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terious purport of which he did not sufficiently explain; but since his time it has received from different sages sufficient illustration. It is unquestionable, that the use of the phalli in the sacrifice of Bacchus, with the other ceremonies which the Greeks now know and practise, were first taught them by Melampus. I therefore, without hesitation, pronounce him to have been a man of wisdom, and of skill in the art of divination. Instructed by the Ægyptians 9° in various ceremonies, and particularly in those which relate to Bacchus, with some few trifling changes, he brought them into Greece. I can by no means impute to accident, the resemblance which exists in the rites of Bacchus in Ægypt, and in
Grandpre, in his Voyage in the Indian Ocean, relates, that in passing opposite to the coast of Travancore, he sent his boat on shore for information. They returned and brought with them an idol taken out of a niche in a bank. This the sailors made use of as a tiller to the rudder: on examination it proved to be a phallus. The boat's crew steered with this phallus, the size of which may be conjectured from this circumstance.
90 Instructed by the Ægyptians.]--As Ægypt was then famous for the sciences and arts, the Greeks, who were beginning to cmerge from barbarism, travelled thither to obtain knowledge, which they might afterwards communicate to their countrymen. With this view the following illustrious characters visited this country: “ Orpheus, Musæus, Melampus, Dædalus, Homer, Lycurgus the Spartan, Solon of Athens, Plato the philosopher, Pythagoras of Samos, Eudoxus, Democritus of Abdera, Ænopis of Chios, &c. &c." Larcher.
Greece; in this case they would not have differed so essentially from the Grecian manners, and they might have been traced to more remote antiquity: neither will I affirm that these, or that any other religious ceremonies, were borrowed of Greece 9 by the Ægyptians; I rather think that Melampus learned all these particulars which relate to the worship of Bacchus, from Cadmus, and his Tyrian companions, when they came from Phænicia to what is now called Boeotia 92.
L. Ægypt has certainly communicated to Greece the names of almost all the gods; that they are of barbarian origin, I am convinced by my different researches. The names of Neptune and the Dioscuri I mentioned before; with these, if we except Juno 9, Vesta, Themis, the Graces,
91 Borrowed of Greece.] See Bryant's Mythology, vol. ii. 483. Diodorus Sic. vol. i. 62, 63. Wesseling's edition.-T.
The ceremonies of Bacchus and Ceres resembling those of Osiris and Isis, were introduced among the Greeks by Orpheus. In Ægypt it was that Pythagoras learned the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, Thales got his mathematical science, Dædalus his knowledge of architecture, sculpture, and other arts. See Shaw's Travels, folio edit. p. 390.
92 Bæotia.]—This country was so called from Bæotus, son of Itonus, and the nymph Menalippe, and grandson of - Amphictyon. See Diodorus Sic. lib. iv. 67; and also Thucydides, lib. i. p. 11.
93 Juno.]-We learn from Porphyry, that to the Ægyptian Juno, on a certain festival, three men were sacrificed, who were first of all examined like so many calves destined for the altar. Amasis abolished these, substituting in their room three figures in wax. Porphyr. de Abstinentiâ, lib. ii. c. 55. 3
and the Nereids, the names of all the other deities have always been familiar in Ægypt. In this instance I do but repeat the opinions of the Ægyptians. Those names of which they disclaim any knowledge are all except Neptune, of Pelasgian derivation: for their acquaintance with this deity, they are indebted to Libya, where indeed he was first of all known, and has always been greatly honoured. The Ægyptians do not pay any religious ceremonies to heroes.
LI. With the above, the Greeks have derived many other circumstances of religious worship from Ægypt, which I shall hereafter relate; they did not however learn from hence, but from the Pelasgi, to construct the figure of Mercury with an erect priapus, which custom was first introduced by the Athenians, and communicated from them to others. At that period the Athenians were ranked among the nations of Greece, and had the Pelasgians for their neighbours; from which incident, this people also began to be esteemed as Greeks. Of the truth of this, whoever has been initiated in the Cabirian mysteries 94, which the Samothracians use, and which
9+ Cabirian mysteries.]—
The Cabiri, says Montfaucon, pere a sort of deities about whom the antients differ much. The Cabiri, the Curetæ, the Corybantes, the Idean Dactyli, and sometimes the Telchinii, were taken for the same: they were B B 4
they learned of the Pelasgi, will be necessarily convinced; for the Pelasgians before they lived
sometimes taken for the Dioscuri. With regard to their functions, and the places in which they were exercised, opinions equally various are held: some call them the sons of Vulcan, others of Jupiter.-See Montfaucon.
“ They," says Mr. Larcher, principally from the Scholiast to the Irene of Aristophanes, “ who had been admitted to these mysteries were highly esteemed, as they were supposed to have nothing to apprehend from tempests."
“ They," observes Plutarch, “ who had learned their names, availed themselves of them as a kind of amulet to avert calamity, pronouncing them slowly.”
These names were, according to the Scholiast on Apollon. Rhod. Ceres, Proserpine, and Pluto, to which others add Mercury:
Who these Cabirim might be, has been a matter of unsuccessful inquiry to many learned men. The utmost that is known with certainty is, that they were originally three, and were called, by way of eminence, The Great, or Mighty Ones, for that is the import of the Hebrew name. Of the like import is the Latin appellation, Penates: Dii per quos penitus, spiramus, &c. Thus the joint worship of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, the triad of the Roman capitol, is traced to that of The Three Mighty Ones in Samothrace, which was established in that island, at what precise time it is impossible to determine; but earlier, if Eusebius may be credited, than the days of Abraham.-Bishop Horsley's Charge to the Clergy, &c.—T.
Whilst this second edition was proceeding at the press, an elaborate work on the subject of the Cabiri appeared from the pen
of Mr. Faber. From a rapid view he seems to have got together, from various authors, a great collection of facts on this intricate subject. I must be contented, therefore, at present, with referring the reader generally to this performance.
near the Athenians, formerly inhabited Samothracia, and taught the people of that country their mysteries. By them the Athenians were first of all instructed to make the figure of Mercury with an erect priapus. For this the Pelasgians have a sacred tradition, which is explained in the Samothracian mysteries.
LII. The Pelasgians, as I was informed at Dodona, formerly offered all things indiscriminately to the gods. They distinguished them by no name or surname, for they were hitherto unacquainted with either; but they called them gods, which by its etymology means disposers, from observing the orderly disposition and distribution of the various parts of the universe. They learned, but not till a late period, the names of the divinities from the Ægyptians, and Bacchus was the last whom they knew. Upon this subject they afterwards consulted the oracle of Dodona's, by far the most ancient oracle of Greece, and at the period of which we speak, the only one. They desired to know whether they might with propriety adopt the names which they had learned of the barbarians, and were answered that they might; they have accordingly used them ever since in their rites of sacrifice, and from the Pelasgi, they were communicated to the Greeks.
95 Oracle of Dodona.] See on this subject Bryant's Mythology, vol. ii. 286.