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when I opened it”, I discovered a body equal in length to the coffin; I correctly measured' it, and placed it where I found it.” Lichas, after hearing his relation, was induced to believe, that this might be the body of Orestes, concerning which the oracle, had spoken. He was farther convinced, when he recollected, that the bellows of the smith might intimate the two winds; the anvil and the hammer might express one form opposing another; the iron, also, which was beaten, might signify ill succeeding ill, rightly conceiving that the use of iron operated to the injury of mankind. With these ideas in his mind, he returned to
even among the savages of Canada. Bones of an extraordinary size, found in different regions, have obtained such opinions credit. Some of these, in the time of Augustus, were exhibited at Caprea, formerly the resort of many savage and monstrous animals : these, it was pretended, were the bones of those giants who had fought against the gods. In 1613 they shewed through Europe, the bones of the giant Teutobachus: unluckily, a naturalist proved them to be the bones of an elephant.-Larcher.
99 Opened it.]-It may be asked how, Orestes, who neither reigned nor resided at Tegea, could possibly be buried there? -Strabo, in general terms, informs us, that he died in Arcadia, whilst conducting an Æolian colony. Stephen of Byzantium is more precise: he says, that Orestes, being bitten by a viper, died at a place called Orestium. His body was doubtless carried to Tegeum, which was at no great distance, as he was descended, by his grandmother Aerope, from Tegeates the founder of Tegea.-Larcher. VOL. I.
Sparta, and related the matter to his countrymen ; who, immediately, under pretence of some imputed crime, sent him into banishment. He returned to Tegea, told his misfortune to the smith, and hired of him the ground, which he at first refused positively to part with. He resided there for a certain space of time, when, digging up the body, he collected the bones, and returned with them to Sparta. The Lacedæmonians had previously obtained possession of a great part of the Peloponnese; and, after the above-mentioned event, their contests with the Tegeans were attended with uninterrupted success.
LXIX. Cresus was duly. informed of all these circumstances : he accordingly sent messengers to Sparta with presents, at the same time directing them to form an offensive alliance with the people. They delivered their message in these terms :
Creesus, sovereign of Lydia, and of various nations, thus addresses himself to Sparta :- I am directed by the oracles to form a Grecian alliance; and, as I know you to be pre-eminent above all the states of Greece, I, without collusion of
any kind, desire to become your friend and ally. The Lacedæmonians having heard of the oracular declaration to Cresus, were rejoiced at his distinction in their favour, and instantly acceded to the proposed terms of confederacy. It is to be 3
observed, observed, that Cræsus had formerly rendered kindness to the Lacedæmonians: they had sent to Sardis to purchase some gold for the purpose of erecting the statue of Apollo, which is still to be seen at mount Thornax; Cræsus presented them with all they wanted.
LXX. Influenced by this consideration, as well as by his decided partiality to them, they entered into all his views : they declared themselves ready to give such assistance as he wanted; and, farther to mark their attachment, they prepared, as a present for the king, a brazen vessel, capable of containing three hundred amphoræ, and ornamented round the brim with the figures of various animals. This, however, never reached Sardis ; the occasion of which is thus differently explained. The Lacedæmonians affirm, that their vessel was intercepted near Samos, on its way to Sardis, by the Samians, who had fitted out some ships of war for this particular purpose.
The Samians, on the contrary, assert, that the Lacedæmonians employed on this business did not arrive in time; but, hearing that Sardis was lost, and Croesus in captivity, they disposed of their charge to some private individuals of Samos, who presented it to the temple of Juno. They who acted this part, might perhaps, on their return to Sparta, declare, that the vessel had been violently taken from I 2
them by the Samians. Such is the story of this vessel.
LXXI. Croesus, in the mean time, deluded by the words of the oracle, prepared to lead his forces into Cappadocia, in full expectation of becoming conqueror of Cyrus, and' of Persia. Whilst he was employed in providing for this expedition, à certain Lydian named Sardanis, who had always, among his countrymen, the reputation of wisdom, and became still more memorable from this occasion, thus addressed Croesus : “You meditate, O king! an attack upon men who are clothed with the skins of animals; who, inhabiting a country but little cultivated, live on what they can procure, not on what they wish : strangers to the taste of wine, they drink water only ''; even figs are a delicacy with which they are unacquainted, and all our luxuries are entirely unknown to them. If you conquer them, what can you take from such as have nothing ? but if you shall be defeated, it becomes you to think, of what you on your part will be deprived. When they shall once have tasted our delicacies, we shall never again be able to get rid of them. I indeed am thankful to the gods for not inspiring the Persians with the wish of invading Lydia.” Cræsus disregarded this admonition: it is nevertheless certain, that the Persians, before their conquest of Lydia, were strangers to every species of luxury.
101 Drink water only. ]-Xenophon, as well as Herodotus, informs us, that the Persians drank only water: nevertheless our historian, in another place, says, that the Persians were addicted to wine. In this there is no contradiction: when these Persians were poor, a little satisfied them: rendered rich by the conquests of Cyrus and his successors, luxury, and all its concomitant vices, were introduced amongst them. -Larcher.
LXXII. The Cappadocians are by the Greeks called Syrians. Before the empire of Persia existed, they were under the dominion of the Medes, though at this period in subjection to Cyrus. The different empires of the Lydians and the Medes were divided by the river Halysło; which rising in a mountain of Armenia, passes through Cilicia, leaving in its progress the Matienians* on the right, and Phrygia on the left: then stretching towards the north, it separates the Cappadocian Syrians from Paphlagonia, which is on the left of
Halys.]—The stream of this river was colder than any in Ionia, and celebrated for that quality by the elegiac poets. -Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor.-I omitted to say in a former note, that Strabo knew only the eastern branch of the Halys. This seems not a little singular, as the geographer was born at no great distance from the Halys, and had crossed Asia Minor; he also describes the ground through which the southern Halys runs.
* It is difficult to understand what is meant by the Matienians on the right of the Halys. It may suit in some dea gree with the Morimenians.