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astonishment, implored her not to compel him to so delicate and difficult an alternative. But · when he found that expostulations were vain, and that he must either kill Candaules, or die himself by the hands of others, he chose rather to be the survivor. “ Since my master must perish,” he replied, “and, notwithstanding my reluctance, by my hands, tell me how your purpose shall be accomplished ?” “The deed,” she answered, “shall be perpetrated in that very place where he exhibited me naked: but you shall kill him in his sleep."


26 XII. Their measures were accordingly concerted: Gyges had no opportunity of escape, nor of evading the alternative proposed. At the approach of night, the queen conducted him to her chamber, and placed him behind the same door, with a dagger in his hand. Candaules was murdered in his sleep, and Gyges took immediate possession of his wife and of the empire. Of the above event, Archilochus 27 of Paros, who lived


: 26 Upon the event recorded in this chapter, the firste booke of the old translation of Herodotus, before mentioned, Clio has this curious remark in the margin: “ The Divil in old tyme a disposer of kingdomes, and since the Pope.”—T.

27 Archilochus.]-As without these concluding lines the sense would be complete, many have suspected them to have been inserted by some copyist. Scaliger has reasoned upon them, as if Herodotus meant to intimate, that because Archi


about the same period, has made mention in some Trimeter lambics.

XIII. A declaration of the Delphic oracle, confirmed Gyges in his possession of the sovereignty. The Lydians resented the fate of Candaules, and had recourse to arms. A stipulation was at length made betwixt the different parties, that if the oracle decided in favour of Gyges, he should continue on the throne; if otherwise, it should revert to the Heraclidæ. Although Gyges retained the supreme authority, the words of the oracle

• expressly

lochus makes mention of Gyges in his verses, he must have lived at the same period; but this by no means follows.

Of Archilochus, Quintilian remarks, that he was one of the first writers of Iambics; that his verses were remarkable for their ingenuity, their elegant style, and nervous sentiment. Book x, chap. 1.—He is also honourably mentioned by Horace, who confesses that he imitates him. See 19th Epistle, Book ist. Ovid, if the Ibis be his, speaks too of the Parian Poet. Cicero, in his Tusculan Questions, says, that he lived in the time of Romulus. His compositions were so extremely lieeritious, that the Lacedæmonians ordered them to be removed from their city, aud Archilochus himself to be banished. He was afterwards killed in some military excursion, by a person of the name of Coracus. The reputation of Archilochus was such that the Pythians would not allow the man who killed him to enter the temple, till he had expiated his crime. Whoever wishes to have a more particular acs count of Archilochus, may consult Lilius Gyraldus de Poetar, Histor. dialog. ix. chap. 14. The fragments of this aụthor may be found in Brunck's Analecta.

expressly intimated, that the Heraclidæ should be avenged in the person of the fifth descendant of Gyges. To this prediction, until it was ultimately accomplished, neither princes nor people paid the smallest attention. Thus did the Mermnadæ obtain the empire, to the injurious exclusion of the Heraclidæ.

· XIV. Gyges, as soon as he was established in his authority, sent various presents to Delphia, a considerable quantity of which were of silver. Among other marks of his liberality, six golden


28 Presents to Delphi.]-Amongst the subjects of literary controversy betwixt Boyle and Bentley, this was one: Boyle defended Delphos, principally from its being the common usage: Bentley rejects Delphos as a barbarism, it being merely the accusative case of Delphi. He tells a story of a Popish Priest, who for thirty years had read mumpsimus in his Breviary, instead of sumpsimus; and, when a learned man told him of his blunder, replied, I will not change my old mumpsimus for your new sumpsimus. From a similar mistake in the old editions of the Bible in Henry the Eighth's time, it was printed Asson and Mileton; under Queen Elizabeth, it was changed into Asson and Miletum; but in the reign of James the First, it was rectified to Assos and Miletus.-T. See Bentley on Phalaris. *

* Delphi.]—Swift made a point of always writing Delphos; upon which Jortin facetiously remarks, that he should have submitted to reason, and received instruction from whatever quarter it came; from Wootton, from Bentley, or from Beelzebub.

goblets -9, which weighed* no less than thirty talents, deserve particular attention. These now stand in the treasury of Corinth; though, in strict truth, that treasure was not given by the people of Corinth, but by Cypselus the son of Eetion30. This Gyges was the first of the Barbarians whose history we know, who made votive offerings to the oracle, after Midas the son of Gordius 3', king of


29 Six golden goblets.] In the time of Herodotus, the proportion of silver to gold was as one to thirteen: these six goblets, therefore, were equivalent to 2,106,000 livres. The calculations of Herodotus differ in some respects from those of Diodorus Siculus.-Voyage de Jeune Anacharsis. See Purchas, vol. i. p. 35.

Alyattes and Cræsus obtained their wealth from some mines in Lydia, situated between Atarna and Pergamos. The riches of Gyges were proverbial, and were mentioned in the verses of Archilochus: those of Cræsus effectually surpass them. Divitis audita est cui non opulentia Croesi.-Uvid.


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* It may here properly be observed, that Herodotus always refers to the weights and measures of Greece and of Athens in particular.

30 But by Cypselus the son of Eetion.]-In the temple at Delphi were certain different apartments or chapels, belong. ing to different cities, princes, or opulent individuals. The offerings which these respectively made to the Deity, were here deposited.-Larcher..

3Midas the son of Gordius.] There were in Phrygia a number of princes called after these names, as is sufficiently proved by Bouhier.-Larcher,

Phrygia. Midas consecrated to this purpose his own royal throne, a most beautiful specimen of art, from which he himself was accustomed to administer justice. This was deposited in the same place with the goblets of Gyges, to whose offerings of gold and silver, the Delphians assigned the name of the donor. Gyges, as soon as he succeeded to the throne, carried his arms against Miletus and Smyrna*, and took the city Colophon. Although he reigned thirty-eight years, he performed no other remarkable exploit: I shall proceed, therefore, to speak of his son and successor, Ardys.

XV. This prince vanquished the Prienians, and attacked Miletus. During his reign, the

Cimmerians, being expelled their country by the · Nomades of Scythia, passed over into Asia, and

possessed themselves of all Sardis, except the citadel.

XVI. After reigning forty-nine years, he was succeeded by his son Sadyattes, who reigned twelve years. After him, his son Alyattes possessed the throne. He carried on war against Cyaxares



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* It appears from Pausanias, that the ancient poet Mimnermus wrote some elegiac verses upon this expedition of Gyges against Smyrna. 32 Against Cyaxares.]— This is perfectly consistent. Phra


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