of they in pots, and in caldrons, and in pans, and divided the inheritance of their possession cities to dwell in; and them speedily among all the people. 14, And afterward ye shall give also unto the Levites suburbs for the cities they made ready for themselves, and for the priests: round about them. 3, And the cities shall they have to because the priests the sons of Aaron were busied in dwell in; and the suburbs of them shall be for their offering of burnt offerings and the fat until night; there- | cattle, and for their goods, and for all their beasts. 4, fore the Levites prepared for themselves, and for the And the suburbs of the cities, which ye shall give unto priests the sons of Aaron.'

the Levites, shall reach from the wall of the city and some of the chief, &c.:-1 Ch. xxvi. 20, And of the Le outward a thousand cubits round about. 5, And ye shall vites, Ahijah was over the treasures of the house of God, measure from without the city on the east side two thouand over the treasures of the dedicated things.'

sand cubits, and on the south side two thousand cubits, the second class consisted of four thousand - Ch. xxiii. and on the west side two thousand cubits, and on the 5, Moreover four thousand were porters; and four thou-north side two thousand cubits; and the city shall be in sand praised the LORD with the instruments which I the midst : this shall be to them the suburbs of the cities. made, said David, to praise therewith.'

6, And among the cities which ye shall give upto the Lethe temple choir divided into twenty-four courses:-1 vites there shall be six cities for refuge, which ye shall Ch. xxiii. 30.-XXY.

appoint for the manslayer, that he may flee thither: and the temple choir ... wind and stringed instruments: to them ye shall add forty and two cities. 7, So all the 2 Ch. vii. 6, And the priests waited on their offices: the cities which ye shall give to the Levites shall be forty and Levites also with instruments of musick of the LORD, eight cities: them shall ye give with their suburbs. 8, which David the king had made to praise the LORD, be And the cities which ye shall give shall be of the possescause his mercy endureth for ever, when David praised sion of the children of Israel: from them that have many by their ministry; and the priests sounded trunipets be ye shall give many; but from them that have few ye shall fore them, and all Israel stood.'-xxix. 26, And the Legive few : every one shall give of his cities unto the Levites stood with the instruments of David, and the priests vites according to his inheritance which he inheriteth.' with the trumpets.'-I Ch. xv. 16, 24. 16, And David and thus God converted Jacob's curse, c.:-Ge. xlix. spake to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren 5-7-see p. (77), to be the singers with instruments of musick, psalteries David made six thousand officers and judges. -1 Ch. and harps and cymbals, sounding, by lifting up the voice xxiii. 4-see above, twenty-four thousand divided,' &c. with joy.' 24, And Shebaniah, and Jehoshaphat, and the Levitical cities had suburbs :-Nu. xxxv. 4,5-see Nethaneel, and Amasai, and Zechariah, and Benaiah, above, in lieu thereof,' &c. and Eliezer, the priests, did blow with the trumpets be the priests and Levites received likewise a tithe, fc. fore the ark of God: and Obed-edom and Jehiah were Nu. xviii. 21, 'And, behold, I have given the children of doorkeepers for the ark.'--Nu. A. 8, And the sons of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for their Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets, and service which they serve, even the service of the taberthey shall be to you for an ordinance for ever through-nacle of the congregation.'


LEVITES, p. 68. The Levites were the posterity of Levi, the third | Notwithstanding the meanness of their employment, son of Jacob by Leah, and one of the twelve tribes of 1 yet the pious king David said, Ps. Ixxxiv. 10," I had Israel. Levi assisted Simeon in murdering the She rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God, than to chemites, for which his father Jacob denounced his duell in the tents of wickedness." They also kept family to be scattered among the Hebrew tribes in guard by night about the temple and its courts. Canaan, Ge. xxxiv. 25-30; xlix. 5-7. They were | They are said to have been twenty-four, including appointed by God to the service of the sanctuary, three priests, who stood sentry at so many different Nu.iii. 12, 3; viii. 18, in lieu of the first-born' males, places. There was a superior officer over the whole iii. 14-.6; viii. 17. They were, originally, distin- guard, called by Maimonides, "the man of the mounguished into three classes, or families, (from the tain of the house.” He walked the round, and when three sons of Levi,-Kohath, Gershon, and Merari). | he passed a sentinel that was standing, he said, To them was committed the removal and setting up ^ Peace be unto you." But if he found one asleep, of the tabernacle in the wilderness. In David's time, he struck him; and he had liberty to set fire to his the whole body of the Levites amounted to thirty garment. This custom may be alluded to in Rev. eight thousand, 1 Ch. xxiii. 3, of which number he xvi. 15, " Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that appointed four and twenty thousand to attend the | watcheth, and keepeth his garments." Thus were the constant duty and work of the temple; and these Levites employed in the work “ day and night," 1 being divided into twenty-four courses, 1 Ch. xxiii. 4; Ch. ix. 33. The consecration of the Levites in Moses' 2 Ch. xxxi. 17, there were one thousand for each time was at the twenty-fifth year of their age, and week. Each class had its distinct service.

they contiuued until fifty; but in David's time, when

the labour was less, young men were eligible at The first class "was to wait on the sons of Aaron,

twenty. for the service of the house of the LORD," i.e., to assist the priests in the exercise of their ministry, "to purify None of the Levites, of what degree or order soever, the holy things, to prepare the shew-bread, and flour, had any right to sacrifice, for that was the proper | and wine, and oil for the sacrifice; and sometimes to | duty of the priests only: the Levites, indeed, were to

kill the sacrifice," I Ch. xxiii. 28, .9; 2 Ch. xxix. 34; l assist the priests in killing and flaying the sacrifices; xxxv. 10—.4. Some of the chief amongst them had and during the time they were offered up, to sing the charge of the sacred treasures, I Ch. xxvi. 20. praises unto God. Neither had they any title to burn The second class consisted of four thousand, I Ch.

| incense to the Lord. It was on account of their xxiii. 5. David divided them into twenty-four courses,

aspiring to the priest's office in this particular of

burning incense, that Korah and his company (who and formed the temple choir, who thanked and praised

were Levites) were destroyed, Nu. xvi. 1-36. the Lord every morning and evening, I Ch. xxiii. 30 -XXV. The music was both vocal and instrumental: The Levites, as well as the priests, were precluded " As well the singers as the players on instruments shall by law from sharing the promised inheritance of Cabe there," Ps. lxxxvii. 7. In David's time, there were naan with the other tribes, De. xviii. 1, 2; Jos. xxi. appointed three masters of the band of music, Heman, In lieu thereof they had forty-eight cities, with their Asaph, and Ethan, 1 Ch. xv. 17, whose names are suburbs, assigned them out of the other tribes; thirprefixed to some of the Psalms, probably because they teen of which belonged to the priests, and thirty-five set them to music. Asaph's name is inscribed to the to the rest of the tribe of Levi, Nu. xxxv. 1-8. The fiftieth, seventy-third, and ten following Psalms; cities of the priests were mostly in the tribes of Judah Heman's to the eighty-eighth; and Ethan's to the and Benjamin, and consequently nearer to Jerusaeighty-ninth. There was, also, over all the rest, one lem, which stood in the contines of the two tribes; chief musician, or head master of the choir, to whom whereas those of the Levites were divided to them by several of the Psalms are inscribed. At the time of lot, ont of the other tribes on either side Jordan. writing the xxxix. Ixii. lxxvii. Jeduthun was master. And thus God converted Jacob's curse on Levi, Ge. In the temple choir were both wind and stringed

xlix. 5-7, into a national blessing, by dispersing the instruments, 2 Ch. vii. 6; xxix. 26. In both these

priests and Levites, whose office it was to instruct the passages the priests are said to sound the trumpets,

people where they resided in the Mosaic law, throughsee 1 Ch. xv. 16, 24, as it was prescribed in the law of

out the whole land. They also kept the public Moses, "The sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with

records and genealogies. David made six thousand the trumpets," Nu. x. 8; this was done " for the call

of them officers and judges, I Ch. xxiii. 4. Dr. Lighting of the assembly, and for the journeying of the

foot makes these forty-eight cities to be so many camps," ver. 1, 2.

universities, where the ministerial tribe studied the

law, and diffused the knowledge of it through the The third class was the porters, consisting of four nation. Of these, six were appointed cities of refuge, thousand, I Ch. xxiii. 5, to whose charge the several for protecting persons from the severity of the law in gates of the sanctuary were appointed by lot, 1 Ch. | case of involuntary homicide. The Levitical cities xxvi. 1-13, .9; 2 Ch. xxxv. 15; and they attended by had suburbs and fields surrounding them, to the exturns in their courses, as the other Levites did, 2 Ch. tent of 3,000 cubits on every side, Nu. XXXV. 4, 5. viii. 14. Their proper business was to open and shut From these suburbs they were maintained when not the gates, and to attend at them by day, as a sort of ministering in the temple, at which time they were peace officers, in order to prevent any tumult among supported by the dues arising from the sacrifices. the people ; to keep strangers and the excommuni. The priests and Levites received likewise a tithe of a cated and unclean persons from entering into the holy tenth of all the inheritance in Israel for their sercourt; and in short to watch over the safety, peace, sices, Nu. xviii. 21. This was done that they might and purity of the holy place and service, 2 Ch. xxiii. 19. I give themselves wholly to the service of the Lord."*


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• The Levites had under them others, called NETHINIMS, chiefly of the posterity of the Gibeonites, whose business it was to carry the water and wood that were wanted in the temple for the use of the sacrifices, and to perform other laborious services there. They had a particular place in Jerusalem where they dwelt, called Opbel, being near their place of service-the temple, Ne. iii. 26.

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water to go to the Lord, as he appeared to the dis- | 36-43, (at Joppa) was warned by a vision to go to ciples. Jno. xxi. 7. $ 97, (at the sea of Tiberias,) and Cæsarea, x. 9-17, (at Joppa-baptized Cornelius, ver. received a special commission from Jesus to feed his 18-48. (at Cæsarea)-was imprisoned by Herod, the lambs, &c., ver. 15-9- was reproved, ver. 20-2. tetrarch of Galilee, &c., and delivered by an angel, After our Lord's ascension, Peter was the chief xii. 3-17-was in Jerusalem at Paul's first visit after speaker in the church at Jerusalem, Ac, i. 15-22- bis conversion, Ga, i. 18-the gospel of the circumon the day of Pentecost he defended the brethren, cision was committed to him, ii. 7-Peter and Paul ii. 14, 5, and preached a sermon to the people, when met at Anticch, zer. 11 --Panl withstood him to the 3,000 were converted, ver. 16-41, (in Jerusalem-he face, ver. Il-.6. At the time Paul set out on his evanhealed a lame man at the Beautiful gate of the tem-gelical circuit from Antioch through Phrygia and ple, iii. 1-11, and again preached Jesus, ver. 12-26- Galatia, Ac. xviii. 23, A.D. 52, Peter is also supposed was imprisoned, &c., iv. 1-22--at his word Ananias to have departed thence through Pontus, Galatia, &c., and Sapphira fell down dead, v. l-11-the sick laid and passing by Corinth, to have arrived at Rome, in the streets, that the shadow of Peter, &c., ver. 15- accompanied by Mark, A.D. 51-during his stay there with the other apostles he was again imprisoned, ver. Mark's Gospel was written, A.D. 55-and from Baby17,.8, and released by an angel, ver. 19; and as they lon in Egypt, Peter wrote his first epistle, A.D. 59 taught in the temple, were taken and set before the he arrived in Rome a second time, A.D. 64, having council, and being beaten were let go, ver. 21-40-he ordained Mark bishop of Alexandria; and wrote his rejoiced in suffering, and ceased not to teach and to second epistle, A.D. 65-and in the same rear sufpreach Jesus Christ, ver. 41, .2-appointed by the fered martyrdom; being, it is said, crucified with his church to go to Samaria, viii. 1-25-he raised Eneas, head downwards, deeming it too great an honour ix. 32-.5, (at Lydda)-restored Tabitha to life, ver. I even to die as his Lord.





(G. 10.) Jesus changes water into wine. John ii. 1-11.- At Cana. 1 And the third day there-was a-marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus 2 was there: and both Jesus was-called, and his disciples, to the marriage. 3 And when4 they-wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They-have no wine. Jesus

SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS. 1. third day-Jesus had been once and again pro- Is. Ixii. 5, would inherit the Gentiles, Is. liv. 3—they claimed as the Lamb of God.' This was at length were to be given possession of the gates of their eneeffectual in inducing two disciples to attach them- mies, Ge. xxii. 17-Cana' is again introduced at selves to him, Jno. i. 35-.9, 10—the day following Jno. iv. 46, § 14, and xxi. 2, $ 97, in connection with Jesus would go forth into Galilee,' ver. 43—the day the name Nathanael : the two names together exafter this was the third, reckoning that as the first, press the truth, God gives possession, as Ps. xliv. 3. near the close of which Jesus began to gather dis

2. disciples-those already mentioned as followers ciples, Jno. 1. 39, 510, p. 71-much regard is nag to of Jesus were Andrew, ch. i. 40, § 10, p. 71. and anthe third day in Scripture-see Sect. I., Jesus' first other disciple. probably Jamesalin Simon Peter ve prediction of his death and resurrection."

41, p. 71-Philip, ver. 43, p. 72-and Nathanael, ver. a marriage-represents the union which shall have 45—they had heard of Jesus as being the Lamb of taken place between Christ the Bridegroom and his God,' ver. 36, p. 70-acknowledged him, of whom Mochosen people, previous to their restoration-see Je. ses and the prophets did write, ver. 45, p. 72, to be ii. 14-a betrothment in faithfulness, Ho. ii. 14-20- the Christ, ver. 41, p. 71-and were, as lively stones, upon which the word shall be fulfilled to Zion: For to be built upon that one Foundation, ver. 42, p. 71as a young man marrieth a virgin, so shall thy sons they were engaged in bringing others unto Jesus, marry thee: and as the bridegroom rejoiceth over ver. 41, .5, p.71; and, submitting themselves to him the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee,' Is. lxii. as King of Israel, ver. 49, p. 73, they were taught to 5-see as to what the Lord hath done to accomplish look forward to the glorious consummation of his the marriage, Ep. v. 25-33—and the importance of kingdom, when he shall be obeyed both on earth and obeying the call to the marriage, Mt. xxii. 1-14, 984; | in heaven, ver. 51, p. 73. xxv. 1-13, 8 86.

3. they have no wine-wine had been promised in Cana-there was a Kanah in the north of Asher, as connection with the Lord's espousing a people to well as this, Cana the lesser in Galilee, Jos. xix. 28- himself, Ho. ii. 19-22; Je. xxxi. 12 Ye shall be the word may mean zeal,' or 'possession.' It was satisfied therewith,' Joel ii. 18, .9_ the mountains predicted that the promised Seed, referred to above, shall drop sweet wine,' Am. ix. 13.

NOTES 1. Marriage. A solemn contract, whereby a man and temple, the bridegrooms wear no crowns on the and woman engage to live together in a kind and marriage-day. affectionate manner. Anciently the Hebrews wore

The mother of Jesus was there. Not invited, but as crowns on their marriage-day; and it seems, the

a relation. This may be inferred from her being bridegroom's was put on by his mother, Song of

present at the feast, and concerned about the wine. Sol. iíi. 11. The ceremonies of marriage continued three days for a widow, and seven for a virgin, Gen.

As Joseph is not mentioned, we may suppose that xxix. 27. During this time, the young men and

he died before our Lord entered on his public minisyoung women attended the bridegroom and bride in

try. It is conjectured this feast was at the house of different apartments, and the former puzzled one

Cleopas, or Alpheus, whose wife was sister to the another with riddles, Song v. 1: Ps. xlv. 9, 14, .5;

mother of our Lord, see ch. xix. 25, § 91, and one of Ju. xiv. A friend of the bridegroom's governed the

whose sons was Simon the Canaanite, whom some feast, that no drunkenness or disorder might be

have thought to be so called from his being an incommitted, ver. 9. At the end of the feast, the

habitant of this Cana, Mk. iii. 18, S 27. parties were, with lighted lamps, conducted to the 3. They have no wine. Or, the wine is falling short. bridegroom's house. The bridegroom, leaving his This might very well happen, without supposing an apartment, called forth the bride and her attend excess on the part of the guests, probably in conseants, who, it seems, were generally about ten, Mt. quence of the arrival of Jesus and many with him, xxv. 1-10, $ 86. The modern Jews retain the most beyond the number originally expected, and attracted of these ceremonies : only since the ruin of their city | by his presence.

PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS. 1, 2 ver. Jesus, although a man of sorrows and them that weep.' acquainted with grief, did not turn away morosely 2 ver. Let us indulge in no feasts to which we canfrom witnessing the enjoyments of others. Let us not invite Jesus as a guest, and rejoice in a sense of • rejoice wi:h them that do rejoice, and weep with his being present


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