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DEAR SIR, I hand you an extract from a local newspaper, the Birmingham Daily Post. The spirit of the letter is so much in keeping with the dictates of humanity, that wider publicity would be an act of justice.

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THE "SOCIAL" CURSE.-To the Editor of the Daily Post.-Sir,-How few people are alive to the obligation they are under to the Royal Humane Society for the Prevention of Cruelty, which is acknowledged to be the "root of most evil," and frequently leads to the shedding of human blood. The welfare and security of society, therefore, depend upon its suppression." Much of the violence and murder of the present day is attributable to the evil of neglecting the duty of instructing children in the principles of humanity. One need be proud of a country (with all its faults) that has such an institution, patronised as it is by the Queen, to whose other virtues is added that of humanity, It is said that "England is the hell of dumb animals." If you wish to realise this fact, visit the private slaughterhouse, where calves are three or four days dying; or look in at the knacker's yard, where horses have been skinned and cut up alive; or at the back shop of the bird-catcher, who sits leisurely burning out the eyes of birds, under pretence of increasing their vocal powers; but it is not necessary to go a "day's journey" in search of diabolical cruelty; witness the old and lame horses in the last stage of disease and wretchedness, exhausted and nearly fainting, borne back by their heavy load, declared by their tormentors to be jibbers, and hammered with the butt end of a murderous instrument called a whip, till they fall and expire in the street. In what particulars are animals inferior to some men? Not in intelligence, for in that point they cannot be compared with the dog; nor is he inferior to man in gratitude and fidelity; does he not, as it were, sorrow at your pain, smile when you rejoice, and pine at your death, and is he not a protector to your person and property; yet how often is he turned adrift, kidnapped and sold to the surgeon by men who owe their lives to his fidelity-there to be tortured in the most obscene and wicked way that ever disgraced the inhabitants of a civilised country? Hence it is the duty of parents, ministers of religion, teachers, and all who have the training of youth, to check in every possible way practices of cruelty, remembering the words of Him who said, "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy."-I have the honour to remain, your obliged servant,

October 9th, 1861.

H. F. G. The Humane Society deserves our sympathy, as the promoters of every good cause deserve it; but to you and many others who have studied the philosophy of life, this letter must appear strangely contradictory, for if it is desirable to alter this hell of dumb animals, why is the slaughter-house supported? Our wife and daughter, who should know or be taught better, generally select the delicate (?) white! the slowdying, bloodless flesh of the calf. If the butcher did not readily find a market for this flesh he would discontinue to manufacture it. The Humane Society deserves praise for its labour; may it long continue in its good work, and by looking below the surface, ere long strike at the root of the evil, and so deserve still more fully the term "Humane."-Yours truly,

Handsworth, near Birmingham, November 16th, 1861.


J. A.

DEAR SIR, I have at length reached this island (Mauritius), and have been a short time in it. I find it in most respects answering anticipations. The scenery is delightfully beautiful-and in some places quite grand-and very picturesque, being diversified with wood, water, and mountains, the last not very lofty but most pleasing in their contour, in many places resembling the mountain scenery of parts of Ireland. I have never seen a more beautiful scene than greets the eye on approaching Port Louis from the sea, an amphitheatre of elevated hills backs and almost surrounds the town. But I must say as Byron said of another lovely land: All but the spirit of man is divine." The people are very degraded, and the intelligent white population seem only to be bent on making money, and quite neglect and oppress the coloured labouring population; the result of which is that immense numbers leave their employment and become vagrants, though every effort

is made by the police; and though great numbers are continually arrested and imprisoned, the evil grows; they get plenty of law but little justice. In consequence of converting the arable land almost wholly into sugar-cane fields, the price of food is very high for a tropical country, being as dear or dearer than in London. Bread is fourteen ounces for threepence here, retail. Flour is 5d. per pound, and all is imported, none grown. The temperature is temperate for latitude 20 deg, being only 75 deg. to 80 deg. at 12 noon at present, and at 6 a.m. 68 deg. to 70 deg., this is owing to the S.E. trades," which blow steadily on the eastern side of the island. The climate is decidedly salubrious; myself and wife have had very good health since coming ashore in July. I had an attack of dysentery after coming here from Port Louis, in which I was a month, but it went off of itself without any medical treatment. I am under the impression it arose from the difference in quality of the bread and water. The water is very full of organic matter here, as what is brought in in the evening is quite stinking next morning. I filter all I use, which keeps it clear and sweet, especially as in addition to its own charcoal, I place a dozen pieces in the top. We find the Vegetarian system admirably adapted for this climate, and as capable of supporting the physical system here as in Europe. For the first month at Port Louis I had at least ten to eleven hours of continuous physical exertion, which so far from exhausting me, had the same effect as in Ireland, it imparted fresh vigour to the muscles. My work here is quite the reverse, being nearly all office, from 8 a.m. to 4 and 5 p.m. daily. I can, therefore, no less than my wife and infant, speak, thus far, in the most decided manner, after near twelve years' trial, of the superiority of Vegetarian diet for the climate of Enrope, no less than that of the tropics.-I am, dear Sir, yours truly, Souillac, Mauritius, October 5th, 1861.

W. M.

P.S.-There is a very barbarous law in force in this island-the encouragemeut of the indiscriminate massacre of all dogs (not in company with a person or not having a collar on at the time) found straying on the public roads; a reward of two shillings being given the police for each death! A needlessly bloody law. The second to which I shall refer at this time, is the practice of tieing Indian prisoners (arrested in consequence of not being employed, or who run from their masters, often or always the result of the oppressive treatment they are subjected to) by the wrists, which from carelessness is often done too tightly, causing suffering to them, and this though there is a rule even against putting handcuffs on them. You can make any use of anything in these letters you please. I have since learned that it is a common practice on sugar estates here to tie up and flog severely the Malabar labourers for almost any offence, and if they are absent from work to stop two days' rations for each day's absence. In a word, they are a grievously oppressed race.-I forgot to say that I formerly resided in London, 24, Albert-street, and am now in this country, at a little seaport, thirty miles from Port Louis, engaged as a district serjeant-major of police. If I can be of any service to yourself or the Vegetarian cause, please command my services.


DEAR SIR,-When lately reading the article entitled "Dr. Whewell on Moral Philosophy," in the second volume of "Dissertations and Discussions," by John Stuart Mill, I found the subjoined extract, which bears very powerfully on the so-called Humanitarian Aspect of Vegetarianism. From the title of the article your readers will perceive that it was not written as a Vegetarian argument, but merely arose incidentally during the ethical discussion which was caused by J. S. Mill reviewing the reviewer (Dr. Whewell) of the celebrated Bentham's views on "The Theory of Utility," which accounts for some of the phrases which occur in the extract. I think Bentham's words ought to have the effect of opening the eyes of all logical and sensitive persons to the cruelties and injustice perpetrated by the slaughter of animals for food. Also, I think you will observe in what a dilemma J. S. Mill places Dr. Whewell with regard to animals, slaves, &c.-Trusting that this extract, or some portion of it, may appear in your useful publication, I remain, dear Sir, yours respectfully, J. B.

Sheffield, November 12th, 1861.

"Selected Articles," page 22.


SIR,-I dine six days out of the seven at an eating-house in the city (London), and would gladly go to a Vegetarian establishment if there were one to go to, and thus I find it extremely inconvenient to become a Vegetarian, which I am half inclined to, if I had an opportunity of this sort. No doubt there are others similarly situated, and who might easily become converts if you Vegetarians would assist them as above. I have no doubt whatever but an eating-house of this description would "pay" if properly conducted, and charges moderate, in the heart of the city. Indeed I should not be much afraid in taking a part of the speculation myself, if none of your friends could be found to undertake it altogether. Pray, Sir, think this over, and should any of your friends have pluck enough and faith in their cause to aid it in this practical manner, I will not only frequently patronize it myself, but do all I can to get others to do so.-I am, Sir, yours very respectfully, London, October 22nd, 1861.

W. E. C. [There is some difficulty in establishing an exclusively Vegetarian eating-house in such a large city as London, because Vegetarians are scattered over too large an area to enable them to dine at one place. But if our correspondent and his friends will make their wishes known to the proprietor of some dining rooms, conveniently situated in relation to their places of business, he would, we think, undertake to provide Vegetarian dishes, on their agreeing to "patronize" him regularly. The question is a purely commercial one, depending for its solution on a sufficient "demand" being created to make it worth while to afford the desired "supply."—ED. D. R.]

Reviews and Notices of Books.

Phrenology and Physiology: a Short Address at the Close of a Course of Lectures by Messrs. Fowler and Wells. By the Rev. E. B. WATSON, of Methven. London: William Horsell, 492, Oxford Street.

AN eloquent and forcible assault on the rocky indifference with which the science of real education is treated by the community at large. The speaker's soul is evidently in the work; and with an ability of no common order, he brings out in bold relief the advantages of pursuing the study of human nature and the recklessness manifested regarding it. The objects held in view by Messrs. Fowler and Wells are thus referred to:


They have come here to ring it into the ear of every genuine friend of human advancement, as with the peal of a trumpet, that the laws of the body-that living machine constructed for the use of a spiritual being-cannot be violated with impunity; that in its effeminated capacities, the most morbid and monstrous passions will hold their saturnalia; and that only in its vigorous exercise and healthy expansion, as well as in the development, culture, and equipment of the intellect, and the enriching and purifying of the heart, can the world have the assurance of a man-a man living in all the measure, majesty, and loveliness which humanity can attain. They have come here to establish, by every principle of proof consistent with real truth, that no school or college, with any pretensions to be on a level with the spirit of the age, ought to proceed on the old empirical sectional system of drugging the intellect to satiety with knowledge, while leaving the physical and moral powers comparatively, if not altogether, uncared for; because they know, with an assurance which lies beyond the power of argument to shake, that it is only when every physical organ, every intellectual faculty, and every moral attribute of our nature, is collectively and harmoniously unfolded, that any one of them can attain its maximum of strength, usefulness, and happiness; and that man can be unified into a complete and perfect being, beautified by that palmy loftiness and that transcendent loveliness by which he ought ever to be characterised."

Recognising, however, the horrors of American slavery, Mr. Watson is not blinded to enslaving customs at home.

"Ladies and gentlemen, is there no species, no form, of slavery in our own country, at our own doors, and amongst ourselves, by which we are held in bodily, mental, moral, and spiritual vassalage? Having been taught to embrace the most abnormal and erroneous notions of the science of anthropology, we have been induced to ignore the vast importance of drawing out, of training, and perfecting the triadic nature, the entire being, of man, and

therefore, whilst cultivating but one section or department of our constitution, have imparted such an education as must, of necessity, be very prejudicial to the whole, fettering the manifestation of its unified and collective powers, and thereby debarring us from possessing the mind of Christ, and from realising the sublimest spirit of the gospel. Under the influence of this false, unnatural, sectional, and very unphilosophical system of education, men have become slaves,-slaves to mammon-slaves to the bottle-slaves to the pipe-slaves to the snuff-box-slaves to the razor-slaves to the medicine chest-slaves to the pope of the polity-slaves to the pope of the dogma-and slaves to the pope of some political creed; and as slaves to such degrading slavery, they are bound by a chain stronger far than all the manacles which ever were forged, and far more indissoluble than bandages of iron seventy times enfolded. Desirous to be loyal to their noble mission, they [Messrs. Fowler and Wells] have entered this city to impart to us truths all radiant with God, by communicating such clear, concatenated, and systematic views of that most important of all subjects-the science of ANTHROPOLOGY, as ought to induce every man to think, and speak, and act, as a complete and perfect being, wonderfully compounded and harmonised; bound to obey the laws of his body, so that he may realise physical strength, and health, and beauty, and thus be no longer the slave of disease; - bound to obey the laws of his mind, so that he may realise mental health, and strength, and beauty, and thus be no longer the slave of error;-bound to obey the laws of his moral constitution, so that he may realise moral health, and strength, and beauty, and thus be no longer the slave of vice; and bound to obey the laws of his social nature, so that he may realise social health, and strength, and beauty, and thus be no longer the slave of crime; and, especially, that he may be taught and trained, as a social being, to know how to act in reference to that divine institute ordained in heaven and celebrated in Eden-MARRIAGE."

These extracts may serve to give our readers an idea of the quality and tone of the pamphlet, which we cordially commend to their perusal, with the hope that it may be widely circulated.

The Co-operator: a Record of Co-operative Progress. By WORKING MEN. Price 1d. London: F. Pitman, 20, Paternoster Row.

THIS is an excellent monthly, conducted by Mr. H. Pitman, of the Manchester Courier. It is not only a "Record of Co-operative Progress," but is also doing good service in extending co-operation amongst working men. The movement has made its way from small beginnings and is now being recognised by all classes. Handel Cossham, Esq., of Bristol, in a speech at the annual meeting of the United Kingdom Alliance, in the Free Trade Hall, Manchester, said: "These organisations will bring working men in contact with commercial principles-afford motives for economy and sobriety-and must tend to lessen the gulf that separates the different classes of society; and thus to modify and ultimately destroy much of the unkind feeling that has been too common between the different grades of society." Lord Stanley, in his address before the Mechanics' Institution and Literary Society of Leeds, said that co-operation was "sound in principle and right in purpose," and would, he believed, "restore to these districts a healthier tone of feeling on the labour question than has prevailed of late years," and that he rejoiced in its progress. Its influence is to destroy the power of selfishness and induce considerations for the rights of others, thus promoting the elevation and happiness of society. We have great pleasure, therefore, in commending a movement and a periodical so much in harmony with our own to the thoughtful attention of our readers. The number for December 14th (an "extra" number) contains, amongst other interesting contributions, an excellent paper on temperance and attention to the laws of health, by the veteran William Howitt, which we have transferred to our pages.

The Teetotaller's Almanac. One Penny. London: Job Caudwell. FULL of useful information, 32pp., and amazingly cheap.

Publications of the Ladies' Sanitary Association. London: Office of the Association. THE above excellent association has issued a series of tracts on subjects lying within its sphere, of which we desire to speak in the kindest terms. The association is influential, and in the names of its honorary and other officers affords a guarantee for its intentions; whilst the several public lectures which it has inaugurated and the tracts it has issued assure its position as one of the foremost large agencies engaged in ameliorating the condition of the people. We thoroughly sympathise with its objects, although we regret to add, in several instances, we entirely dissent from the special teaching of the writers and lecturers on its behalf. We purpose in our next number to recur to this subject, but not wishing to lose an issue before commending some of the tracts we have perused, we at once give our verdict in favour of the following, which deserve, and we trust will have, a very wide circulation. Our friends who have the means will find it a profitable way of expending money to put into the hands of their poorer neighbours any of the following, first perusing them for their own edification. We wish to add that the tracts are written


in such a style as to make them anything but dry reading:-" Work and Play;" "Never Despair;"The Sick Child's Cry." The preceding are, with a slight exception, in "How to Manage a Baby;" "The Advantage of Warm Clothing;" "The Massacre of the Innocents;""The Cheap Doctor;" "The Power of Soap and Water;" "The worth of Fresh Air ;""Something Homely;" "Whose fault is it?" "About to Marry.” With our next notice we hope to find space for a pithy extract or two.

Intelligence, Reports, &c.

LONDON: A WEEK's Seizure of DISEASED MEAT.-At the City Commission of Sewers held at Guildhall, London, December 10th, 1861, Dr. Letheby reported that the markets and slaughter-houses of the city had been duly inspected during the week, and the officers had seized 1,380 lbs. of meat and 209 head of game and poultry, as unfit for human food. It consisted of one sheep, 12 quarters of beef, 24 joints, 92 fowls, 47 ducks, 22 geese, and 48 pheasants; 966lbs. of the meat was diseased, 25 lbs. was putrid, and the rest was from animals that had died from natural causes. All of it had been treated with chemical agents and destroyed as food.—Times.

VEGETARIAN DISCUSSIONS.-On Friday evening, October 11th, 1861, an excellent essay was read by Mr. William Freeston (late of Owens College, Manchester), before the members of the Sunday-school Club, in connection with the Lower Mosley-street Schools, Manchester. An animated debate followed, and the subject was adjourned until the following Friday, a gentleman undertaking to open the discussion by arguments in opposition to Vegetarianism. Another spirited debate followed the reading of his paper; many gentlemen having had no opportunity of speaking on the subject were desirous of doing so; but the general feeling was that it was undesirable to adjourn the question again, as it would interfere with other arrangements. Subsequently Mr. Freeston delivered the substance of his essay as a lecture, in the Dobb Lane Chapel, Failsworth, before a very attentive audience. He has also read a paper on Vegetarianism before a discussion class, meeting at the schools of the London Domestic Mission, in Half Moon Alley, Milton-street, Cripplegate, London. This gentleman is doing good service in thus bringing the question before the public, and intends to avail himself of other opportunities during the present winter.

TIPTON, DECEMBER 16, 1861.-Mr. L. Parry writes:-"I have great pleasure in saying that we have twelve subscribers for the Dietetic Reformer.' I look forward for a society before long. The four numbers of the Dietetic Reformer' have been lent out pretty freely. We think them a good lift to the temperance cause. The people are astonished at the arguments put forth. I feel it my duty to do what I can for every good cause."


ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN VEGETARIAN SOCIETY.-The following report from a New York journal has been kindly forwarded to us:-The Twelfth Annual Meeting of the American Vegetarian Association was held at the lecture-room of the Hygeio-Therapeutic College, No. 15, Laight-street, on Wednesday afternoon and evening, September 25th, 1861. Rev. Dr. Metcalf, of Philadelphia, president of the society, occupied the chair. The doctor has been a Vegetarian for fifty-two years, and is now in his seventy-fourth year, a living illustration of the benefits of a proximate return to the natural diet. In relating his experience, he stated that he had raised several sons and daughters, all of whom are now living and in good health, are all married and have families, and none of their children nor grandchildren have ever tasted flesh. In answer to inquiries as to the physical endurance of Vegetarians, and their exemption from sickness, Dr. Metcalf alluded to several remarkable cases, among others that of Mr. John Chorlton, who recently died in Philadelphia, in the ninetieth year of his age. He had been a strict Vegetarian for the past fifty-four years, asbtaining from fish, flesh, fowl, and from intoxicating beverages. Nearly thirty years ago he abandoned tea, coffee, and tobacco. His health, during his long and laborious life, had been uniformly good; and for the past thirty-four years he had worked constantly as a journeyman dyer, an occupation well calculated to put his physical endurance to the severest test. His mind was clear, active, and vigorous to the last.-Dr. Grimes, of Boonton, N. J., addressed the meeting on the philanthropic and humanising influences of Vegetarianism. He also alluded to its great importance, not only curing febrile and infectious diseases, but also in preventing them. Dr. Grimes is himself an excellent illustration of the Vegetarian theory. Now sixty years of age, very few flesh-eaters at fifty present a more hale and vigorous appearance. We have been personally acquainted with the doctor for a dozen years, and can hardly perceive that this period of time has added a single wrinkle to his brow. Dr. Grimes has always been a hard-working man, and, we may add, in this connection, that three years ago he married his second wife, having been a widower nearly

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