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LONDON.-The London Vegetarian Association held a soirée at the Sussex Hotel, Bouveriostreet, Fleet-street, on Thursday the 3rd of January, when about sixty persons were present. After tea, Mr. James Smith, of Kingston, a practical Vegetarian for twenty-two years, was called to the chair. Mr. Deans, the honorary secretary, then read a report of the proceedings of the Society since February, 1860, showing that ten meetings had been held, and essays had been read by Mr. C. R. King, Mr. G. W. Wright, Mr. Fairweather, Mr. J. Smith, Mr. Lidstone, Mr. Henderson, Mr. Deans, and Mr. Jealous: the reading of the essays having been followed by discussions. The Chairman then called upon Mr. G. W. Wright, who read an essay, entitled "Why I am a Vegetarian." He observed that there were many replies to the question, and touched upon those based upon the feeling_of humanity and the love of beauty, and on that supplied by physiology and chemistry. He then asserted, that while the human body clothed itself in its outer covering of flesh, and while in the laboratory of nature that marvellous action necessary to the nutrition and restoration of the body was being carried forward, man was elaborating not only the products of the chemical or material world but those that partook of his own spiritual and immaterial character. Good, true, benevolent, kind, honest, industrious, and thinking natures, were the vestures in which man clothed himself, and the degree in which those natures were developed depended more than was generally acknowledged upon the diet man nourished himself with. It was a common notion that it signified but little what food was taken, that the vital economy was so perfect, and the chemical analysis so complete, that just those constituents required by it were selected, and the remainder rejected. But a slight acquaintance with facts would prove such an idea to be fallacious. He then reviewed the animal kingdom, and showed how the fruit and vegetable eating animals were invariably mild, generous, and tractable, while those of a carnivorous habit were as invariably fierce, cruel, cunning, and intractable. The one looked upon man as the r friend, the other only as their prey. Several instances were then brought forward in which food tended very decidedly to mod fy the dispositions of animals. He next dwelt upon the importance of parents and teachers insisting upon the vegetarian system of diet with children under their care; all who had felt the benefit of it in manhood, felt also how much greater it would have been had the practice been rooted in their childhood habits. The development of the child might be less rapid on a vegetable than on a mixed diet, but it would be more regular and uniform; it would develop a more beautiful body-a clear perception and a well-balanced brain. All good and durable things in nature were of slow growth; as, for instance, the oak in the vegetable, and some of the most beautiful crystals in the mineral kingdom. He advised the teacher to try the system as an aid to his teachings, declaring that the youthful mind under such an influence was better able to embrace the truths the teacher wished it to imbibe, and even to understand subjects scarcely believed fitted for its capacity, while, as a moral aid, it was beyond measure useful. Mr. Wright wished particularly to impress upon the meeting the necessity of parents attending in the child's early years to its health, and pointed to the fact, that by means of a vegetable diet, united to proper sanitary arrangements, children escape those diseases so commonly considered necessary for them to pass through. Many people appeared to imagine it to be ordained that children should have the hooping-cough, measles, and other ailments, and thought those impious who asserted the contrary. He concluded by reading an extract in support of his view from a lecture delivered by the Rev. C. Kingsley before the Ladies' Sanitary Association, in which Mr. Kingsley hinted his belief that that text of scripture"It is not the will of our Heavenly Father that one of these little ones should perish," was spoken of the physical as well as of the spiritual life, and that if the dietetic and sanitary arrangements were improved a vast amount of suffering and premature death might be avoided, and who portrayed, in very eloquent terms, the power of outraged natureimpressively asserting that the cause of much suffering and disease arose from the infraction of nature's laws, and that the only way to appease her was to obey her.-Mr. Deans read an essay entitled "Vegetarianism, what it is, and what it is not," in which he maintained that a practice entailing suffering upon inoffensive animals, and the destruction of all the best and noblest feelings in those who were compelled to minister to the appetite for animal food, could not be held to be one which it would be desirable to perpetuate for its own sake, and that if it was possible to maintain health and vigour of body and mind without having recourse to animal food that the sum of happiness in the world would be immensely increased, After glancing at some of the erroneous notions current in relation to Vegetarianism, he referred to the fact of more animal food being consumed in England than in any other country in the world, and showed that if English roast beef was as fine a thing as was generally believed, we should naturally expect its inhabitants to enjoy greater health
and longevity than those of any other country on the globe; and yet in London alone there were between three and four thousand medical men and chemists, besides a host of quacks who pretended to medical knowledge, and disease and premature death surrounded us on every side. He then showed that it was the duty of all to study those laws which affected the body, and that if we had not sufficient reverence for it to take care of its healthy development, it would be useless when we broke those laws to plead ignorance of them. The principles of Vegetarianism were derived from a study of the laws of nature, and were confirmed by the teaching of comparative anatomy,hysiology, and chemistry, and also by history, ancient and modern, of which he gave several notable examples. A vegetable diet was consistent with physical perfection, the greatest beauty existing among those nations whose diet was chiefly obtained from the vegetable kingdom. The sense of sight, when unperverted by habit, led us to the selection of a vegetable diet in preference to one of flesh: all the appearances presented by death being unbeautiful and repugnant, while the sight was gladdened by the picture presented by ripe and luscious fruits in all their beautiful contrasts of colour and form. Vegetarianism was not a system involving asceticism or self-denial; there was nothing in it which should preclude the full enjoyment of all the social amenities of life-nothing that should interfere with the enjoyment of all that was beautiful in nature and art. On the contrary, the disuse of animal food, by discouraging a taste for cruel pastimes and amusements, would be the means of more widely developing a faculty for the appreciation of the beautiful. Those, therefore, who, in practising Vegetarianism, had imbibed the notion that it necessitated the throwing off the usages and agreeabilities of a refined state of society, had misunderstood its teaching, as without cultivating all the faculties with which we were endowed by nature we should live but half a life. Vegetarianism was not, therefore, responsible for the mistakes of any who had acted as if the system favoured monkish asceticism, and involved our becoming petrifactions in the midst of society. Vegetarianism should simply be regarded as a means to an end-that end being not only the securing a more perfect physical condition, but, in common with all lovers of progress, the cultivation of a sympathy with everything ennobling, elevating, and true. The Vegetarians did not come forward with a new or untried theory, but with one the truth of which could be verified by an appeal to the experience of man in all ages of his history, which would confirm the view that a vegetable diet was best for man, not only as regarded the development of his bodily powers, but as being most favourable to his intellectual and moral culture. The Vegetarian system was one which appealed to the reason of thinking men and women, based as it was upon principles which would bear the fullest criticism and discussion, and it therefore commended itself to the earnest consideration of all who sympathised with the sufferings of the lower animals, of all who desired to aet in conformity with nature's laws, and thereby secure greater health and longevity and a diminution of much degrading drudgery, and of all who desired to help forward the work of progress in the world.-The meeting was then addressed by Mr. G. Dornbusch and Mr. R. Palmer, and separated at ten o'clock, all present being evidently gratified by the evening's proceedings, which were enlivened by a selection of pieces of music, performed in a most excellent manner, under the direction of Mr. C. R. King, by a party of ladies and gentlemen who kindly lent their assistance on the occasion, and to whom a vote of thanks was passed at the close of the meeting, which was acknowledged by Mr. King.
DISEASED MEAT.-We commend the following cases, and the important evidence of Dr. Letheby, to the attention of our meat-eating friends, as being likely to convince them that the extent to which the sale of diseased meat is carried on in our large cities is not exaggerated by the advocates of dietetic reform:-Mansion House: Mr. Charles Pearson, the solicitor to the Corporation of London, accompanied by Dr. Letheby, the medical officer, attended before Mr. Alderman Hale, who sat for the Lord Mayor, to institute a proceeding under the Act of Parliament from which the City Commissioners of Sewers derive their authority, and of the Diseases Prevention Act, in a matter affecting the public health, espe cially of the poorer classes. The inspector of slaughter-houses at the same time produced in court the carcass of a calf which he had seized prepared for sale, and which formed the subject matter of the application. It may he premised that, of late especially, the extent to which diseased and putrid meat unfit for human food is exposed for sale and sold in the city markets, particularly that of Newgate, has been such as to excite public alarm and disgust. The weekly returns made to the Court of Sewers for some time past show often that as much as two tons of meat in a week have been seized and condemned by the authorised inspectors in the various markets, and Dr. Letheby has again and again stated that late on Saturday nights large quantities of this unwholesome meat are sold to the poor at about a penny a-pound, and sometimes even less. In spite of the vigilance of the inspectors, and of the pressure put upon them by the commissioners charged with the maintenance of the public health, the practice continues without any apparent abatement; and the commissioners, feeling the scandal attaching to such a system, are now having recourse to the most stringent measures to restrain and eventually to put an end to it altogether. Even of the diseased and putrid meat seized and sent to Belleisle for destruction there has long been a suspicion, to which expression has repeatedly been given in the Court of Sewers, that
portions find their way back, in various shapes, as food for consumption among the humbler classes, and that joints of the offensive article are occasionally sold by stealth on their way to the melting-pot.-James Newman, examined by Mr. Pearson, said he was inspector of meat and slaughter-houses, and appointed unler an Act of Parliament. On Thursday morning, in consequence of private information he received, he felt it his duty to inspect the slaughter-house of Mr. Nathaniel Nathan, in Aldgate. Mr. Nathan had there four slaughter-houses, adjoining each other, registered in his name, and a shop for the sale of meat in front. In one of those slaughter-houses witness found the carcass produced, and he was able to say from its appearance that the animal had not been born in the natural way. It had never breathed, and in his judgment it was decidedly unfit for human food. He therefore seized it. Mr. Nathan was not present when he did so; he was a very old man, and ill, but a younger Mr. Nathan, his son or nephew, conducted the business, and witness saw him on the premises.-Dr. Letheby said, in reply to the city solicitor, I am officer of health, appointed by the Commissioners of Sewers for the city of London. I have inspected the carcass produced, and in my judgment it is unfit for human food. Its hoofs are not maturely formed, and I am satisfied the calf had not arrived at the full period of gestation, and that it is either a dropped calf or has been taken from a dead animal.-Alderman Hale asked if any one attended from Mr. Nathan's ?-A young man replied that Mr. Nathan was ill at present, and that an apprentice, who had since been discharged, had dressed the animal and prepared it for sale, unknown to him.-Mr. Pearson, on that evidence, called on the bench to make an order for the carcass to be destroyed. He added that under the provisions of the Act of Parliament it would be competent for the inspector himself to make the condemnation; but, as the case was one the like of which had not before occurred under the statute, it appeared to him (Mr. Pearson) desirable to have the testimony of Dr. Letheby, and he apprehended the court would have no difficulty in ordering the carcass to be destroyed. He should state, after this public warning, that should any other case of the kind arise he had the direction of the Commissioners of Sewers to proceed further by summons against the owner of the slaughter-house for penalties, which the magistrates had the power to inflict to the amount of £10 with respect to each carcass. At present he should only ask the bench for the condemnation and destruction of the animal, leaving it for him (Mr. Pearson) to receive instructions as to whether it was desirable in the present case to proceed further with respect to penalties. - Mr. Alderman Hale, without a moment's hesitation. made the requisite order for the destruction of the carcass, remarking that the sight of it was sufficient to show it was unfit for human food, and that to any person who might again be brought before him for so outraging decorum and endangering health he would apply the law in its utmost rigour.---Guildhall: Mr. Charles Pearson, the city solicitor, attended before Colonel Wilson for the purpose of obtaining an order to have four quarters of beef destroyed which had been seized by Mr. Fisher, one of the inspectors of meat, as unfit for human food.-Mr. Fisher said he found the four quarters of beef on the premises of Mr. Greatorex, who called him in to examine them. It had been sent up by the Great Northern Railway anonymously, and was in such a state of disease as to render it totally unfit for human food.--Dr. Letheby said it was evident that the animal was in a very bad state of disease, as the tissues which would form the fat in an ordinary state of health were filled with serum, which was an infallible sign of disease. The effect upon any one partaking of such food would be the same as that from an irritant poison, and the injury likely to ensue was such that in one instance during last summer as many as 60 persons were seriously ill through eating food of that description, and one person actually died from the effects of it.-Colonel Wilson, after looking at the meat, said he had no difficulty in ordering the four quarters to be destroyed. It was some of the worst he had ever seen.-Times.
SHEFFIELD VEGETARIAN ASSOCIATION.-My report for the quarter will not contain much of special interest, as we have done little beyond our customary activities, and these even have somewhat slackened in their energy. Before giving you a cursory statement of our doings, permit me, however, to express the feeling of general satisfaction with which the first number of the Dietetic Reformer has been received here, and to pen the hope that, as an Association, we may prove worthy of the new epoch of energy and usefulness upon which, I trust, our noble movement is now entering. On December 26th, we held (as during the previous year) a banquet on a small scale in our customary place of meeting, the Working Men's Reading Rooms. A number of friends, along with the majority of the members, partook of a most excellent and varied repast, in which full justice was done to Vegetarian Cookery. All appeared to be well pleased with the viands provided, which, indeed, had only one fault, and that a truly English one, viz., the over abundant liberality of the supply. After the meal had been disposed of, the meeting was addressed by Messrs. Vasey, Clegg, Bishop, and Fox. The proceedings were further diversified by the musical services kindly rendered by Miss A. Ashberry and Mr. Vasey, &c. On the 19th February, a lecture was delivered in the Barker-Pool Temperance Hall, by Mr. Vasey, on "Comparative Anatomy and Physiology, or the Adaptation of Man to Climate and Food; showing the Nature of Harmonious Relations." In the unavoidable absence of Mr. Thomas Chapman, the chair was occupied by Mr. Fox. The hall was well filled by a most intelligent auditory, who, despite the
necessarily abstruse nature of some portions of the subject, listened with marked attention' testifying their interest by warm applause. Mr. Vasey is an old disciple of our system, which he thoroughly understands. He is a man of scholarly attainments, and, besides various smaller publications, is known to naturalists by his able work entitled "Delineations of the Ox Tribe." Concerning the lecture itself, I will only say that it was universally admitted to be a most able scientific defence of our practice, and was, save in almost unavoidable technicalities, popular and lucid in its style. I would endeavour to give your readers an outline of his address, were it not that I feel incompetent to do justice to it, and had I not the hope that Mr. Vasey himself may consent to appear as a contributor to no distant issue of our valued organ. As a result of these efforts we have several probationers and inquirers, who promise to be useful additions to our ranks. Some of those who during the last year joined us have, I regret to say, yielded to temptation, and returned to their carnivorous habits. In no case do I hear any of them deny the truth of our system; inconvenience and the prejudices of friends are always the motives alleged. We can but pray heaven to pardon and restore those who are thus self-confessed traitors to acknowledged truth. All our old members continue firm, though some are less energetic than could be wished. Our band is so small that there is indeed no excuse for idlers in our midst. Our prospects are good: we have plenty of vitality, and the public are prepared to give us fair audience. All that is needed is more harmony and more self-sacrificing earnestness. We must be truly fraternal in our union and trust, we must merge all differences, personal, official, and sectional, in our one good work, and we shall then, as an Association, be second to none in the importance of our influence. Further activities are in prospect which will tend still further to develop our powers and to cement our union, of which I hope to write to your readers in No. 3. WILLIAM SHARMAN, Corresponding Secretary.
HUDDERSFIELD.-A lecture on the "Adulteration of Food" was recently delivered in the Gymnasium, by Dr. Robinson, sanitary lecturer, of Manchester. After briefly introducing the subject, the lecturer proceeded to explain the various qualities of the article called flour, and gave the results of his own analytical observations. In English wheat or flour, East Kent, and in some flour from the Baltic and Odessa, he found 33, 34, and 35 per cent of gluten, which was equal to beef or mutton in nutritious quality, while in the American flour, which is used extensively in Lancashire, there was only 12, 13, and 14 per cent of this nutritious substance, the remainder being made up of maize, buck-wheat, or some other inferior substance. As an illustration of this, the lecturer pointed out the difference between the wheaten bread of Lancashire and that of this part of Yorkshire. He also alluded to the adulteration practised at Deptford in the making of sea-biscuits, the greater part of which, he said, was nothing more than common chalk. The Londor publicans also came in for their share of remark, in reference to the adulteration of their liquors, especially porter, which, when it left the brewery, was, he said, a wholesome beverage; but which was afterwards adulterated in such a manner that three barrels were made out of two, and the most deleterious substances were introduced into it. He then explained that these and other adulterations were the principal causes of disease, which, he said, was greatly accelerated by the mental excitement consequent on the great competition which at present prevailed. During the lecture some very interesting tests were submitted to the audience, by which adulteration could be detected. The entire subject was ably treated, but the audience was not numerous.-Huddersfield Chronicle.
ANDOVER.-On Thursday, March 7th, a meeting of the members and friends of the Andover Mutual Improvement Society was held in the Temperance Coffee Rooms, to hold a discussion on a subject of great importance, namely:-"Is Vegetarianism based upon Science?" The room was well filled with earnest champions of the slaughter-house, there being but three Vegetarians present.-Mr. J. Sellix opened the debate, and spoke at some length on behalf of the Vegetarian principle. He believed, notwithstanding the fact that the Vegetarian had the finger of scorn pointed at him, and that the subject was treated with indifference by many who should know better, that it was a subject of great importance. There was one fact which demanded consideration, and which brought out very clearly man's selfishness, and the blind absurdity which often characterised his opinions and his actions, viz.:- Whatever man could, by any means, press into his service, whether animate or inanimate, that he straightway appropriated to himself, and gave out to the world that it had been sent by Providence for his use alone. He hoped no such idea as this would be cherished by those present; but that they would proceed to discuss the question without prejudice. There was one consideration which should, he thought, set their minds at rest with regard to the sufficiency of a vegetable diet to meet the real necessities of man. No one doubted that the original diet of man, when in the garden of Eden, was the plentiful productions of the yet uncursed earth. Man was then living in the highest perfection; and, moreover, when God had so ordained, he gazed upon his handiwork and pronounced it " "very good." What, then, were we to infer? Why, either that the organisation of man had undergone a change, or (what is more reasonable) that vegetables were the natural, and therefore the best food for man. Why did man eat and drink? He had thought it was to enable him to live; but it would seem, from the practices of some people, that they had
reversed the maxim, and lived but to eat and drink. A very powerful argument in favour of Vegetarianism might be derived from comparative anatomy. Scientific research had proved beyond a doubt, by comparing man with the lower animals, that man was naturally a vegetable eater. Take, for instance, the teeth: we find that they are formed for the mastication of fruits and vegetables, and not for the tearing of flesh; the organs of digestion also clearly indicate man's dietetic character.-After anticipating and answering several objections, the subject was left for open discussion. A very animated discussion ensued, which was taken part in by several gentlemen. Many conflicting statements were made, as to what people were or were not vegetable eaters.-In the course of the evening, Mr. John Beck, who is not a practical Vegetarian, very ably defended the Vegetarian principle.-The time having arrived when, according to the rules of the society, the meeting must close, it was agreed that the discussion should be adjourned till the following Thursday.
A generous mind identifies itself with all around it; a selfish one identifies all things with itself. The generous man seeks happiness in promoting that of others; the selfish man reduces all things to his own interest.
THE FOOD OF Prize Cattle.-Possibly the ladies may enjoy a few statistics relating to the provender devoured by prize cattle. Between March 8th and 23rd inclusive of the year 1801, Mark and Spot-two animals belonging to the Duke of Bedford - consumed respectively 5,216 lb. and 4,616 lb. of turnips. Here, again, is the light, nutritious diet of the Duke of Bedford's ox, Sharper, for the nonths October and November of 1803,3,120 lb. of turnips, 232 oil-cakes, 775 lb. of hay.—Athenæum.
BORAX. The washer women of Holland and Belgium, so proverbially clean, and who get their linen so beautifully white, use refined borax as a washing powder, instead of soda, in the proportion of a large handful of borax powder to about ten gallons of water; they save in soda nearly half. All the large washing establishments adopted the same mode. For laces, cambrics, &c., an extra quality is used, and for crinoline, required to be very stiff, a strong solution is necessary. Borax, being a neutral salt, does not injure the texture of linen; its effect is to soften the hardest water.
KINDNESS TO ANIMALS.-His mercifulness extended even to his beasts; for when the horses that he had kept long grew old, he would not suffer them to be sold, or much wrought; but ordered his men to turn them loose on his grounds, and put them only to easy work, such as going to market, and the like: he used old dogs also with the same care; his shepherd having one that was become blind with age, he intended to have killed or lost him; but the Judge coming to hear of it, made one of his servants bring him home, and fed him till he died. And he was scarce ever seen more angry than with one of his servants, for neglecting a bird that he kept, so that it died for want of food.-Bishop Burnett's Life of Sir Matthew Hale.
A GOOD DISH WITHOUT COOKING.--Some toasted meal, now of Indian corn, is put into a kid skin, prepared with all the legs dangling about it, in true southern style. Some water being added, and the bag's mouth, the quondam neck of the little kid, being tied up fast, a man set to, energetically kneading up the skin upon a flat stone; whereupon, with the meal and water inside, the skin bag tosses out its four legs violently, and appears to be taken with terrible convulsions. After awhile the bag is opened, the paste that has been formed is taken out as good "gofio," and is eaten without further ceremony. During winter a little milk and a flavour of cheese are added, and so good is the dish thought to be, in spite of its simplicity and want of cooking, that it forms the children's breakfast in many of the best families of Canaria.-C. P. Smith's Teneriffe.
APPLES.-There is scarcely an article of vegetable food more widely useful and more universally loved than the apple. Why every farmer in the nation has not an apple orchard, where the trees will grow at all, is one of the mysteries. Let every family lay in from two to ten or more barrels, and it will be to them the most economical investment in the whole range of culinaries. A raw, mellow apple is digested in an hour and a half, while boiled cabbage requires five hours. The most healthful dessert which can be placed on the table is a baked apple. If taken freely at breakfast with coarse bread and butter, without meat or flesh of any kind, it has an admirable effect on the general system, often removing constipation, correcting acidities, and cooling off febrile conditions, more effectually than the most approved medicines. If families could be induced to substitute the apple, sound, ripe, and luscious, for the pies, cakes, candies, and other sweetmeats with which their children are too often stuffed, there would be a diminution in the sum total of doctors' bills in a single year sufficient to lay in a stock of this delicious fruit or a whole season's use. -Dr. Hall.