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ὀσφρᾶται] late form= ὀσφραίνεται. For sense Jacobitz compares Timon § 45 όσφραινόμενοι τοῦ χρυσίου.

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ouveniλaßor] grasp with me, take hold and help me.

ἄνω ἐστί] ὁ ἰχθύς. He's landed.

Kúw] a sort of sword-fish. Of course there is a play upon kuvikós. See on § 45 ὁ κυνίσκος.

Xxvevwv] greedily licking or tasting. We might almost say here 'sniffing about the rocks'.

Page 54.

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άnpтnuevos] hung from, dependent upon the slave of. Compare Ikarom 83 K тŵv wтwv åπηpтnuévov = 'all attention', Timon § 36 αὐτοῦ ἐμοῦ τὰς ἐλπίδας ἀπαρτήσασά μοι τοῦ βίου='having made my hopes of my living depend on myself'. Lucian evidently means that the fish smelt the bait and was led by his smell to bite.

KEVOV σo etc] 'there you have the hook clear'. For σo see on Charon § 17 ἕξει τέλος αὐτῷ.

TрoσéσxηTα] is held fast, lodged firmly. Compare Eurip Bacchae 755-6 ὁπόσα δ ̓ ἐπ ̓ ὤμοις ἔθεσαν οὐ δεσμῶν ὑπο προσείχετ ̓ οὐδ ̓ ἔπιπτεν ἐς μέλαν πέδον.

uà Aía] used in affirmative clauses as here, is only found in late writers. Jacobitz. But perhaps there is a negative implied, as 'he can't be allowed to keep it ; no, let him spew it out'. We should however rather expect μà ▲i' ¿λλà in that case. See on § 51 νὴ Δία.

Toλ Méyes] 'you say a great price'. We should render 'I priced him at two obols the other day. And dear at that: for he is unfit for food, hideous, hard and worthless'.

ἐπὶ κεφαλὴν] head-first. See on § 12 ἐπὶ πόδας.

σοι] like that above κενόν σοι τὸ ἄγκιστρον.

apúwr] the ȧpún was a very small fish. There is a pun here upon apuns without natural talent, foolish. We may try to express it and lighter than sprats. Yes certainly, light-headed enough'.

§ 49.

19 Tλarus] broad, flat. There is of course a pun upon Πλάτων.

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WOTEρ nμlтOμos] 'split, so to speak'. The Greeks seem to have applied this expression to the Tra because it was white underneath, as though it had been cut in half. See Aristoph Lys 115-6, 131—2, where in line 131 we have an instance of the use of YTTα= blockhead, a sense possibly alluded to here.

ἀπὸ τῆς αὐτῆς πέτρας] that is ἀφείσθω, as § 48 άφες shews.

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καθείσθω] τὸ ἄγκιστρον.

§ 50. See § 48.

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is av ev ßvow dóželev] as would appear in a depth as well as one can see so far down. Jacobitz.

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Tailas Tivàs etc] 'having so to speak gilt bands upon his back'. πроσπоιοÚμεvos] pretending to. Here 'affecting', 'representing'.

Page 55,

ἀνιμήσθω] 2nd pers perf imperative passive from ἀνιμάω. Let him be hauled up: haul him up'.

καὶ οὗτος] ἀφείσθω.

§ 51.

KATÒ TAŮTÒV] Over against the same spot on the same side.

ákavédels etc] 'prickly and made rough on the outside, harder than sea-urchins to catch. Surely it will take a net to catch them; and we haven't got one'. These are the Stoics, well represented here as 'thornbacks', because of their thorny and rough doctrines.

Tǹv éπipáveiav] emphatic. Lucian means that the modern Stoic of his own time was rude without, but wanton and luxurious within.

ἱκανὸν] ἂν εἴη is of course the sense.

σιδηρώσας ἐπὶ πολὺ] having put iron upon a large piece of the line. Compare Thuc IV 100 § 2 ἐσεσιδήρωτο ἐπὶ μέγα καὶ τοῦ ἄλλου ξύλου. TρоopÚVτes] having grown to, clung fast to. So of a fish in Theocritus XXI 46 χὼ μὲν τὠγκίστρῳ ποτεφύετο.

21 äpшvoι yàp avтol] if these words be not a gloss, as Cobet and others suppose, they must be rendered 'for they cannot speak of themselves'..

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27 vn Ala] Chrysippus is saying no to the last question. But it must not be supposed that νὴ Δία = μὰ Δία or μὰ Δί' ἀλλά. The νή Δία emphasizes úßplσTikà èpwras, and the sense is 'really your question is insulting' or 'your question is insulting, that it is'. If we suppose the words to come in sense after ύβριστικά οι έρωτᾷs, this is quite clear. ἐσθίων] αὐτόν.

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σo] see on Charon § 1.

§ 52, page 56.

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olo Tool eio] of which sort many are (and many are of that sort). He means that they are sharp jagged-toothed dangerous fish. So § 46.

ȧπorîσai] to pay back. We may say 'to make it up to the priestess'. 5 жерýμεро] 'overdue'. Said of persons behindhand with debts fines

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Ts Tрoleoμlas] the appointed time or limit. Commonly used of the time appointed by law for debts to be got in and charges brought, after which no legal steps could be taken. Here we must render 'that you may not overrun your leave of absence'. See § 4, 14.

TOU AUKEίOV] a park and gymnasium much frequented by philosophers. In particular it had been the resort of Aristotle and his school.

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OF MOURNING.

dev] as they think'.

§ 1, page 57.

Often used ironically thus, implying that

an action is not what it pretends to be.

avoɩs] 'in turn'. The sense is a common one. Compare Soph Oed Tyr 1402—3 οι' ἔργα δράσας ὑμὶν εἶτα δεῦρ' ἰὼν ὁποῖο ἔπρασσον αὖθις. 5 IIλouтwva] the king of the nether world. The name is properly an epithet of Alons. See Liddell and Scott, and Paley's note on Aesch Prom 806 (825) IIλOUTWvos Tóрov. The derivation given below § 2 is absurd and probably given only as an ironical hit at the contemporary philologists.

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Depoepóvny] Persephone or Phersephone was the daughter of Demeter goddess of agriculture and giver of the fruits of the earth in their season. The legends told how she was carried off by Pluton and became his queen in the world below.

κατ ̓ οὐδὲν] in any respect.

ÉTITρÉTOVтes etc] leaving their grief to (the guidance of) conventional usage. voμ kal ovvη@ela really represents only one notion, and may therefore be treated as a hendiadys.

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'Hotbow] Hesiod one of the early Greek poets, of uncertain date, is best known by his poem called 'Works and Days', a metrical collection of agricultural and other maxims. He also wrote a mythical poem called Theogony.

voμov léμevo] 'having taken for a rule'. The sense is perhaps better expressed by our 'as a text-book'.

Teλnpaoi] take for granted. Compare Dem de fals leg § 3 P 342 ὃ δὲ καίπερ ὑπειληφὼς ταῦτα φοβοῦμαι, φράσω πρὸς ὑμᾶς.

ok old' öπws] parenthetic as usual. Render 'which place seems to them to be lighted up somehow, so that they can get a sight of all it contains'.

τῶν τὰ τοιαῦτα δεινῶν] those clever at such things. This use of dewòs is very common.

Page 58.

KATασThσaσbaι] arranged for himself. Render 'and that this Pluton arranged the government of his realm and the world below in this way'.

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KEKλnp@ola] it had been settled by lot. The legend was that Zeus Poseidon and Pluton cast lots for the empires of the upper the marine and the nether worlds, and that they fell to them in the order named.

ipiéμevov] ipleo@auto send oneself under: hence, to give way, submit. pieobal Twi Twos to give way to any one in anything. Render here 'allowing not a single soul to go upwards, with exception of a very few in all time past, on very strong grounds'.

§ 3.

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ὀνομάτων] κωκυτὸς= wailing, πυριφλεγέθων = fire-blazing. See on Charon § 6. Milton (Par lost II 577-581) well illustrates the point of this passage Abhorred Styx, the flood of deadly hate; sad Acheron of sorrow, black and deep: Cocytus named of lamentation loud heard on the rueful stream; fierce Phlegethon, whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage'. See Virgil Aen VI 550-1, Plato Phaedo p 113.

ΤΟ 'Axepovola Xuvn] Acheron was the one of the infernal rivers (the name is supposed to be connected with axos, see Milton quoted above) which was generally represented as flowing outside the others and disgorging into a great lake or mere. See Plato Phaedo pp 112, 113, Virgil Aen VI 107, VII 569, and note on Charon § 6. Plato calls this ἡ ̓Αχερουσιὰς λίμνη.

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ἔνι] = ἔνεστι as often.

TоÛ TорOμéws] Charon of course. over by him see Virgil Georg IV 502,

For the necessity of being ferried
Aen VI 313—6.

Babeîa Tepâσai] deep to cross = full deep for crossing too deep to cross: that is, by wading. So diavý§ao@ai ̄#oλλ=too broad to swim

across.

Ovк av diaπтain] could not fly across it; because of the evil stench, I suppose. See Virgil Aen VI 239-242 and Conington's note.

§ 4.

ka@bow] the descent. See Virgil Aen v1 126. One is reminded also of 273 vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci.

πúλŋ] Virgil Aen vi 552-4 describes the gate of Tartarus as of adamant or steel. The gate here is that of the infernal regions generally.

ddeλpidoûs] Aeacus was son of Zeus, and so nephew of Pluton. For this version of the legend, which represented him as a sort of porter or inspector at the gate of Hades, see note on Charon § 2 μπoλŵv.

τὴν φρουρὰν ἐπιτετραμμένος] entrusted in respect of the guard - having the guard entrusted to him. This is a very common construction with the perfect passive of ἐπιτρέπω.

KúwV] Cerberus. See Virgil Aen VI 417-423.

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§ 5.

Tepaιwlévтas etc] 'and when they are ferried over the mere to the inner side, a broad mead thick set with asphodel awaits them, and a draught of water hostile to memory; at least it has been named on this account the water of forgetfulness'. repaιoûoba is especially used of crossing over water. See Thuc I 26 82 where card Đà rao vặt đẹp

μενοι is opposed to ἐπορεύθησαν πεζῇ.

21 λev] the mead of asphodel is spoken of again in Menippus § 11. It comes from Odyssey XI 539, 573. See on Charon § 22.

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Anons] see on Charon § 21, and for the river being itself named Lethe (which Liddell and Scott deny too broadly) it will be best to refer to Virgil Aen vi 705–715, 749, Plato Rep p 621. Conington on Aen VI 705 observes rightly that the river Lethe is not Homeric.

duéλe] see on piscator § 25.

"ANKNOTS] wife of Admetus king of Pherae in Thessaly. How she gave herself up to death to save her husband, and how she was brought back from the nether world to life again by Herakles, is all set forth in the well-known play of Euripides which bears her name.

Пpwreσlλews] for the tale of Protesilaus see on Charon § 1.

Onσeus] son of Aegeus a mythical king of Athens. The present passage refers to an attempt which he is said to have made in his later years. He went to Hades with Pirithous to aid him in carrying off Persephone the wife of Pluton. Pirithous never returned and Theseus was only released from his bonds by Herakles. See Virgil Aen vi 393-5 and Conington on 617.

ὁ τοῦ Ὁμήρου Οδυσσεύς] ‘Odysseus in Homer. The eleventh book of the Odyssey (hence called véκvia) is devoted to the visit of Odysseus to the dead in Hades.

OỦ TIÓVTES...AUTŵv] 'not having drunk of the spring; (which they cannot have done) for (had they drunk) they could never have remembered them'. The Greek yàp often expresses what we have to explain in English by parentheses as above, and can only translate by a somewhat forced for then'. See § 15.

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§ 6.

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σvvdiarрárтovov] 'help in carrying on'. cond § 12 δημοσίᾳ δὲ τῆς μεγίστης ἀρχῆς συνδιαπράττομεν.

Compare apolog de merc κοινωνοῦμεν καὶ τὸ μέρος

epives] Furies'. These avenging deities play an important part in the Greek mythology, and are continually spoken of in literature. Of much the same nature are the Towal and poßol, spirits of vengeance and fear.

d'Epuns] the usher of departed souls, who took them to the world below. See the Charon passim.

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