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quired whether the god alluded to his empire, or to the empire of Cyrus; but that not understanding the reply which had been made, nor condescending to make a second enquiry, he had been himself the cause of his own misfortune: that he had not at all comprehended the last answer of the oracle, which related to the mule; for that this mule was Cyrus, who was born of two parents of two different nations, of whom the mother was as noble as the father was mean; his mother was a Mede, daughter of Astyages, king of the Medes; his father was a Persian, and tributary to the Medes, who, although a man of the very meanest rank, had married a princess, who was his mis· tress.”—This answer of the Pythian, the Lydians, on their return, communicated to Croesus. Creesus having heard it, exculpated the deity, and acknowledged himself to be reprehensible. Such, however, was the termination of the empire of Crosus, and this the recital of the first conquest of Ionia.

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XCII. Besides the sacred offerings of Cresus which I have before enumerated, many others are extant in Greece. In the Boeotian Thebes, there is a golden tripod "30, consecrated by him to the


130 Tripod.]—We must not confound the tripods of the ancients with the utensils known by us under a similar name (in French trepieds, corresponding with the kitchen utensil


Ismenian Apollo"}: there are also at Ephesus 132 some golden heifers, and a number of columns. He gave also to the Pronean Minerva "33 a large golden shield, which is still to be seen at Delphi. All the above remained within my remembrance; many others have been lost. He présented also, as it appears, to the Milesian Branchidæ, gifts equal in weight and value to what he sent to Delphi. The presents which he made to Delphi, as well as those which he sent to Amphiaraus, were given for sacred purposes, being the first


called in English footman.) The tripod was a vessel standing upon three feet, of which there were two kinds: the one was appropriated to festivals, and contained wine mixed with water; the others, in which water was to be made warm, were placed upon the fire.-Larcher.

136 Ismenian Apollo.)— Ismenus was a river in Bæotia, not far from Aulis. Ismenius was synonymous with Thebanus, and therefore the Ismenian Apollo is the same with the Theban A pollo.-T. .

132 Ephesus.]Pococke says, that the place now called Aiesalouk is ancient Ephesus. Chandler says otherwise.

The two cities of Ephesus and Smyrna have been termed the eyes of Asia Minor: they were distant from each other three hundred and twenty stadia, or forty miles, in a straight line.-T.

533 Pronean Minerva.]—This means the Minerva whose shrine or temple was opposite to that of Apollo at Delphi: but Herodotus, in his eighth book, makes mention of the shrine of Minerva Pronoia, or of Minerva the goddess of providence. So that, at Delphi, there were two different shrines or temples consecrated to Minerva, the Pronean, and the Pronoian..-T.

fruits of his own private possessions. His other donations were formerly the property of an adversary, who had shewn himself hostile to Cræsus before he succeeded to the throne, attaching himself to Pantaleon "34, and favouring his views on the imperial dignity. Pantaleon was also the son of Alyattes, and brother of Cresus, but not by the same mother: Alyattes had Crosus by a Carian and Pantaleon by an Ionian wife. But when, agreeably to the will of his father, Cræsus took

possession of the throne, he destroyed this man, · who had opposed him with a fuller's instrument*:


134 Pantaleon.]—When Cræsus mounted the Lydian throne, he divided the kingdom with his brother. A Lydian remarked to him, that the sun obtains for mankind all the comforts which the earth produces, and that, deprived of its influence, it would cease to be fruitful. But if there were two suns, it were to be feared that every thing would be scorched, and perish. For this reason the Lydians have but one king; him they regard as their protector, but they will not allow of two.- Stobæus.

* A fuller's instrument.] --The expression in the editions of Hercdotus, which precede Wesseling, has been hastily copied. The true reading is not sto xva frie enxwy, but eu zva Q8 erxwv, torturing him so as to tear away his flesh piecemeal upon a fuller's xvce Qus, that is, an instrument set round with sharp points. This reading is supported by the glossary to Herodotus, by Timæus, whose platonic lexicon is frequently interpolated from Herodotus, and by Şuidas. Plutarch, in the . treatise which professes to shew the malignity of Herodotus, quotes this passage, and reads in the common editions, To Tapx; but in Aldus, tv, vapo, which only wants a letter of the genuine reading. It is curious to observe M. Larcher's


his wealth he distributed in the manner we have before related, in compliance with a vow which he had formerly made. Such is the history of the offerings of Cræsus.

XCIII. If we except the gold dust which descends from mount Tmolus"}s, Lydia can exhibit no curiosity which may vie with those of other countries. It boasts, however, of one monument of art, second to none but those of the Ægyptians and Babylonians. It is the sepulchre of Alyattes 136, father of Cræsus. The foundation is composed of immense stones; the rest of the structure is a huge mound of earth. The edifice was raised by merchants, labourers, and young


mistake upon this place : he says, that Aldus's edition reads ETV V208; interpreting of Herodotus what Wesseling says of Plutarch, for Aldus's edition, which is now before me, plainly reads eTo zva@nir earwo.--T.

135 Mount I'molus.]—The country about mount Tmolus, which comprehended the plain watered by the Hernius, was always remarkable for its fertility and beauty; and whoever will be at the pains to consult Chandler's Travels, will find that it has lost but little of its ancient claims to admiration.-T.

136 Sepulchre of Alyattes.]–The remains of this barrow are still conspicuous within five miles of Sardes,, now called Sart. The industrious Dr. Chandler informs us, that the mold which has been washed down, conceals the basement; but that, and a considerable treasure might perhaps be discovered, if the barrow were opened.-See Chandler's Travels.

women, who prostituted themselves for hire. On, the summit of this monument there remained, within my remembrance, five termini, upon which were inscriptions to ascertain the performance of each, and to intimate that the women accomplished the greater part of the work. All the young women of Lydia prostitute themselves, by which they procure their marriage-portion; this, with their persons, they afterwards dispose of as they think proper. The circumference of the tomb is six fürlongs and two plethra, the breadth thirteen plethra ; it is terminated by a large piece of water, which the Lydians affirm to be inexhaustible, and is called the Gygean lake"37*.


137 Gygean lake.]—This still remains.-T.

* The learned Mr. King considers this description of the sepulchre of Alyattes as exactly corresponding with a large British or Irish barrow. It seems an act of justice to give his account of it in his own words:

On the same rising ground, near the middle, and towards Sardes, is most remarkably conspicuous, the vast monu- . ment or barrow of Halyattes, the father of Cresus, where the mold which has been washed down by time now conceals (as Chandler very fairly supposes) the basement of stone mentioned by Herodotus.

That great historian's very remarkable description of the mode of constructing it, well deserves our notice, and especially as one part of his account will admit of two different kinds of explanation, and as that which has never yet been adopted may probably be the true one.

Herodotus says, “ Lydia exhibits one work, by far the greatest of any, except the works of the Egyptians and Babylonians ; for there is there the sepulchre of Halyattes, the


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