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them by the Samians. Such is the story of this vessel

LXXI. Cræsus, in the mean time, deluded by the words of the oracle, prepared to lead his forces into Cappadocia, in full expectation of becoming conqueror of Cyrus, and of Persia. Whilst he was employed in providing for this expedition, à certain Lydian named Sardanis, who had always, among his countrymen, the reputation of wisdom, , and became still more memorable from this occasion, thus addressed Cræsus : “You meditate, O king! an attack upon men who are clothed with the skins of animals; who, inhabiting a country but little cultivated, live on what they can procure, not on what they wish : strangers to the taste of wine, they drink water only for; even figs are a delicacy with which they are unacquainted, and all our luxuries are entirely unknown to them. If you conquer them, what can you take from such as have nothing ? but if you shall be defeated, it becomes you to think, of


101 Drink water only. ]—Xenophon, as well as Herodotus, informs us, that the Persians drank only water: nevertheless our historian, in another place, says, that the Persians were addicted to wine. In this there is no contradiction : when these Persians were poor, a little satisfied them: rendered rich by the conquests of Cyrus and his successors, luxury, and all its concomitant vices, were introduced amongst them. -Larcher.

what you on your part will be deprived. When they shall once have tasted our delicacies, we shall never again be able to get rid of them. I indeed am thankful to the gods for not inspiring the Persians with the wish of invading Lydia.” Cresus disregarded this admonition: it is nevertheless certain, that the Persians, before their conquest of Lydia, were strangers to every species of luxury.


LXXII. The Cappadocians are by the Greeks called Syrians. Before the empire of Persia existed, they were under the dominion of the Medes, though at this period in subjection to Cyrus. The different empires of the Lydians and the Medes were divided by the river Halys 10%; which rising in a mountain of Armenia, passes through Cilicia, leaving in its progress the Matienians* on the right, and Phrygia on the left: then stretching towards the north, it separates the Cappadocian Syrians from Paphlagonia, which is on the left of

the the stream. Thus the river Halys separates all the lower parts of Asia, from the sea which flows opposite to Cyprus, as far as the Euxine, a space over which an active man "03 could not travel in less than five days 104.

102 Halys.]—The stream of this river was colder than any in Ionia, and celebrated for that quality by the elegiac poets. -Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor.-I omitted to say in a former note, that Strabo knew only the eastern branch of the Halys. This seems not a little singular, as the geographer was born at no great distance from the Halys, and had crossed Asia Minor; he also describes the ground through which the southern Halys runs.

* It is difficult to understand what is meant by the Matienians on the right of the Halys. It may suit in some des gree with the Morimenians.


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LXXIII. Crosus continued to advance towards Cappadocia; he was desirous of adding the country to his dominions, but he was principally influenced by his confidence in the oracle, and his zeal for revenging on Cyrus, the cause of Astyages. Astyages was son of Cyaxares king of the Medes, and brother-in-law to Cresus; he was now vanquished, and detained in captivity by. Cyrus, son of Cambyses. The affinity betwixt Croesus and Astyages was of this nature: Some tumult having arisen among the Scythian Nomades, a number of them retired clandestinely


was now V

103 Active man, &c.]—The Greek is evswvep acudpo, literally, in English, a well-girt man, a man prepared for expedition. The expression is imitated by Horace;

Hoc iter ignavi divisimus,altius ac nos

Præcinctis unum.- T. 104 Five days.]-Scymnus of Chios, having remarked that the Euxine is a seven days journey distant from Cilicia, adduces the present passage as a proof of our historian's ignorance. Scymnus probably estimated the day's journey at 150 furlongs, which was sometimes done;' whilst Herodotus makes it 200. This makes, between their two accounts, a difference of 50 furlongs; a difference too small to put any one out of temper with the historian.-Larcher.

into the territories of the Medes, where Cyaxáres son of Phraortes, and grandson of Deioces, was at that time king. He received the fugitives under his protection, and, after shewing them many marks of his favour, he entrusted some boys to their care, to learn the language, and the Scythian management of the bow tos. These Scythians employed much of their time in hunting, in which they were generally, though not always, successful. Cyaxares, it seems, was of an irritable disposition, and meeting them one day, when they returned without any game, he treated them with much insolence and asperity. They conceived themselves injured, and determined not to acquiesce in the affront. After some consultation among themselves, they determined to kill one of the children entrusted to their care, to dress him as they were accustomed to do their game, and to serve him up to Cyaxares. Having done this, they resolved to fly to Sardis, where Alyattes, son of Sadyattes, was king. They executed their purpose. Cyaxares and his guests partook of the human flesh,


105 Scythian management of the bow.]—The Scythians had the reputation of being excellent archers, "The scholiast of Theocritus informs us, that, according to Herodotus and Callimachus, Hercules learned the art of the bow from the Scythian Teutarus. Theocritus himself says, that Hercules learned this art from Eurytus, one of the Argonauts. The Athenians had Scythians amongst their troops, as had probably the other Greeks.Larcher,

and the Scythians immediately sought the protection of Alyattes.

' LXXIV. Cyaxares demanded their persons ; on refusal of which a war commenced betwixt the Lydians and the Medes, which continued five years. It was attended with various success; and it is remarkable, that one of their engage: ments took place in the night "6. In the sixth year, and in the midst of an engagement, when neither side could reasonably claim superiority, the day was suddenly involved in darkness. This phenomenon, and the particular period at which it was to happen, had been foretold to the Ionians by Thales to the Milesian. Awed by the solemnity


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106 Took place in the night.]--I am inclined to think that one event only is spoken of here by Herodotus; and that by * WUXToua Xrav tova he meant to express a kind of night-engages ment, of which the subsequent sentence contains the particulars. Otherwise it seems strange, thạt he should mention the vuxtquaxia as a remarkable occurrence, and not give any particulars concerning it. The objections to this interpretation are, the connecting the sentence by de instead of youp, and the following account, that they ceased to fight after the eclipse came on; but neither of these is insuperable. The interpretation of tuva is perfectly fair, and not unusual. Astronomers have affirmed, from calculation, that this eclipse must have happened in the seventh year of Astyages, not in the reign of Cyaxares.

107 Foretold to the Ionians by Thales.]—Of Thales, the life is given by Diogenes Laertius ; many particulars also con, çerning him are to be found in Plutarch, Pliny, Lactantius,


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