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pelled them to fly. Pisistratus, in the course of the pursuit, put in execution the following sagacious stratagem, to continue their confusion, and prevent their rallying: he placed his sons on horseback, and directed them to overtake the fugitives; they were commissioned to bid them remove their apprehensions, and pursue their usual employments.

LXIV. The Athenians took him at his word, and Pisistratus thus became a third time master of Athens 87. He by no means neglected to secure his authority, by retaining many confederate troops, and providing pecuniary resources, partly from Attica itself, and partly from the river Strymon 88


87 Third time master of Athens.)-Pisistratus, tyrant as he was, loved letters, and favoured those who cultivated them. He it was who first collected Homer's works, and presented the public with the Iliad and Odyssey in their present form.Bellanger.

Cicero, in one of his letters to Atticus, subsequent to the battle of Pharsalia, thus expresses himself: “ We are not yet certain whether we shall groan under a Phalaris, or enjoy ourselves under a Pisistratus."-T.

88 River Strymon.—. This river is very celebrated in classical story: there are few of the ancient writers who have not made mention of it; at the present day it is called, at that part where it empties itself into the Ægean, Golfo di Contessa. Upon the banks of this river, Virgil beautifully describes Orpheus 'to have lamented his Eurydice. Amongst the other rivers memorable in antiquity for their production of gold, were the Pactolus, Hermus, Ganges, Tagus, Iber, Indus, and Arimaspus.-T.

The children of those citizens, who, instead of retreating from his

arms, had opposed his progress, he took as hostages, and sent to the island of Naxos; which place he had before subdued, and given up to Lygdamis. In compliance also with an oracular injunction, he purified Delos 89: all the dead bodies, which lay within a certain distance of the temple, were, by his orders, dug up, and removed to another part of the island. By the death of some of the Athenians in battle, and by the flight of others with the Alemæonides, he remained in undisturbed possession of the supreme authority*

LXV, Such was the intelligence which Crosus received concerning the situation of Athens. With


89 Purified Delos.]-Montfaucon says, that the whole island of Delos was consecrated by the birth of Apollo and Diana, and that it was not allowable to bury a dead body in any part of it. It should seem from the passage before us, that this must be understood with some restriction.---T.Montfaucon's authority is Thucydides iii. p. 359. Strabo x, p. 436. Spanheim's notes on the hymn of Callimacus in Delos, p. 320.

# The following inscription was engraven on the statue of Pisistratus, at Athens :

Twice I have been sovereign, twice have the people of Athens expelled and twice have they recalled me. I am that Pisistratus, wise in council, who collected the scattered books of Homer which were before sung in detached pieces, That great poet was our fellow citizen, for we Athenians founded Smyrna.” See the Analecta Vet. Poet. Græc. vol. ija

'p. 216,

respect to the Lacedæmonians, after suffering many important defeats, they had finally vanquished the Tegeans. Whilst Sparta was under the government of Leon and Hegesicles, the Lacedæmonians, successful in other contests, had been inferior to the Tegeans alone: of all the Grecian states, they had formerly the worst laws; bad with regard to their own internal government, and intolerable to strangers. They obtained good laws, by means of the following circumstance: Lycurgus", a man of distinguished character at Sparta, happened to visit the Delphic oracle. As soon as he had entered the vestibule, the Pythian exclaimed aloud,


* Herodotus writes Hegesicles, which is agreeable to the Ionian dialect; but Pausanias and the Attic writers call it Agasicles.-Larcher.

90 Lycurgus.]-For an account of the life and character of Lycurgus, we refer the reader, once for all, to Plutarch. His institutes are admirably collected and described by the Abbé Barthelemy, in his Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis, vol. iv. 110.-T.-The life of Lycurgus was the first which Plutarch published, as he himself observes in the life of Theseus. He seems to have had a strong attachment to the Spartans and their customs, as Xenophon likewise had. For, besides this life, and those of several other Spartan chiefs, we have a treatise of his on the laws and customs of the Lacedæmonians, and another of laconic apophthegms. He makes Lycurgus in all things a perfect hero, and alleges his behaviour as a proof that the wise man, so often described by the philosophers, was not a mere ideal character, unattainable by human nature. It is certain, however, that the encomiums bestowed upon him and his laws, by the Delphic oracle, were merely a contrivance between the Pythoness and himself; and some of his laws, for instance, that concerning the wamen, were exceptionable.-Langhorne,

Thou com’st, Lycurgus, to this honour'd shrine,
Favour'd by Jove, and ev'ry pow'r divine.
Or god or mortal! how shall I decide?

Doubtless to heav'n most dear and most allied. It is farther asserted by some, that the priestess dictated to him those institutes, which are now observed at Sparta: but the Lacedæmonians themselves affirm, that Lycurgus brought them from Crete, while he was guardian to his nephew Leobotas king of Sparta. In consequence of this trust, having obtained the direction of the legislature, he made a total change in the constitution, and took effectual care to secure a strict observance 91 of whatever he introduced: he newmodelled the military code, appointing the Enomotiæ, the Triacades, and the Syssitia; he instituted also the Ephori 9- and the senate *.


95 Strict observance.]—There were some Lacedæmonians who, deeming the laws of Lycurgus too severe, chose rather to leave their country than submit to them. These passed over to the Sabines in Italy; and when these people were incorporated with the Romans, communicated to them a portion of their Lacedæmonian manners.--Larcher.

92 The glossary at the end of Wesseling's edition explains the Enomatia to be an order in tactics among the Athenians. See Thucydides, v. p. 359. Xenophon. Laced. Pol. chap. xi. The Triecada and the Syssitia, were a public supper of a certain number. This is the substance of Larcher's long and [*] For this reference see page 108.


LXVI. The manners of the people became thus more polished and improved: after his death,


elaborate note on this subject; upon which also the reader may consult Cragius.

The following account of the Ephori, as collected and compressed from the ancient Greek writers, is given from the Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis :

Aristotle, Plutarch, Cicero, Valerius Maximus, and Dion Chrysostom, were of opinion, that the Ephori were stituted by Theopompus, who reigned almost a hundred years after the time of Lycurgus. Herodotus, Plato, and another ancient author named Satyrus, ascribe the institution to Lycurgus. The Ephori were an intermediate body betwixt the kings and the senate. They were called Ephori, or inspectors, because their attention was extended to every part of the machine of government. They were five in number; and, to prevent any abuse of their authority, they were chosen annually by the people, the defenders of whose rights they were. They superintended the education of the youth. Every day they appeared in public, to decide causes, to arbitrate differences, and to prevent the introduction of any thing which might tend to the corruption of youth. They could oblige magistrates to render an account of their administration; they might even suspend them from their functions, and drag them to prison. The kings themselves were conpelled to obey the third summons to appear before the Ephori and answer for any imputed fault. The whole executive power was vested in their hands: they received foreign ambassadors, levied troops, and gave the general his orders, whom they could recal at pleasure. So many privileges secured them a veneration, which they justified from the rewards they bestowed on merit, by their attachment to ancient maxims, and by the firmness with which, on several occasions, they brc';e the force of conspiracies, which mepaced the tranquillity of the state."-T.


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