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Page 59. οιτος μέν γε ουκ αεί συμπαρών] “ though this last it is true is not always there with them'. Hermes would not be there when gone up to earth for a fresh batch of souls.

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§ 7. ύπαρχοι και σατράπαι] lieutenants and viceroys'. σατράπης was the title of the provincial governors under the Baoileùs or Great King of Persia. The sa rap was obliged to make good the moneytributes and other imposts for which his province was set down in the imperial registers. But he was left to govern the province as he pleased. He was therefore not unlike a Turkish pasha.

Mivws] a famous king of Crete in early times; he and his brother Rhadamanthus were made after death judges in the nether world. See

Odyssey XI 568—571, Virgil Aen Vi 431—3, 566—9. 5 ÉTELÒà» etc] 'whenever they are gathered together in any number'.

That is, they do not send them on one by one but in lots. 6 'Hlúolov] the Elysian plain was the Paradise of Greek mythology,

to which the spirits of the good and brave were despatched. See Virgil Aen vi 638–641, 673–5, 743–4, and the Odyssey IV 561–8, especially 563-5 αλλά σ' ές Ηλύσιον πεδίων και πείρατα γαίης αθάνατοι πέμψουσιν, όθι ξανθός Ραδάμανθυς, τη περ ρηίστη βιοτή πέλει ανθρώ




$ 8. 8 ταις Ερινύσι παραδόντες] for the giving in charge of the wicked

to the Furies after trial, to be driven off into Tartarus, see Virgil Aen VI 570—2, 605—7.

Tŵv do eßû xwpov] 'the place of the wicked'. See Virgil Aen Vi 548–627, and compare in particular the phrase impia Tartara

Aen v 733, Vi 543. 9 kata Móyov rns áðklas] in proportion to their wrong-doing. Compare gallus § 26 oủ kata Xóyov Toll Troðbs (said of an ill-fitting shoe).

otpeßloýuevoi] being stretched on the rack.

Kalóuevoi] being burned. Perhaps this may refer to the purification by fire also spoken of by Virgil Aen vi 742.

ÚTS OUTôv] this refers to Tityos, whose liver was ever being devoured by a vulture and (according to one version of the story) ever growing again. See Odyssey XI 576—581, Virgil Aen vi 595–600.

tpoxo) this refers to Ixion who was represented as bound tight upon a wheel, which continually spun round with him. See Pindar Pyth 11 21—3, Virgil Aen vi 616—7.

Nidovs] Sisyphus was condemned to roll a stone up to the top of a hill: but no sooner had he got it close to the top than it bounded down

again full speed. See Odyssey XI 593–600, Virgil Aen vi 616. 13

Távtalos] see on Charon $ 15.



$9. 15

ol de Toll uérou Blov etc] that those who have on earth been neither actively good nor actively bad are after death kept in a place apart, neither Elysium nor Tartarus, is a doctrine found also in the sixth book of Virgil's Aeneid. This part and its inhabitants are loosely de. scribed by him in lines 426—547. See also v 734 and Conington's

note. 17

Útd åpn etc) for the impalpable nature of the shades see Odyssey XI 204—8, Virgil Aen II 792—4, VI 290—4, 700—2. 18 åpa] 'it seems'. Ironical sense, as often.

Xoals] the pouring of libations at tombs was a very ancient custom and is continually referred to in the Greek writers. The dead were supposed to enjoy honour and power among the spirit world in propor. tion to the honour paid to their tombs by libations and other sacrifices. This is especially brought out in the play of Aeschylus called xonpópou. There was also a notion that the spirits fed somehow on these libations and offerings, especially on blood. See Odyssey X 516—540, XI 23– 50, 88–9, 95–9. Compare the remarks of Lucian below § 19, Charon

8 22. 19

us el rw etc] 'since if any man has no friend or kinsman left behind on earth, he dwells among them a corpse unfed and hungering'. See in particular Aesch Choeph 164, 260—1, 483-5.


$ 10. TTEPLEXńXvde] has gone round. We say 'has penetrated' or 'has taken such hold of'. Compare Odyssey ix 362 aůtap énel Kúklwna περί φρένας ήλυθεν οίνος, Lucian de hist conscr 8 2 (το πάθος) τους

πολλούς των πεπαιδευμένων περιελήλυθεν. 23 oßolóv] see on Charon § 11.

És To ozbua aútą] to him into his mouth='into his mouth', a common Greek idiom.

karbonkav] aorist of action repeated. We can only say 'they deposit’ not expressing 'on each occasion'. See § 21 ēkavoev. 25 vbuloua] anything sanctioned by usage; hence, the established

current coin of any state: which latter is the common meaning. Render 'without having first enquired the nature of the coin in use and currency among those below, and whether an Athenian or Macedonian or Aeginetan obol passes for good with them, nor (reflected) that it had been far better not to be able to pay their fare ;—for then, the ferryman not having received it, they would have been sent back to earth and come into

the world of men again'. 26 dúvarai) seems here to be used simply=has force, is worth some.

thing. There were many currencies in ancient Greece. That of Aegina was very ancient and widely adopted, dating back from the times when the island was an independent state.


κάλλιον ήν] see on Charon 8 καλώς είχε. 30 αναπόμπιμοι] sent up to the earth from the world below. πάλιν goes both with this and with αφικνούντο.

ες τον βίον] compare piscator 8 14 τι αύθις ες τον βίον, and see note on Charon § 15 TÒr Blov.

$ 11. 31 Novoartes? for the washing of the corpse compare Eurip Phoen

1667 συ δ' άλλα νεκρά λουτρά περιβαλείν μ' έα, Iliad XVIII 343-351, Virgil Aen vi 219. ως ουχ ικανής] that is, oύσης.

Page 60. Xploavtes) the corpse was anointed with precious sweet perfumes after the washing. See Iliad xviii 350—1, Virgil Aen vi 219.

Tr pòs dvowdlav etc] 'being by this time overpowered so as to make a stink'. That is, being so decomposed as to be offensive. Tipos duowdlav =in relation to, or in the direction of, a stink. Compare Thuc 11 65 § 8 tpos vdovýv 7. Néyelv = to say something to please (the Athenians), 53 8 3 ταχείας τας επαυρέσεις και προς το τερπνόν ήξίουν ποιείσθαι= they were resolved to take their enjoyments in haste and so as to secure

pleasure (from them). See also on piscator § 8 apos ópynu. 3

τοις ωραίοις ανθεσι] with the flowers in season. For the custom of placing garlands on the corpse see Aristoph Eccles 537–8.

TT porlevtal] ‘lay it out' on a bed (klívn). A pókeltai in § 12 is the passive in use of this verb. The apóleous was on the second day after death.

λαμπρώς αμφιέσαντες] having wrapped it in splendid raiment. There is no doubt that the outer shroud or pall was always white, but whether the under garment was not sometimes of a bright colour, such as purple or scarlet, may well be doubted. See Iliad XVIII 352—3, Virgil .en VI 221—2, XI 72–7.

@cyqev] the change to the plural shews that Lucian, though he has been speaking of td owua in the singular, merely means the body in any particular case'. Hence we resume with a supplied nominative "the dead'.

Tapà tro o8dv] see on Charon § 18 mapà tdr Blov. Render that they may not be cold of course on their journey nor be seen naked by

Cerberus'. oñlov ötl indicates the ironical nature of the remark. 5 TẬ Kepßépw] this dative of the agent as it is called is only used in

Greek prose of the best age after the perfect and pluperfect passive. Remember that BNÉTOLYTO literally= be looked upon.

$ 12. 8 POLLO Obueval] being reddened; that is, with the blood from και που και] and perhaps too'. 13 ώσπερ ες πομπήν etc] as though adorned for a procession'.


8 13. 15 εκ μέσων etc] having come forth from the throng of relations

and flung his arms around the departed'. 16 προκείσθω γάρ etc] we must suppose that it is some handsome youth

who is laid out, to heighten the tragic effect of the scene at his funeral': προκείσθω literally = let there be laid out. The yàp cannot be rendered in English: it introduces the parenthesis in the sense of 'it should be said that'.

ακμαιότερον] with more vigour (ακμή, prime) about it. 17 το επ' αυτώ δράμα) the performance over him. δράμα =stage effect,

especially tragic. It is used of pitiful appeals made by a man on his trial in Plato Apol 35 b πολύ μάλλον καταψηφιείσθε του τα ελεεινά ταύτα δράματα εισάγοντος και καταγέλαστον την πόλιν ποιoύντος ή του ήσυχίαν άγοντος.

αλλοκότους] see on piscator 8 25. 18 ει λάβοι φωνήν] often said of inanimate objects. Compare Soph Elect 548 φαίη δ' αν η θανουσά γ', ει φωνήν λάβοι.

παρατείνων] drawling out' his words one by one. Compare what is said of an echo in a house, de domo 8 3 (οίκος) παρατείνων τα τελευταία της φωνής και τοίς υστάτοις των λόγων εμβραδύνων.

οΐχη μοι] see on 8 17. 24 κωμάση] take part in a revel (κώμος).

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$ 14, 26 oιόμενος δείσθαι etc for this argument against the middle-headed

popular conceptions of the condition of the dead see Lucretius III

830-930 especially 896-901. 27 και μετά την τελευτήν] even after his death '. 28 και ίππους etc]I think this passage must be suggested by the

account of the funerals of the Scythian kings in Herodotus IV 71, 72, especially by these words εν δε τη λοιπη ευρυχωρία της θήκης των παλλακέων τε μίαν αποπνίξαντες θάπτουσι, και τον οινοχόος και μάγειρον και ιπποκόμον και διήκονον και αγγελιοφόρον και ίππους, και των άλλων άπαντων απαρχάς, και φιάλας χρυσέας. The custom of burning or burying things for the use of the dead is of immemorial antiquity. Not only is it often alluded to by ancient writers, but amply attested by excavations. So in Nigrinus S 30 Lucian says of Romans οι μεν εσθήτας εαυτούς κελεύοντες συγκαταφλέγεσθαι οι δ' άλλο τι των παρά τον βίον

τιμίων. 31 εκεί] in the other world '. Often used thus to denote the life of

the soul after death as opposed to this life' (ενθάδε).


§ 15, page 61. 3 Tpayudeiv] to declaim in the style of tragedy, or as we say 'to take on'.

ουκ άκουσόμενον] that is, τον παίδα.

Erévtopos] the loud-voiced Greek of Iliad v 786 is torov aŭåñoaox' όσον άλλοι πεντήκοντα. 5 ppoveiv] to 'feel' thus. Compare Soph Aias 942 ool pèr dokelv

ταυτ' έστ' εμοί δ' άγαν φρονείν. 8 atrợ] what has befallen the boy in relation to him=what has be

fallen his son. See on piscator § 48_Kevóv gol for this delicate dative,

which I cannot express separately in English. 9 uâlov dė] or strictly speaking'. See on piscator & 5.

TÖv Blov aŭtor] our life itself, the present world. See on Charon § 15

ou gào år] 'for then he would never have'. See on $ 5.

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$16. trapaitnod yevos] having won over Aeacus and Aidoneus to let him peep over the mouth (of Hades) for a short space'. Here we have the double construction (a) with the accusative, as piscator $ 4, Aristoph Vesp 1257 tapythoavto TÒV TETOVOóta 'they prevail upon the man whom they have assaulted' (to say nothing about it), and (b) with the infinitive of the thing one gets leave to do, as Herodotus IV 146 παραιτήσαντο αι γυναίκες......εσελθείν ες την ερκτην “ the women got leave to enter the dungeon'. We have the same sense in Charon $ ! expressed by alrno áuevos mapà with the genitive, followed by an infinitive as here. And in piscator § 14 we have trapaitno duevol followed by a simple accusative ulay ruépay taúrny in the sense 'having begged off this one day' (of residence below)='having got a day's leave of absence', where the accusative resembles that in mapalteiolac śmulav and similar phrases.

Alakòv] see on Charon § 2 łutow. We must remember that only the soul is spoken of here, or we shall not understand § 18. 13 'Αιδωνέα]= Αϊδης = Πλούτωνα.

ÜTEPKÚ¥a.] the subject of this verb is aŭtds to be understood, and is constructed with this explanatory infinitive as though wote were also there. The full construction then is παραιτησάμενος τον Αιακόν ώστε αυτός υπερκύψαι. Such too it must be in the passage of Herodotus quoted above, and often elsewhere when the explanatory infinitive is

employed. 14 ματαιάζοντα] a late form = ματάζοντα. 16 ÉE ÉTITOMņs] ‘on the surface'. This is a late phrase=éritoñs,

which the writers of the best age use. Compare Nigrinus $ 35 oủ yàp εξεπιπολής ουδ' ώς έτυχεν ημών ο λόγος καθίκετο, where Bekker writes it as one word.

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