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and ashamed to think that it should be allowed to continue to disgrace our city. I can only think of one way of stopping it: it is simple, and all may lend a helping hand in accomplishing it, namely, that every housekeeper in Manchester and Salford will inform their butchers that they will only deal with those who will give up this barbarous custom. But in order to make this effectual we ladies must unite. It therefore depends upon ourselves whether this horrid practice is to be continued or not. I have spoken to my own butcher who has expressed his desire to put an end to this disgraceful system, providing that his other customers will agree to purchase his veal killed in the usual way.

Will you kindly be the means of calling the attention of the public generally to this proposition, and therefore to assist in putting an end to cruelty to these animals. Your obedient servant,

J. M. G. [We find that the earlier part of the above correspondence has been copied into the Phonetic Journal, a very useful and ably conducted contemporary, which not unfrequently contains papers of great interest, more or less closely connected with our own movement, as well as articles against the use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco. The able and talented editor is, we are happy to state, a practical Vegetarian of nearly a quarter of a century's experience. On the whole, therefore, we rejoice in these opportunities of extending Vegetarian views, and have no doubt but that these have been very usefully brought before a large number of readers in various parts of the country, who might not otherwise have been made acquainted with the subject.]

LONDON. - The London Vegetarian Society continue their monthly meetings at the Sussex Temperance Hotel, Bouverie-street, Fleet-street. On the 3rd of April the annual meeting took place, when the chair was taken by Mr. James Smith, of Kingston, and a report presented of the operations of the society during the year ending the 28th February last. Mr. G. W. Wright was chosen president; Mr. C. R. King, treasurer; and Mr. D. Deans, honorary secretary, for the ensuing year.-At the following meeting, held on the 1st May, the president gave a reading from various works on the Vegetarian system; and on the 5th June a very able and interesting lecture was delivered by Mr. Joseph Bormond, the subject being, "Our diet, in relation to our special senses, our feelings, and mental instincts." MANCHESTER: VEGETARIAN DISCUSSION.-On Wednesday evening, June 12th, at the regular fortnightly meeting of the Manchester Phonographic Union, Mr. William Hunt, of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, delivered an address in advocacy of the Vegetarian principle and practice. The demands on our space will not allow of our giving more than a very brief statement of the arguments adduced. These included references to history, poetry, comparative anatomy, physiology, the conflicting opinions of naturalists and medical men, instinct, the special senses, chemistry, the composition of food, economy, kindness and sympathy to animals, experience, moral and intellectual advantages of a vegetarian dietary, &c. At the close of the address, which was listened to with deep attention and frequent applause, the free expression of opinion on either side was invited by the lecturer. Several gentlemen (amongst whom was a butcher) expressed themselves more or less in favour of most of the views propounded, but thought there might be difficulty in carrying out the vegetarian practice in the Polar regions. The permission in Scripture to partake of the flesh of animals as food under the Levitical dispensation, and "Peter's vision," were adduced as antagonistic to the Vegetarian. Mr. Hunt briefly replied to these objections, and apparently to the satisfaction of the audience. He was invited by the president to introduce the question on some future occasion, to give opportunity for the fuller consideration of some points which had been passed over with great brevity. We are glad to learn that the Vegetarian Society are likely to arrange for the holding of some public meetings and the delivery of lectures in Manchester and Salford during the autumn and winter months. THE MEAT LOSS.-We have often had occasion to remark that our principles, if true at all, would be found "wisest and best" in practice. This is illustrated and the unprofitable and wasteful character of the meat producing and consuming business are well brought out by the following letter, addressed to the editor of the Co-operator, a cheap and well conducted penny monthly periodical, devoted to the interests of co-operation, and edited by Mr. H. Pitman: "Sir-You are aware that our dividend in Manchester has fallen from Is, 8d. in the sixth quarter to 9d. in the seventh quarter. O, what a falling off was there, my countrymen!'Tis true, 'tis pity; and pity 'tis, 'tis true.' I am an abstainer from flesh meat on principle, and I often wish the day may soon come when co-operators will not sell meat any more than spirits. This serious drawback upon our dividend comes of opening

two new meat stores.

The profits realised have been inadequate to meet the working expenses. The other departments having to be taxed to make up the difference, the dividend on purchases is thus unavoidably reduced.' So reports our worthy secretary, Mr. Edwards; and he adds-To prevent a recurrence of this undesirable state of things, it has been decided to discontinue the issue of cheques in the butchering department, until the results are more satisfactory.' A wise decision; but it will not cure the evil, which is inherent in the killing trade. Groceries make safe trading, because they are in general and steady demand, and do not greatly deteriorate. The dearness of meat is one reason why, under pressure, it is the first food dispensed with. Add to this, the precariousness of the trade, and the dishonesty of many buyers of stock, and there is abundant reason for closing the meat shops, and opening others for the sale of groceries. I say nothing here about lawfulness of taking life for food; but of one thing I am certain-from experience, observation, and study of the question-that flesh meat is not so healthy, strengthening, cheap, or palatable as a diet of bread, fruit, and the most nutritious vegetable food.-I am, yours, &c. A VEGETARIAN.



ANDOVER.-The Vegetarian discussion here, a brief report of which appeared in our last number, has been followed by more public operations. On the evening of Wednesday, April 24th, a large number of persons assembled in the Friends' Meeting House, to hear a lecture by Mr. Joseph Bormond, of London, on "The Products of the Vegetable Kingdom versus the Flesh of Animals as Food, calmly considered in its chemical, physiological, and moral bearing." The lecturer said that many people were in the habit of looking with a great deal of astonishment on those who were rash enough to think of living without eating They would not, however, do so, as they had those among them who did actually live and thrive upon the productions of the vegetable kingdom; and even if they had not, he was standing there himself a living contradiction of the fallacy that flesh-meat was necessary to sustain life and vigour. He had abstained from it for a period of sixteen years; and although he was now getting to be an old man, he was as healthy, as strong, as agile and active as ever; he could walk as far, leap as high, and talk as well as when young. He then went on to argue that vegetable food contained more flesh, blood, and bone-forming principle than flesh; and that the whole of their chemical properties were more suitably adapted to the construction of the human organism. The lecture was delivered clearly, calmly, and dispassionately, and was interspersed with various amusing anecdotes. arguments were adduced to show that a vegetable diet was best, which, judging from the applause which frequently greeted his remarks, were thoroughly appreciated by the audience. This very interesting and instructive lecture was concluded by an earnest appeal to the feelings of those present. He argued there was something so repulsive to our feelings and moral senses in the butchery of animals, that it could not have been a Divine institution.Public Discussion: On Thursday, March 14th, the adjourned discussion on " Vegetarianism" was resumed by the Mutual Improvement Society in the Working Men's Reading Room. The discussion was again commenced by Mr. Sellix. He brought forward the evidence of the senses-sight, smell, touch, taste, hearing-as being antagonistic to the practice of butchery; whilst those who lived on the productions of the vegetable kingdom had, in the preparation and eating of their food, everything to delight the senses. A vegetable diet agreed, too, with digestion; animal food generally taking much longer to digest than fruits and farinaceous substances. In vegetables, the nutritious and innutritious elements (both of which are necessary to digestion) were more admirably proportioned than in flesh; thus proving that a diet which has no connection with the disgusting and brutalising scenes of the slaughter-house was the best for man. It was shown, too, that although Vegetarians generally were looked upon as a semi-barbarous race, and unintelligent, narrow-minded beings, yet some of the greatest philosophers and Christians of antiquity might be pointed out as examples to the contrary. Much evidence was adduced by the Vegetarians to show from history that Vegetarianism was strictly compatible with health, longevity, and great intellectual ability. Some attempts were made to disprove the statements of the advocates of Vegetarianism by opposing speakers, in which they failed; the only point in which they seemed to stand securely was, that whilst Vegetarianism was suitable to some climates, it would not do for others. To decide this matter, the discussion was postponed another week, when arguments and facts were adduced to show that Vegetarianism was suitable to all men under ordinary circumstances. Thus three evenings in all were spent in discussing this subject, which was even then left undecided; both parties expressing their willingness to return at some future time to the subject.

AMERICA: A VEGETARIAN VETERAN DECEASED.-The following paragraph from an American newspaper informs us of the decease of a much-respected member of the American Vegetarian Society. Many persons in this country still remember Mr. Chorlton as a resident in Manchester, although a very long period has elapsed since he, and near thirty other heads of families following the Vegetarian practice, emigrated from this country to the once United States: "We are called upon, this week, to chronicle the death of Mr. John Chorlton, in the 90th year of his age. We learn that Mr. Chorlton has been a strict Vege tarian for the past fifty-four years-abstaining from fish, flesh, and fowl, and from every

variety of intoxicating beverages. Nearly thirty years ago he also abandoned tea, coffee, and tobacco. His health during his long and laborious life has been uniformly good. For thirty-four years he has been a resident of Frankford, and worked all the time with the Messrs. Horrocks, as a journeyman dyer, until near the close of 1857, or until the 87th year of his age. His mind was vigorous, clear, and active to the last-taking cognisance, and evincing a deep interest in the troubles of our country; whilst at the same time he acknowledged a readiness to depart to that bourne from whence no traveller returns.' His life, at all events, must be conceded to bear strong testimony in favour of temperance, and of regular habits in living."


THE NEEDLEWOMEN OF PARIS.-In a series of articles by M. Jules Simon, published in the Revue des Deux-Mondes, some interesting particulars are given respecting the needlewomen of Paris. The author has taken great pains to ascertain the nature of the work executed, and the wages earned; and it results that the needlewomen of Paris are, if possible, even more to be pitied than the wretched creatures so powerfully portrayed by Hood in his famous "Song of the Shirt." M. Simon says that the wages of the needlewomen have been annually diminishing since 1847, and that at present the average wage is between one franc and 25 cents for a day's work of twelve hours. And here is his account of the life of one of these poor toilers, whose yearly earnings, when able to work, he puts down at 500 francs. First, as to her lodging:-This is one of her greatest difficulties; for since Paris has been embellished by new streets and vast palace-like houses, the dwellings of the working classes are continually becoming dearer and less numerous. The most wretched garret, on the sixth storey, costs from 100f. to 150f. a-year. M. Simon estimates it only at 100f.; 115f. for dress, 36f. for washing, 36f. for fire and light, thus leaving 213f., or a little over £8 a-year, for living,-a sum, as M. Simon justly observes, just sufficient, by the most rigid economy, to keep the poor needlewoman from starving. And to gain this miserable pittance she has to make eight shirts daily, or to sew six pairs of gloves, or to make six waistcoats, or six pairs of trousers. No one, adds M. Simon, can conceive the misery of these poor women. They must be visited to form any true idea of their wretchedness. Their garrets have no fire-place, no stove, no chimney, and are generally provided with only the most slender necessaries of life. What wonder if death is a frequent visitant of their dreary and unhealthy abodes, or that they should turn from the paths of virtue when starvation seems imminent? There is an authentic case recorded of a poor girl, who, when she presented herself to be enrolled on the books of habitual vice, had not broken her fast for three days!-Athenæum.

FLESH IN VEGETABLES.-All vegetables, especially those eaten by animals, contain a certain portion of flesh; for instance, in every hundred parts of wheaten flour there are ten parts of flesh; in a hundred of Indian corn meal there are twelve parts of flesh; and in a hundred of Scotch oatmeal there are eighteen of flesh. Now, when vegetable food is eaten it is to its fleshy constituents alone that we are indebted for restoring to the body what it has lost by muscular exertion. "All flesh is grass," says the inspired writer, and science proves that this assertion will bear a literal interpretation. No animal has the power to create from its food the flesh to form its own body; all that the stomach can do is to dissolve the solid food that is put into it; by-and-bye the fleshy portion of the food enters the blood, and becomes part of the animal that has eaten it. The starch and sugar of the vegetable are either consumed (burned) for the production of warmth, or they are converted into fat and laid up in store as future fuel when required. Grass consists of certain fleshy constituents, starch and woody fibre. If a cow, arrived at maturity, eats grass, nearly the whole of its food can be traced to the production of milk; the starch of the grass goes to form fat (butter), and the flesh appears as caseine, or cheese. When a sheep eats grass the flesh of grass is but slightly modified to produce mutton, while the starch is converted into fat (suet). When man eats mutton or beef he is merely appropriating to his own body the fleshy portion of grass so perseveringly collected by the sheep or oxen. The human stomach, like that of a sheep or ox, has no power to create flesh; all that it can do is to build up its own form with the materials at hand. Iron is offered to an engineer, and he builds a ship, makes a watchspring, or a mariner's compass, according to his wants; but although he alters the form and texture of the material under his hand, yet its composition remains the same. So as regards flesh, although there be one "flesh of men, another of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds," yet their ultimate composition is the same, all of which can be traced to the grass of the field or a similar source. Flesh, then, is derived from vegetables, and not from animals, the latter being merely the collectors of it. And, as though the plant knew that some future destiny awaited the flesh which it makes, it will not use a particle of it to construct a leaf, a tendril, or a flower, but lays it all up in the seed.-Piesse's Laboratory of Chemical Wonders.

Recipes, &c.

AN EFFERVESCING DRINK.-Mix 1oz. of tartaric acid and 1oz. of carbonate of soda

with 4oz. of sifted lump sugar. A dessert spoonful in a tumbler of hot or cold water will effervesce, and form an agreeable beverage. A small quantity of moist sugar and powdered ginger may be added for use, if required.

THE AYLESBURY SHERBET. This recipe, producing a delicious beverage for teetotallers on festival days, is here given, as prepared by the late Lord Aylesbury's French cook:- Mix 12oz. of citric acid and 50 drops of essence of lemon well together. Dissolve 4 pounds of loaf sugar in 2 pints of boiling water: then add the acid mixture. Stir it up well. Bottle and cork it well. A small wine-glass full of the sherbet is generally considered sufficient for a tumbler of water.

CULINARY HORTICULTURE. -In agriculture, leguminous crops almost rival the cereals in importance, and, in the estimation of the thorough kitchen gardener, the pea and the bean take precedence of every crop under his charge, with the exception of the brassicas. Scarletrunners thrive best in a deep strong soil, but the crop can be made to yield abundantly in any soil with the aid of manure, provided a thorough system of tillage is perseveringly adopted. It often happens that manure is a useless application where the ground has been deprived of its natural fertility, through the exhausting process of incessant cultivation; in such cases it frequently occurs that the remedy is to be found not above but below the surface; deep trenching and bringing up the subsoil is the only actual and permanent cure for such a state of things. The scarlet-runner is almost the only vegetable at which the appetite does not tire; as a crop it is second to none in the amount of its produce. The seed should be sown in rows six feet apart, the last week in April, in double rows, and any failures must immediately be made good, and as soon as the second leaves appear the bean sticks must be inserted, and the ground should be worked by hoeing between the rows until the plants begin to climb. If the dry weather is at all protracted, the crop will be wonderfully stimulated by a copious supply of weak manure water occasionally. For saving the seed the first pods should be reserved for that purpose. Scarlet-runners are in season from the first week in August till the end of October. For the summer furnishing of old walls and naked fences the massive foliage and rapid growth of the scarlet-runner offer great advantages, and for those growers who like apple trees with the apples on them before they purchase, there is no plant, in or out of cultivation, so well adapted to meet their views; and, when we consider that the majority of hardy ornamental climbers are deciduous, and that the climbing merits of the scarlet-runner are equal to the best of them, this plant deserves a place for summer decoration in situations where its culinary usefulness may be no object at all. The scarlet-runner is a kitchen garden type of an important race of greenhouse plants, just now beginning to be appreciated, which, for floral splendour, bids fair to supplant, as they already eclipse, the principal greenhouse favourites which we have been wont to regard as the cream of the exotics to be found in that structure.-R. Miles.

To Readers and Correspondents.

Contributions received from T. H. B., J. A. J., J. C., for which we are unable to find room in the present number, shall appear in our next. The earlier in the month contributions reach us the greater is the chance of their appearing in our next issue.

VEGETARIAN SOCIETY.-The Forms of Declaration required for membership can be obtained on application to the Secretary, 12, King-street, Salford, Manchester.

All Communications for the DIETETIC REFORMER should be addressed to the Secretary, the Rev. JAMES CLARK, 12, King street, Salford, Manchester. All articles or notices of meetings, &c., intended for insertion, must be accompanied with the real name and address of the writer, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.


Advertisements for the DIETETIC Reformer, received on the following terms:

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To be forwarded to the SECRETARY of the VEGETARIAN SOCIETY, 12, King Street, Salford, Manchester.

ALEXANDER IRELAND & Co., Printers, Pall Mall Court, Manchester.

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In our last number we made a few remarks on Mr Gladstone's flippant observations in his Budget speech, on what he called the "science of good living;" and we intimated that we would follow up our brief article by giving some illustrative examples from the memoirs of those notable divines, the Rev. Sydney Smith, and Dr. Alexander Carlyle. Our space will only allow us, in this number, to deal with the former of these two worthies; but we shall doubtless fully redeem our promise in a future number.

The witty and well-known canon of St. Paul's was a man of great force of character; full of animal spirits; a shrewd observer of men and things; honest, outspoken, and decisive in all that he applied himself to. No one could know him intimately without loving him; and no one can peruse his Memoirs by Lady Holland, his beloved daughter, without conceiving a high and sympathetic regard for his character-as a whole-however defective in some points it may appear to be. Bearing in mind the general state of social manners, and the position in society the Rev. Sydney Smith attained to, being on the closest terms of intimacy and association with the nobility of the day, we may perhaps not be much surprised that he made so much proficiency in what is called the "science of good living." But as we read these Memoirs we perceive, what Mr Gladstone has yet to learn that there is a more excellent rule of life; and that "science" ought to teach us that FOOD is perverted from its highest ends unless it is so selected and used as to promote the health, strength, and longevity of man.

But our friend Sydney Smith shall now speak in confirmation or support of our position. In one of his moral essays copied into his memoirs, we find the following passages :

Happiness is not impossible without health, but it is of very difficult attainment. I do not mean by health merely an absence of dangerous complaints, but that the body should be in perfect tune-perfect vigour and activity. The longer I live the more I am convinced that the apothecary is of more importance than Seneca; and that half the unhappiness in the world proceeds from little stoppages, from a duct choked up, from food pressing in the wrong place, from a vexed duodenum, or an agitated pylorus.

The deception, as practised upon human creatures, is curious and entertaining. My friend sups late; he eats some strong soup, then a lobster, then some tart, and he dilutes these esculent varieties with wine. The next day I call upon him. He is going to sell his house in London, and to retire into the country. He is alarmed for his eldest daughter's health. His expenses are hourly increasing, and nothing but a timely retreat can save him from ruin. All this is the lobster: and when over-excited nature has had time to manage this testaceous encumbrance, the daughter recovers, the finances are in good order, and every rural idea effectually excluded from the mind.

In the same manner friendships are destroyed by toasted cheese, and hard salted meat has led to suicide. Unpleasant feelings of the body produce corresponding sensations in the

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