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fully transcribed ; a practice which, for obvious reasons, needs no justification; (4) for the use of the teacher or advanced student I have generally given the authorities for a statement, so that the subject may be pursued more fully if required. I have often found, in my own experience, so much inconvenience from the neglect of this practice, that I feel sure that the course adopted will be approved. Great attention has been paid to grammatical difficulties, which have been explained according to the system laid down in Mr. Roby's admirable grammars, the references to which, and more especially to the school-grammar, will it is hoped be found useful. Acting on a suggestion of Mr. Abbott, I have thrown a few of the more minute notes into an Appendix.
The last commentary upon the Tristia, that of Lörs, was published in 1839; and is totally unsuited to the requirements of the present day. Lörs was an industrious editor, but his text is valueless: for he estimated merely by the criterion of numbers the imposing array of various readings accumulated by himself and previous editors. And his want of poetic.taste and critical acuteness renders his explanatory notes very unsatisfactory. Thus though I have derived much assistance from the materials collected by him, I have rarely been guided by his judgment. I have read with great profit the notes of the earlier commentators; those from whom I have learnt most are Merula, Ciofanus, Micyllus, Pontanus, N. Heinsius, and Burmann. From Harless (Erlangen 1772) I have gained scarcely anything. The admirable critical edition of the late Rudolph Merkel has been most instructive; for wide learning, acumen, and appreciation of Ovid, none of his editors, excepting N. Heinsius, has excelled Merkel.
As I have for some time been engaged upon a critical
edition of the Tristia, which I hope to issue shortly, my text does not follow any previous edition, but is based upon some of the more important materials which I have collected. An account of these will be found in Introduction § VI: and it is hoped that that section and the short apparatus criticus at the foot of the page may be found of service as illustrating briefly the principles of textual criticism. It has been my aim to follow constantly, if possible, the authority of the best MSS., and to discard conjectural emendation excepting as a last resort. The imperfect extent to which this, the only true critical method, has been followed by previous editors of the text may be seen at a glance from the apparatus criticus; and is sufficient apology for a fresh recension. Besides Merkel's critical edition I have used the school-texts of Merkel (Teubner), Riese, Güthling, and Ehwald, and the admirable dissertation of F. Tank, De Tristibus Ovidii recensendis (Stettin, 1879).
The two monographs by Dr. G. Graeber--referred to respectively as Graeber I and Graeber II—I. Quaestionum Ovidianarum pars prior, Elberfeld, 1881, and II. Untersuchungen über Ovids Briefe aus der Verbannung, Elberfeld, 1884, are a model of cautious criticism and wide learning, and I am greatly indebted to them for the matter of Introduction & III. I have also used Koch, Prosopographiae Ovidianae elementa, Vratislav. 1865; Lorentz, De amicorum in Ovidii Tristibus personis, Lips. 1881; Hennig, De P. Ovidii Nasonis poetae sodalibus, Vratislav. 1883; Schulz, Quaestiones Ovidianae, Gryphiswald. 1883; Washietl, De similitudinibus imaginibusque Ovidianis, Vindobon. 1883.
There remains the pleasant task of acknowledging personal obligations. Above all I am most deeply indebted
to Mr. H. J. Roby and Professor A. S. Wilkins, who generously offered to undertake the tedious labour of revising the proof-sheets, whose kind and patient criticism has removed many little blemishes, and who have communicated , some more important contributions which appear signed with their initials. The proofs have also been read by my old teacher, Mr. Evelyn Abbott, whose co-operation has added one more 'to many pleasant associations. The idea that I should edit the Tristia was originally proposed to me by Mr. Robinson Ellis, who has always been ready with sympathy and encouragement, and has favoured me with his opinion on a few points, as will be found duly recorded. Professor Nettleship has placed at my service some valuable remarks on the first elegy.
I take this occasion of expressing my warmest gratitude to the Right Honourable the Earl of Leicester, who most munificently allowed his valuable MS. of Ovid to be sent to Manchester for my use; and to his lordship's librarian, the Rev. Alexander Napier, who was most kind in affording me every facility. Mr. Anziani, the learned: librarian of the Lorenzian Library, and Mr. Paoli, Professor of Latin Palaeography at Florence, gave me the benefit of their ripe experience on some palaeographical questions connected with the codex Marcianus. A careful collation of the Vatican MS. has been executed for me by Mr. Alfredo Monaci, of Rome, through the kind intervention of Professor Comparetti. From Mr. H. Preisinger of Manchester I have received sympathy and assistance.