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19 Ý ti ooc etc) 'is it that I seem to you a hardly-used man?' We

regularly find ý thus introducing questions to which the answer 'yes' is expected. So § 19 Û voui Šete. Remember that it here is not the interrogative. The accent upon it is thrown back from gol. πάσχειν or δεινά πάσχειν are both good prose Greek: δεινόν πάσχειν Ι cannot establish. On this ground and on that of improvement in the sense, I venture to leave Bekker's reading TL gol for the above.

dióti‘is it because'. This is a separate question; ñ......=an ...an... in Latin, nrol...... =utrum...an...

un] intolerable un for oů.

Thv od Byw etc) and with face full of wrinkles (puoldes), bent double and feeble in the knees'.

yóvara) often referred to thus; compare Theocritus XIV 70 ås góvu xiwpov, Horace epod XIII 4 dumque virent genua.

Tplakádas] 'thirties ' hence 'months' as containing 30 days. Compare rhet praec 8 9 έτη πολλά, ου καθ' ημέρας και τριακάδας αλλά κατ'

ολυμπιάδας όλας αριθμών. 23 od vutriádas) 'olympiads'. This was the common unit of reckoning

in Greek chronology. The great games at Olympia, in which all Greeks took part, were held every fourth year. An Olympiad then= 4 years.

ávarljoas] having borne, endured. The expression is bold, but I prefer it to availoas, and it may perhaps receive some support from

Aesch Ag 715-6. 24 traparralwv) striking aside or falsely: said of one playing on the

lyre. Hence * acting foolishly'. It is here used with a cognate accusative as in de hist conscr 8 2 ουχ ώστε τραγωδεϊν (έλαττον γαρ αν τούτο trapétracov). Render and in these very lon) last acts playing the fool before all these witnesses'.

ÉTU TOGOÚTwv yaptúpwr] see on piscator § 27.

tl Col dokei etc) 'what good seems to you to be bound up with the life of men, which we shall cease to share?' 25 Elvai nepi] to be concerned with, mixed up with. This use is very common, and is similar to that of dugi illustrated on piscator $ 40.

μεθέξομεν] that is, ημείς οι θανόντες. 26 ή έρείς δηλον ότι] is it that you will say. to be sure you will'=

you will say of course'. The original ñ ðñàov őtt épeîs has crystallized, and the onov 8ti become really one word, capable of being put after the verb which should follow it. See on Bottel in Charon 9.

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Dépe didátouai] 'come, I will teach you'. This use of the future with pépe is one of Lucian's slips. In navig § 4 he even writes εθέλεις εγώ αύθις επώνειμι. For the form διδάξομαι see on Somnium § 1o.

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kal on] 'so then'.

åvalabür etc] 'do you resume from the beginning and shout'. So more fully Plato Rep 544 b και ούτω δή συ αναλαβών τον λόγον δειν' αφίξαι,

Page 62. ofx? uoi] 'you have passed away in relation to me'='you are lost to me for ever'. So above § 13. For not compare piscator § 48 kevóv σοι το άγκιστρον.

OŮK Ěpws etc] • love will not vex you, nor dependence pervert you, nor yet will you be in anxious haste on this account twice or thrice a day, alas, alas!' ouvovola in Lucian's time had acquired a sort of special sense of 'intercourse between employed and employer'. Hence used of the employed it=dependent position, and Lucian has olémi uls συνόντες. Compare apolog de mere cond 8 9 υποστήναι την παρούσαν ouvovolav 'submitted to the present relation', namely, service under a patron. How the meaning arose is seen by reference to such phrases as ouveîval páquaor 'to be concerned with affairs'. The meaning of DLAO Tpéyel is 'will distort your character, making you suppress your own opinion and echo the sentiments of another'. The tame philosopher in the house, a sort of despised tutor, was a well-known character in

those days. 6 ω της συμφοράς] see on Charon 8 13 ώ πολλού γέλωτος. 7 Bren buevos) being looked at='when they set eyes on you'.

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gelobtepa ékelvwv] 'more facetious than what you did say'.
Tode] 'this', namely what follows.

åvią kal diavoộ] these are indicatives, not subjunctives, as dédias shews. See on piscator § 5 opâte un TOLETTE.

Olavon] are thinking of'. Used here simply as `have in your head', for which I can find no parallel.

ool] see on Charon § 1.

xon dè etc] 'but you must set against these things that '...... 14 el ge] 'if as I expect'. Often='seeing that '.

kaüoal ue] remember that it is the spirit who speaks. See on § 16. 15 Kal Taúta pèr etc) •and all this perhaps is moderate'='and so far perhaps there is nothing extravagant'.

$ 19, 16 apos rdv aŭldv] to (the accompaniment of) the flute. So § 20 após το μέλος.

å merpla] extravagance.

λίθος έστεφανωμένος] this is the grave-stone (στήλη, Cippus), an apright slab, on which it was customary to hang wreaths. This custom, like many others, has survived to our own days. See Charon § 22, Nigrinus 8 30 οι δε και παραμένειν τινας οικέτας τους τάφους (κελείοντες), ένιοι δε και στέφειν τας στήλας ανθεσιν.

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19 al lluir dúvatal] what is it able for you ?= 'what can it do for you?' juiv is a sort of dativus commodi, ‘for you'='to gratify you'.

Td åkpator] the unmixed draught of wine, as opposed to that of milk and honey (ueNikpatov). See on Charon § 22.

ÉTÈ Kabaycouậr] what happens at the funeral rites'. In $9 we have the verb kabaylgw used of sacrificing to the dead. But évayisw seems to have been the more usual word.

Td vootiuúratov] that which was most fresh, all that was most refreshing'. For this sense compare de merc cond § 39 (treatment of dependant by patron) όλως γαρ όπερ ην νοστιμότατον εν σοι απανθισάμενος και το εγκαρπότατος της ηλικίας και το ακμαιότατον του σώμα

τους επιτρίψας...ήδη περιβλέπει σε μέν οί της κόπρου απορρίψει φέρων. 23 undév ti etc) 'having done no good whatever to us below'. Here

again the un should have been oŮ. 25 εκτός ει μη] see on piscator 8 6. 27 dpx”] empire, realm.

do podedos] a kind of lily with edible root. For its reputed growth in the world below see $ 5. 23 Twipovny] one of the epivúes. See $$ 6, 8. 29 εφ' οίς έποιείτε] = ¿T' ¿kelvous à ÉTOLETTE. 'At what you were doing'. See on Charon 8 17 υφ' ών είπον.

παμμέγεθες ανακαγχάσαι] to burst into a loud gufaw. See on Charon § 20.

Vel] it would come upon me, enter my head. Compare Plato Rep 388 d ει και επίoι αυτό τοιούτον ή λέγειν ή ποιείν.

i 006vn] the winding-sheet. In Charon 3 we had it=sail.

èpia etc] 'the woollen bands with which you bound fast my jaws'.

§ 20, page 63. ws äpa etc) from Iliad xxII 361, said of Hector. Here it is brought in with bitter irony, the corpse wrapped and tied up and the sarcastic remarks put into the mouth of the soul just above being in strong contrast to Hector and Hector's last words.

étriotpapels etc) having turned round to us, and rested himself upon his elbow. 3 ουκ άν οιόμεθα] see on Charon 8 17 αραν σοι δοκεί. 5 Ooplotnv] in Lucian's time this word had come to be used in the

sense of Professor of Rhetoric', and even as here in that of ' Professor simply. It is well known that hired mourners were employed. Becker (excursus in Charicles) thinks that Lucian is referring here rather to the apódeois (second day after death) than to the fkpopa (third day). But have we not had enough of the apóleols in SS 11, 12 above?

Ovvelloxóra] who has gathered together, made a collection of. So Dem Meidias p522 και συνείλοχα ύβρεις αυτού και ατιμίας τοσαύτας όσας ακούσεσθε αυτίκα δή μάλα. ήν δ' η συλλογή ραδία.

ouvaywvlotn] see on piscator § 26, 7 xopnya] conductor'.

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Kataxp@vtal] make full use of. 8 ėžápxn] 'lead off?. Frequent in the Iliad of starting a lamentation, as XVIII 51 θέτις δ' εξήρχε γόοιο, XXIV 76ι.

έπαιάζοντες] that is, τω νεκρώ. • Crying alas (alai) over the dead in time with the funeral dirge' (Tpds od uédos). Compare deor dial 14 8 2 of the hyacinth ήδιστον και ευανθέστατον ανθέων απάντων, έτι και γράμματα έχον έπαιάζοντα των νεκρώ.

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$ 21, dlelóuevol kata etc) 'having divided for themselves the burials according to tribes'; that is, each nation having adopted that form of burial which suits it best. Compare Thuc VII 19 § 1 AEKÉRELAY ετείχιζον κατα πόλεις διελόμενοι το έργον.

ēkavOev] 'burns'. This is again the aorist of frequency, meaning in full 'burns whenever occasion arises'. Becker (excursus to Charicles) clearly shews that this is a loose statement, and that in fact cremation and interment were both practised by the Greeks. The two practices likewise coexisted among the Romans.

Ellayev] the burning of a body was revolting to both Persians and Egyptians. See Herodotus III 16.

ůály] alabaster. This may refer to the Aethiopians in Herodotus III 24, who are said to place their dead in a hollow pillar of valos, which being transparent allowed the body to be seen without any unpleasant stink. But tepixpler is strangely used. We can only render it anoints' or 'besmears'. Yet what the Aethiopians rubbed on their dead was not the valos, but chalk or gypsum, which covering they then painted to resemble the man before they put it in the upright coffin of alabaster.

Kated Blec] this horrible custom (eating the dead on principle) is attested by several passages in Herodotus, and also by Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Petronius and Plutarch. See Herod i 216, III 38, 99, IV 26.

TAPIXEÚEL] .pickles'. This refers in strictness only to that part of the embalming process which consisted in laying the body to soak in a bath of Nít pov or vltpov (hydrocarbonate of soda, according to Blakesley). For the preparation of Egyptian mummies see Herodotus 11 86–88.

BÚTOs mév ge] “the last indeed for his part'.

Enpávas] in the most perfect method of embalming the intestines were extracted, and as little as possible was left beyond the mere bones and skin, so that at the end of the process the body was easily dried and then swathed in linen bands.

O ÚVOELTVOV etc) for the account of the carrying round of a wooden figure at entertainments, representing a corpse, see Herodotus II 78. 15 Thy droplav] ‘his difficulty': that is want of money.

¿xupov yevóuevos] having been put in pawn. The regular phrases are ενέχυρον τιθέναι, κείσθαι, λαμβάνειν (to put, to be put, take, in pawn).

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$ 22. 16 χώματα] mounds, heaps. See Charon 8 22. 17 πυραμίδες] the pyramid was a form Sometimes employed in monu

ments, The great ones of the Egyptian kings are the best known in

stance. 18 περιττα] superfluous, useless.

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αγώνας etc] yet some even hold games or deliver funeral speeches at the monuments'. To hold athletic contests at a grave was a great honour to the dead. Iliad XXIII contains a description of this.

διέθεσαν] arrange, conduct.
λόγους] this custom is too well known to need illustration.

ώσπερ etc] as though they were counsel or witnesses for the dead party before the court below'. συναγορεύοντες] talking the side of, pleading for.

$ 24. επί πάσι τούτοις etc] following on all these comes the funeral feast, and the relatives are present and seek to console the parents of the dead'.

το περίδειπνον] compare Dem de corona 8 288 p 321 και ουχ ο μεν δήμος ούτως, οι δε των τετελευτηκότων πατέρες και αδελφοί οι υπό του δήμου τόθ' αιρεθέντες επί τας ταφας αλλως πως, αλλά δέον ποιείν. αυτους το περίδειπνον ως παρ' οικειοτάτω των τετελευτηκότων, ώσπερ τάλλ' είωθε γίγνεσθαι, τουτ' εποίησαν παρ' εμοί. εικότως· γένει μεν γαρ

έκαστος εκάστω μάλλον οικείος ήν εμού, κοινή δε πάσιν ουδείς εγγυτέρω. 23

τους γονέας] he still keeps to the supposed case of the death of a promising son. See $ 13. 26 απηυδηκότας] having failed'= “being exhausted with fasting three

days on end. απαυδώ is used like απαγορεύω and απείπον. 27

έασoν etc] let the spirit of the departed go to rest'. μακαρίτης “the blessed dead' is used of the lately dead, much as the Latin beatus. 28 δαίμονας] found thus = Latin manes only in late Greek. It is

perhaps a rendering of the Latin word, at least the plural being used of the spirit of one person seems to point to such an origin.

el kal etc] 'but if you have absolutely made up your mind to weep, to this very end you must not abstain from food, that you

may last out the greatness of your mourning'. 29

απόσιτον] compare de hist conscr 8 21 το μεν πάθος εκείνη πάν τριών, oίμαι, ημερών εγένετο, απόσιτοι δε και ες εβδόμης διαρκούσιν οι πολλοί. στίχοι] lines.

Page 64. και γάρ τ' etc] Iliad XXIV 6o2. γαστέρι δ' ούπως etc] Iliad XIX 225.

ει φανούνται etc) to think that they shall be seen after the death of their dearest still abiding in human passions'. That is still affected by human weaknesses. For πάθεσι see on Charon 8 18 πάθη.

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