Page images

tuted a similar exemption; not admitting the neighbouring Dorians, nor indeed some of their own people, who had violated a sacred and established custom, to the temple of Triope '90. The prize of these games, which were celebrated in honour of the Triopean Apollo, was formerly a tripod of brass, which the victor was not expected to carry away 19, but to leave as a votive offering in the temple of the deity. A man of Halicarnassus "92, whose name was' Agasicles, having obtained the victory, in violation of this custom, carried away the tripod, and hung it up in his house. To punish this offence, the five

cities, 190 Temple of Triope. ]— Triopium was a city of Caria, founded by Triopas, son of Erysicthon. Hence the Triopean promontory took its name, where was a temple known under the name of the Triopean temple, consecrated to Apollo. The Dorians here celebrated games in honour of that god, but without joining with him Neptune and the nymphs.

In this temple was held a general assembly of the Dorians of Asia, upon the model of that of Thermopylæ.-Larcher.

191 Was not expected to carry away.]—In the games in honour of Apollo and Bacchus, the victor was not permitted to carry the prize away with him. It remained in the temple of the deity, with an inscription signifying the names of the persons at whose cost the games were celebrated, with that of the victorious tribe.-- Larcher."

192 Halicarnassus.-The sincerity of Herodotus is eminently conspicuous from the faithful manner in which he relates circumstances but little honourable either for Halicarnassus, his country, or even for the Athenians, who had expressed themselves anxious to receive him into the number of their citizens, and before whom he had publicly recited his history. See also chap. cxlvi. of this book; as also different passages in the 3d, 5th, and 7th books.-Bouhier.

Vol. I.


cities, Lindus, Jalyssus, Camirus, Cos "93, and Cnidus 194, excluded Halicarnassus from their religious ceremonies.


CXLV. It appears to me, that the Ionians divided themselves into twelve states, and were unwilling to connect themselves with more, because they were originally circumstanced in Peloponnesus, as the Achæans are at present, by whom the Ionians were expelled. The first of these is Pellene near Sicyon, then Ægira and Ægæ, through which the Crathis flows with a neverfailing stream, giving its name to a well-known river of Italy. Next to these is Bura, then Helice, to which place the Ionians fled after being vanquished in battle by the Achæans. Next follow Ægium "95, Rhypæ, Patræ, Pharæ, and Olenus,

which 193 Cos.]-Cos was the birth-place of Hippocrates.-T.

194 Cnidus.]—Cnidus was celebrated for being the birthplace of the historian Ctesias, and of the astronomer Eudoxus, and no less so for being possessed of the beautiful Venus of Praxiteles.--T.

The medals struck at Cnidus in the times of the Roman emperors, represent, as may be presumed, the Venus of Praxiteles. The goddess with her right hand conceals her sex, with her left she holds some linen over a vessel of perfumes.-Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis.

It is perhaps not unworthy of remark, that the celebrated Venus de Medicis conceals with her left hand the distinction of her sex, whilst her right is elevated to her bosom.-T.

195 Ægium.]-The inhabitants of this place having vanquished the Ætolians in a naval fight, and taken from them a vessel of fifty oars, they made an offering of the tenth part to


[ocr errors]

which is watered by Pirus, a considerable river. The last are Dyme, and Tritæa, the only inland city.

CXLVI. These are the twelve states of the Achæans, to which the Ionians formerly belonged, who, for this reason, constructed an equal number of cities in the country which they afterwards inhabited. That these are more properly Ionians than the rest, it would be absurd to assert or to imagine. It is certain that the Abantes 196 of Eubea, who have neither name nor any thing else in common with Ionia, form a considerable part of them. They are, moreover, mixed with the Minyan-Orchomenians, the Cadmeans, Dryopians, Phocidians, Molossians, the Pelasgians of Arcadia, the Dorians of Epidaurus, and various · other nations. Even those who migrating from


the teniple of Delphi, at the same time they demanded of the god, who were the bravest of the Greeks? The Pythian answered thus : “ The best cavalry are those of Thessaly; the loveliest women are those of Sparta; they who drink the water of the fair fountain of Arethuse are valiant; but the Argives, who inhabit betwixt Terinthus and Arcadia, abounding in flocks, are more so.--As for you, O Ægians! you are neither the third, nor the fourth, nor even the twelfth; you inspire no respect, nor are of the smallest importance." --Larcher.

196 Abantes.]—This people cut off their hair before, and suffered it to grow behind; being a valiant race, they did this to prevent the enemy, whom they always boldly fronted, seizing them by the hair. For the same reason Alexander the Great ordered his generals to make the troops cut off their hair.-Larcher.

the Prytaneum 197 of Athens, esteem themselves the most noble of all the Ionians, on their first settling in the country, brought no wives, būt married a number of Carian women, whose parents they put to death. In consequence of this violence, the women made a compact amongst themselves, which they delivered to their daughters, never to sit at meals with their husbands, nor to call them by their appropriate names; which resolution was provoked by the murder of their parents, their husbands, and their children, and by their being afterwards compelled to marry the assassins.-The above happened at Miletus.

CXLVII. Of those chosen by these Ionians for their kings, some were Lydians, descended of Glaucus 198, the son of Hippolochus, and others,

Caucon197 Prytaneum.]—The Prytaneum was the senate-house of Athens. After the senators were elected, presiding officers were appointed, who were called Prytanes. There were fifty of these, and they resided constantly in thc Prytaneum, that they inight be ready, says Potter, to give audience to whoever had any thing to propose concerning the commonwealth. In the same place also resided other citizens who had rendered important services to their country. The Prytaneum was sacred to Vesta; it was not appropriate to Athens: mention is made of the Prytaneum of Siphros, of Cyzicum, of Syracuse, and of many other places.—T.

193 Glaucus.]—This is the Glaucus who relates his genealogy to Diomed in the sixth book of the Iliad.

Hippolochus surviv’d; from him I came,
The honour'd author of my birth and name;

By his decree I sought the Trojan town, &c.Pope. I cannot help remarking, that the whole version of this episode is comparatively defective in spirit and in melody.-T. Caucon-Pylians, of the race of Codrus, son of Melanthus. These were more tenacious of their Ionian name than the rest of their countrymen; they are without question true and genuine Ionians: but this name may, in fact, be applied to all: those of Athenian origin, who celebrate the Apaturian festival99; from which it is to be observed, that the Ephesians and Colophonians are alone excluded, who had been guilty of the crime of murder.

CXLVIII. Panionium * is a sacred place 200 on Mycale, situate towards the north, which by the


199 Apaturian festival.]—This was first instituted at Athens, and thence derived to the rest of the Ionians, Colophon and Ephesus alone excepted. It continued three days: the first was called Dorpia, from Dorpos, a supper; on the evening of this day each tribe had a separate meeting, at which a sumptuous entertainment was prepared. The second day was named Anarrusis. Victims were offered to Jupiter and to Minerva, in whose sacrifices, as in all that were offered to the celestial gods, it was usual to turn the head of the victims upwards towards heaven. The third day was called Koureotis, from Kouros, a youth, or Koura, shaving. The young men who presented themselves to be inrolled amongst the citizens had then their hair cut off. At this time their fathers were obliged to swear, that both themselves and the mothers of the young men were free-born Athenians. For farther particulars on this subject, consult Archbishop Potter’s Antiquities of Greece.T.

* It is greatly to be lamented that no traveller has found the particular site of the Panionium, where Dr. Chandler had not time to copy an inscription, which might have conveyed some information, (Travels in Asia Minor, p. 158,) and to which Bp. Pococke did not go (II. 53.) Who knows whether .. 200 For this note see next page.]


« PreviousContinue »